التوحيد at-Tawhid

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Objectionable words and deeds / Re: KITBUL KAB'IR (THE BOOK OF MAJOR SINS)
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on Yesterday at 03:05:26 AM »
باب الدعوى في العلم افتخارا Chapter on Claiming Ilm (Sacred-Knowledge) with Pride

It is narrated from Ibnu Umar Radiyallhu Anhum in a Marf Hadth,

يظهر الإسلام حتى تختلف التجار في البحر، وحتى تخوض الخيل في سبيل الله. ثم يظهر أقوام يقرؤون القرآن يقولون: من أقرأ منا؟ من أعلم منا؟ من أفقه منا؟ ثم قال: هل في أولئك من خير؟ قالوا: الله ورسوله أعلم. قال: أولئك منكم من هذه الأمة وأولئك هم وقود النار
Islm will manifest until the merchants branch off across the seas and until the horses wade into water (fighting) in the cause of Allh. Then, a group of people who recite the Qurn will appear and say, Who can recite better than us? Who knows better than us? Who is more knowledgeable (in religion) than us? Then he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, Is there any good in these people? They (the companions) said, Allh and His Messenger know best. He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said, These people are from amongst you -from amongst this Ummah (Nation)- and these people are the fuel of an-Nr (fire; hellfire).

Al-Bazzr narrated this with a fine Sanad (chain). And at-Tabarn narrated something with the same meaning from Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum. Al-Mundhir said, Its Isnd (chain of narration) is Hasan (good).
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Pamphlets on Tawhd / Re: A COMPILATION OF PAMPHLETS ON TAWHD
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 10.09.2019, 09:42:58 PM »
اَلرِّسَالَةُ الْمُفِيدَةُ الْمُهِمَّةُ الْجَلِيلَةُ

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ، وَبِهِ نَسْتَعِينُ. اَلْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَكَفَى، وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَى. أَمَّا بَعْدُ:

فَاعْلَمْ رَحِمَكَ اللهُ؛

أَنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ لِيَعْبُدُوهُ وَلاَ يُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا، قَالَ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ.﴾ [الذاريات: 56]

وَالْعِبَادَةُ هِيَ: التَّوْحِيدُ لِأَنَّ الْخُصُومَةَ بَيْنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَالْأُمَمِ فِيهِ، كَمَا قَالَ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ.﴾ [النحل: 36]

اَلتَّوْحِيدُ ثَلَاثَةُ اُصُولٍ:

1.   تَوْحِيدُ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ،

2.   وَتَوْحِيدُ الْأُلُوهِيَّةِ،

3.   وَتَوْحِيدُ الذَّاتِ وَالْأَسْمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ.


THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET

(REGARDING THE TERMS TAWHD, SHIRK, KUFR, AND NIFQ)

In the name of Allh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, from Him we seek help. All praise is due to Allh, and this is sufficient (for praise). May peace be upon His slaves whom He has chosen.[1]

Amm Bad (to proceed):

TAWHD (UNIFICATION) AND ITS TYPES[2]

Know, may Allhu Tal have mercy upon you:

That Allh created the creation to worship Him and so that they do not associate anything to Him.

Allhu Tal stated,

I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me. (adh-Dhriyt 51/56)

Ibdah (worship) is Tawhd[3], since the dispute between the Anbiy (pl. of Nab; Prophets) and their Ummah (people/nation) has always been regarding this.[4] Just as Allhu Tal stated,

And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), Worship Allh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tght. (an-Nahl 16/36)

Tawhd[5] is of three fundamentals:

1.   Tawhdur Rubbiyyah (Oneness of the Divine Lordship),

2.   Tawhdul Ulhiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship),

3.   Tawhdul Asm was Sift (Oneness/Uniqueness in the Divine Names and Attributes).[6]


اَلْأَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ تَوْحِيدُ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ

وَهُوَ: الَّذِي أَقَرَّ بِهِ الْمُشْرِكُونَ فِي زَمَنِ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَلاَ أَدْخَلَهُمْ فِي الْإِسْلاَمِ وَقَاتَلَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَاسْتَحَلَّ دِمَاءَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ، وَهُوَ: تَوْحِيدُ اللهِ بِفِعْلِهِ، وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَيْهِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّٰهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ.﴾ [يونس: 31] وَقَوْلُهُ:

﴿قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَذَكَّرُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ.﴾ [المؤمنون: 84-89]

وَالْآيَاتُ عَلَى هَذَا كَثِيرَةٌ جِدًّا أَكْثَرُ مِنْ أَنْ تُحْصَرَ وَأَشْهَرُ مِنْ أَنْ تُذْكَرَ.


THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL:[7]

Tawhdur Rubbiyyah[8]

(Oneness of the Divine Lordship)

The Mushrikn (pl. Mushrik) during the era of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam accepted this type of Tawhd[9], yet this did not enter them into Islm. Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam fought them and considered their blood and wealth Hall (permissible). This (type of Tawhd) is unifying Allhu Tal in His Fil (actions that are unique to Him; i.e. creating, providing, administrating the universe etc.). The evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

Say, Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? Or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is it that rules and regulates all affairs? They will say, Allh. Say, Will you not then show piety (to Him)? (Ynus 10/31)

And His Tals statement,

Say, To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know? They will say, To Allh. Say, Then will you not take heed? Say, Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne? They will say, They (all) belong to Allah. Say, Then will you not fear Him? Say, Who is it in whose hands is the governance of all things, who protects (all), but is not protected (of any), if you know? They will say, They (all) belong to Allh. Say, Then how are you deluded? (al-Muminn 23/84-89)

The yt (pl. yah; verses of Qurn) in this regards are many; too many to summarize and well known to mention


وَالْأَصْلُ الثَّانِي وَهُوَ تَوْحِيدُ الْأُلُوهِيَّةِ.

فَهُوَ الَّذِي وَقَعَ فِيهِ النِّزَاعُ فِي قَدِيمِ الدَّهْرِ وَحَدِيثِهِ، وَهُوَ تَوْحِيدُ اللهِ بِأَفْعَالِ الْعِبَادِ كَالدُّعَاءِ، وَالرَّجَاءِ، وَالْخَوْفِ، وَالْخَشْيَةِ، وَالْإِسْتِعَانَةِ، وَالْإِسْتِعَاذَةِ، وَالْمَحَبَّةِ، وَالْإِنَابَةِ، وَالنَّذْرِ، وَالذَّبْحِ، وَالرَّغْبَةِ، وَالرَّهْبَةِ، وَالْخُشُوعِ، وَالتَّذَلُّلِ، وَالتَّعْظِيمِ؛

فَدَلِيلُ الدُّعَاءِ قَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ.﴾ اَلْآيَة [غافر: 60]

وَكُلُّ نَوْعٍ مِنْ هٰذِهِ الْأَنْوَاعِ عَلَيْهِ دَلِيلٌ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ.

وَأَصْلُ الْعِبَادَةِ تَجْرِيدُ الْإِخْلاَصِ لِلّٰهِ تَعَالَى وَحْدَهُ، وَتَجْرِيدُ الْمُتَابَعَةِ لِلرَّسُولِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلّٰهِ فَلاَ تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللّٰهِ أَحَدًا.﴾ [الجن: 18]

وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿فَآمِنُوا بِاللّٰهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ.﴾ [الأعراف: 158] 


THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdul Ulhiyyah


(Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship)[10]

This (type of Tawhd) is that which most of the struggle in the past and the present took place. It is the worshippers unifying Allhu Tal through their own actions, such as in ad-Du (supplication/worship), ar-Raj (hope), al-Khawf (fear), al-Khashyah (awe), al-Istinah (seeking aid), al-Istidhah (appeal for refuge), al-Mahabbah (love), al-Inbah (penitence), an-Nadhr (vow), adh-Dhabh (sacrifice), ar-Raghbah (aspiration), al-Khush (submissive humility), at-Tadhallul (submissiveness), and at-Tadhm (glorification).

The evidence for ad-Du is the statement of Allhu Tal,

And your Lord says, Call upon Me; I will answer your (prayer)... (Ghfir 40/60)

For all of these types of Ibdah (worship), there is an evidence in the Qurn.

The foundation of al-Ibdah is to isolate al-Ikhls (sincerity) solely for Allhu Tal and to isolate adherence to the Rasl (Messenger of Allh) Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Allhu Tal stated,

And the Masjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allh. (Jinn 72/18)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,

So believe in Allh and His Rasl (Muhammad), the Nab (prophet) who can neither read nor write who believes in Allh and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided. (al-Arf 7/158);



﴿وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ.﴾ [الأنبياء: 25] وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ.﴾ [الرعد: 14] إلىَ قَولِهِ:

﴿وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلَالٍ.﴾ [الرعد: 14]، وَقَوْلُهُ:

﴿ذٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ.﴾ اَلْآيَة [الحج: 62] وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا.﴾ [الحشر: 7] وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّٰهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّٰهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّٰهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.﴾ [آل عمران: 31]


We never sent a messenger before you except that We revealed to him, There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Me, so worship Me (alone). (al-Anbiy 21/25)

And His Tals statement,

For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way

Until His Tals statement,

And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)[11]

And His Tals statement,

That is because Allh He is the Truth (the only True God of all that exists, Who has no partners or rivals with Him), and what they invoke besides Him, it is al-Btil (the falsehood) (al-Hajj 22/62)

Moreover, His Tals statement,

And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). (al-Hashr 59/7)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,

Say, If you love Allah then follow me, Allh will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is al-Ghafr (the Oft-Forgiving), ar-Rahm (the Most Merciful). (l-i Imrn 3/31)


اَلْأَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ وَهُوَ تَوْحِيدُ الذَّاتِ وَالْأَسَمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ

كَمَا قَالَ تَعَالَى:

﴿قُلْ هُوَ اللّٰهُ أَحَدٌ. اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُ. لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ. وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ.﴾ [سورة الإخلاص] وَقَوْلُهُ تَعَالَى:

﴿وَلِلّٰهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ.﴾ [الأعراف: 180] وَقَالَ تَعَالَى:

﴿لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ.﴾ [الشورى: 11]

THE THIRD FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdudh Dhti wal Asmi was Sift


(Oneness/Uniqueness in the essence of Allh, the Divine Names and Attributes)[12]

As Allhu Tal stated,

Say, He is Allh, the One! Allh, is as-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need). He has never had offspring, nor was He born. And there is none comparable unto Him. (al-Ikhls 112/1-4)

And His Tals statement,

And al-Asmul Husn (the Most Beautiful Names) belong to Allh, so invoke Him by them, and leave the company of those who deviate in His Names. They shall be recompensed for what they have been doing. (al-Arf 7/180)

Moreover, He Tal stated,

There is nothing like unto Him, and He is as-Sam (the All-Hearer), al-Basr (the All-Seer). (ash-Shr 42/11)

ANNOTATIONS:
 1. It seems as the author Rahimahullh has taken the following yah as a foundation for his proclamation in the opening,

﴿قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَى.﴾ [النمل: 59]
Say, Praise is due to Allh, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen! (an-Naml 27/59)
 
 2. We added the headings such as Tawhd, Shirk, Kufr, and Nifq in consideration to simplify things for the reader.
 
 3. It was narrated by Imm al-Baghaw Rahimahullh that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhuma stated,

كَلُّ مَا وَرَدَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ مِنَ الْعِبَادَةِ فَمَعْنَاهَا التَّوْحِيدُ.
The meaning of all that is mentioned in the Quran regarding Ibdah is Tawhd. (Tafsrul Baghaw, Dru Tayba print, 1/71, Tafsr of Sratul Baqarah yah 21)

Also, with the Isnd (chain of narration) that has reached him, Imm at-Tbar narrated in his Tafsr that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum explained
﴾اُعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ﴿ worship your Rabb (Lord) in Sratul Baqarah yah 21 as وَحِّدُوا رَبَّكُمْ Make Tawhd of (unify) your Rabb (Lord)! (Imm at-Tbar, Tafsrut Tbar, Ahmad Shkir print, 1/362) Among the scholars who narrated this from Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum, as-Suyt mentions the names of Ibnu Ishq and Ibnu Ab Htim. (as-Suyt, ad-Durrul Manthr fit Tafsr bil Masr, 1/85)
 
 4. The implication here is Tawhd (unification) in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. Hence the struggle between the Anbiy and their Ummah was not in Tawhdur Rubbiyyah; it was not regarding the existence of Allh nor about Allh not having a partner in creating, or providing. On the contrary, it was about the unification of Allh in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. As known, except for those who stubbornly deny such as the likes of Pharaoh and Nimrod, most of the previous nations did not deny Allh. yh 36 of Suratun Nahl mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh indicates this. This matter will be dealt with in detail in the following pages while describing the types of Tawhd Inshllh.
 
 5. Linguistically, Tawhd means unification. In the Sharah, it means to unify Allhu Tal in what is peculiar to Him and to deny them from any other. As it will be explained in the following pages what is peculiar to Allhu Tal is Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes.
 
 6. In his al-Ibnah, the Muhaddith (Hadth scholar) Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar Rahimahullh (d. 387H) from amongst the Hanbal jurists, while sticking to the order Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes, stated the following regarding these types of Tawhd,

and this is because the basis of faith in Allh that is obligatory upon the creation to believe in when confirming faith in Allhu Tal is in three things:

1.   The servant believes in His existence, so that this would serve to contradict the Maddhab (school of thought) of Ahlut Tatl (people of denial) who do not recognize the existence of a Creator. [In many texts, the term
رَبَّانِيَّتَهُ, meaning His Rabbniyyah (Lordship) is used in place of His existence, although this term appears in the narration we have chosen to quote here. Translator.]

2.   That he believes in His Wahdniyyah (Oneness), so that this would serve to contradict the Madhhib (pl. Madhhab) of Ahlus Shirk (polytheists/pagans), who recognize the Creator and associate others (as partners) with Him in worship.

3.   That he believes in Him as described by the Attributes which are not possible for Him to not be described with of Ilm (Knowledge), Qudrah (Power), Hikmah (Wisdom), and everything else that He described Himself with in His Book.

For we know that many of those -who affirm in an absolute manner and unify Allh- often deviate in His Sift. His deviation in Allhs Sift becomes something which damages his Tawhd. For this reason, we find that Allhu Tal has addressed His servants by calling them to believe in every one of these three aspects and to have faith in them. When it comes to Him calling them to affirm His existence and Oneness, we are not going to mention it here due to the length and vastness of speech regarding it.

This is also because the Jahm claims he affirms both [Rubbiyyah and Ulhiyyah. Translator], whereas his denial of the Sift nullifies his claim of both. (Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar, al-Ibnatul Kubr, 6/173)
 
 7. In the original script, this and the following two headings regarding the types of Tawhd are actually sentences such as The first foundation is Tawhdur Rubbiyyah However, we found it beneficial to present them in a heading structure in order to simplify it for the reader.
 
 8. In the English language, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah can be translated as the Oneness of Allhu Tal in Divine Lordship, i.e. affirming Allhu Tal as the sole Lord.

Rabb is a word that comes from the root letters
ر - ب - ب (in the Arabic language). It denotes the meanings lord, master, educator, sovereign, administrator etc.

According to this, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah means affirming Allhu Tal as the creator and administrator of the universe, the sole disposer over all creation.

This is in opposition to some Ghult Sf (extremist mystics) and their likes, which attribute the authority of disposing to the Awliy (pl. Wal; saints), claim these Awliy come to the help of those in request, and answer the call of those who call upon them. Surely, all of these are beliefs that encompass taking those other than Allh as Rabb.
 
 9. The affirmation of the Mushrikn regarding Tawhdur Rubbiyyah is generally their acceptance of Allhu Tal as the sole creator, provider, and administrator of the affairs of the universe. Hence, this is the indication of the yt (pl. yah; sign, verse from the Qurn) mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh in evidence. Again, in another yah, Allhu Tal stated,

﴿وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ.﴾ [يوسف: 106]
And most of them believe not in Allh without associating (other as partners) with Him! (Ysuf 12/106)

According to what Ibnu Jarr at-Tabar narrated with its Isnd, Ikrimah Rahimahullh said in explanation to the point at issue,


تَسْأَلُهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ وَمَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، فَيَقُولُونَ: اللّٰهُ، فَذٰلِكَ إِيمَانُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ، وَهُمْ يَعْبُدُونَ غَيْرَهُ.
You ask them, Who created them, and who created the heavens and the earth, they say Allh. This is their mn (belief) in Allh while they worship other than Him.

Then he stated the following,


يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ رَبُّهُمْ، وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَهُمْ، وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ.
They know that He is their Rabb and that He is the one who created them while they associate partners to Him.

Ibnu Jarr quoted similar narrations from Ibnu Abbs, Mujhid, and others. (at-Tabar, Tafsrut Tabar, Ahmad Shkir print, 16/286+.)

With this, it is established that the Mushrikn accept Rubbiyyah in the sense of Allh being the Creator and that they do affirm this. However, they associate partners with Allh in Ibdah. Otherwise, it is not at issue that anyone from among the Mushrikn accepts Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in the absolute sense. Hence, if they had truly unified Allhu Tal in His Rubbiyyah, this would have necessitated them to unify Allh in His Ulhiyyah and making Du to a being other than Allh, requesting aid and Shafah (intercession) from a being other than Allh would have never been relevant for them. All of these are actions of Shirk in the Rubbiyyah of Allh because benefiting and causing harm are characteristics of Rubbiyyah.

Therefore, it is not possible for any Mushrik to truly affirm Tawhdur Rubbiyyah. All types of Tawhd (Rubbiyyah, Ulhiyyah, and al-Asm was Sift) are pertinent to one another and necessitate one another. Scholars have made this allotment so that Tawhd is understood accurately, otherwise, all types of Tawhd denote to the same truth.

The Shaykh Rahimahullh stated that the Mushrikn accept Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in order to clarify that if one is associating partners to Allh in worship just like the Mushrikn of today do, merely unifying Allh in His creating and providing; it does not enter him into the fold of Islm. Wallhu Alam!
 
 10. Tawhdul Ulhiyyah can be translated as Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship in the English language. The meaning of Ilah is Mabd; i.e. the worshipped one. According to this, as Tawhdul Ulhiyyah means recognizing Allhu Tal as the One and Only Deity worthy of worship, it also signifies not associating any partners to Him in Ibdah. Explanations regarding the term Ilah by Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh will be given in the pages to come. Imm al-Qurtub Rahimahullh stated the following regarding Ibdah i.e., servitude,

The Asl (base) of Ibdah is at-Tadhallul (submissiveness) and al-Khud (subservience). The functions of the Sharah (Islamic law) which abide the Mukallafn (pl. Mukallaf; legally responsible) are called Ibdah. This is because those who are Mukallaf observe and carry them out submissively and in servitude to Allhu Tal. (Quoted by Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, Fathul Majd, 14)

Indeed, this meaning is found in the description given to the types of Ibdah by the Shaykh Rahimahullh.

Fundamentally, each action that comprises lowering oneself, submissiveness, absolute obedience, unconditional love etc. in the position of perfection before a deity is Ibdah. The Ibdah mentioned here are the most prevalent types.
 
 11. The full text of the yah mentioned by the Shaykh is as follows,

﴿لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ إِلاَّ كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلاَلٍ.﴾ [الرعد: 14]
For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way. Their case is like the one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not. And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)
 
 12. The intent here is to unify Allhu Tal in His essence, divine names and attributes. Meaning, not to section the Dht (Essence) of Allh by attributing a spouse, child etc. to Him, isolating al-Asm was Sift (the divine names and attributes) only to Him without associating any partner to Him, and to accept and confirm al-Asm was Sift of Allhu Tal without resembling Him to His creation, with no Tawl (figurative interpretation) nor Tahrf (distortion).
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Pamphlets on Tawhd / Re: A COMPILATION OF PAMPHLETS ON TAWHD
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 10.09.2019, 09:41:42 PM »





اَلرِّسَالَةُ الْمُفِيدَةُ الْمُهِمَّةُ الْجَلِيلَةُ[1]

THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET

(REGARDING THE TERMS TAWHD, SHIRK, KUFR, AND NIFQ)[2]





 1. 
اَلدُّرَرُ السَّنِيَّةُ، 66/2-72.
 
 2. This pamphlet is found between pages 66-72 in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, which contains the pamphlets of the Ulam of Najd, compiled by Abdur Rahmn bin Qsim. In addition, due to its benefit, even though it is not found in many of the wide-spread copies of the Rislah, we have included a response given by the Shaykh Rahimahullh to a question regarding the types of Tawhd. The question and its answer can be found in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, pages 72-73.
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In the name of Allh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, from Him we seek help. All praise is due to Allh, and this is sufficient (for praise). May peace be upon His slaves whom He has chosen.11

Amm Bad (to proceed):


اَلتَّوْحِيدُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ
TAWHD (UNIFICATION) AND ITS TYPES12

Know, may Allhu Tal have mercy upon you:

That Allh created the creation to worship Him and so that they do not associate anything to Him.

Allhu Tal stated,


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ.
I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me. (adh-Dhriyt 51/56)

Ibdah (worship) is Tawhd13, since the dispute between the Anbiy (pl. of Nab; Prophets) and their Ummah (people/nation) has always been regarding this.14 Just as Allhu Tal stated,


وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ.
And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), Worship Allh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tght. (an-Nahl 16/36)

Tawhd is of three fundamentals:15

1.   Tawhdur Rubbiyyah (Oneness of the Divine Lordship),

2.   Tawhdul Ulhiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship),

3.   Tawhdul Asm was Sift (Oneness/Uniqueness in the Divine Names and Attributes).16


اَلْأَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ تَوْحِيدُ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ
THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL:17

Tawhdur Rubbiyyah18

(Oneness of the Divine Lordship)

The Mushrikn (pl. Mushrik) during the era of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam accepted this type of Tawhd19, yet this did not enter them into Islm. Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam fought them and considered their blood and wealth Hall (permissible). This (type of Tawhd) is unifying Allhu Tal in His Fil (actions that are unique to Him; i.e. creating, providing, administrating the universe etc.). The evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّٰهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ.
Say, Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? Or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is it that rules and regulates all affairs? They will say, Allh. Say, Will you not then show piety (to Him)? (Ynus 10/31)

And His Tals statement,


قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَذَكَّرُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ.
Say, To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know? They will say, To Allh. Say, Then will you not take heed? Say, Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne? They will say, They (all) belong to Allah. Say, Then will you not fear Him? Say, Who is it in whose hands is the governance of all things, who protects (all), but is not protected (of any), if you know? They will say, They (all) belong to Allh. Say, Then how are you deluded? (al-Muminn 23/84-89)

The yt (pl. yah; verses of Qurn) in this regards are many; too many to summarize and well known to mention


اَلْأَصْلُ الثَّانِي تَوْحِيدُ الْأُلُوهِيَّةِ
THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdul Ulhiyyah

(Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship)20

This (type of Tawhd) is that which most of the struggle in the past and the present took place. It is the worshippers unifying Allhu Tal through their own actions, such as in ad-Du (supplication/worship), ar-Raj (hope), al-Khawf (fear), al-Khashyah (awe), al-Istinah (seeking aid), al-Istidhah (appeal for refuge), al-Mahabbah (love), al-Inbah (penitence), an-Nadhr (vow), adh-Dhabh (sacrifice), ar-Raghbah (aspiration), al-Khush (submissive humility), at-Tadhallul (submissiveness), and at-Tadhm (glorification).

The evidence for ad-Du is the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ.
And your Lord says, Call upon Me; I will answer your (prayer)... (Ghfir 40/60)

For all of these types of Ibdah (worship), there is an evidence in the Qurn.

The foundation of al-Ibdah is to isolate al-Ikhls (sincerity) solely for Allhu Tal and to isolate adherence to the Rasl (Messenger of Allh) Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Allhu Tal stated,


وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلّٰهِ فَلاَ تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللّٰهِ أَحَدًا.
And the Masjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allh. (Jinn 72/18)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


فَآمِنُوا بِاللّٰهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ.
So believe in Allh and His Rasl (Muhammad), the Nab (prophet) who can neither read nor write who believes in Allh and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided. (al-Arf 7/158);

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ.
We never sent a messenger before you except that We revealed to him, There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Me, so worship Me (alone). (al-Anbiy 21/25)

And His Tals statement,


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ.
For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way

Until His Tals statement,


وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلَالٍ.
And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)21

And His Tals statement,


ذٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ.
That is because Allh He is the Truth (the only True God of all that exists, Who has no partners or rivals with Him), and what they invoke besides Him, it is al-Btil (the falsehood) (al-Hajj 22/62)

Moreover, His Tals statement,


وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا.
And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). (al-Hashr 59/7)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّٰهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّٰهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّٰهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.
Say, If you love Allah then follow me, Allh will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is al-Ghafr (the Oft-Forgiving), ar-Rahm (the Most Merciful). (l-i Imrn 3/31)

اَلْأَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ تَوْحِيدُ الذَّاتِ وَالْأَسَمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ
THE THIRD FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdudh Dhti wal Asmi was Sift

(Oneness/Uniqueness in the essence of Allh, the Divine Names and Attributes)22

As Allhu Tal stated,

قُلْ هُوَ اللّٰهُ أَحَدٌ. اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُ. لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ. وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ.
Say, He is Allh, the One! Allh, is as-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need). He has never had offspring, nor was He born. And there is none comparable unto Him. (al-Ikhls 112/1-4)

And His Tals statement,


وَلِلّٰهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ.
And al-Asmul Husn (the Most Beautiful Names) belong to Allh, so invoke Him by them, and leave the company of those who deviate in His Names. They shall be recompensed for what they have been doing. (al-Arf 7/180)

Moreover, He Tal stated,


لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ.
There is nothing like unto Him, and He is as-Sam (the All-Hearer), al-Basr (the All-Seer). (ash-Shr 42/11)



Quote
Footnotes:

11- It seems as the author Rahimahullh has taken the following yah as a foundation for his proclamation in the opening,


قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَى.
Say, Praise is due to Allh, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen! (an-Naml 27/59)

12- We added the headings such as Tawhd, Shirk, Kufr, and Nifq in consideration to simplify things for the reader.

13- It was narrated by Imm al-Baghaw Rahimahullh that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhuma stated,


كَلُّ مَا وَرَدَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ مِنَ الْعِبَادَةِ فَمَعْنَاهَا التَّوْحِيدُ.
The meaning of all that is mentioned in the Quran regarding Ibdah is Tawhd. (Tafsrul Baghaw, Dru Tayba print, 1/71, Tafsr of Sratul Baqarah yah 21)

Also, with the Isnd (chain of narration) that has reached him, Imm at-Tbar narrated in his Tafsr that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum explained
اُعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ worship your Rabb (Lord) in Sratul Baqarah yah 21 as وَحِّدُوا رَبَّكُمْ Make Tawhd of (unify) your Rabb (Lord)! (Imm at-Tbar, Tafsrut Tbar, Ahmad Shkir print, 1/362) Among the scholars who narrated this from Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum, as-Suyt mentions the names of Ibnu Ishq and Ibnu Ab Htim. (as-Suyt, ad-Durrul Manthr fit Tafsr bil Masr, 1/85)

14- The implication here is Tawhd (unification) in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. Hence the struggle between the Anbiy and their Ummah was not in Tawhdur Rubbiyyah; it was not regarding the existence of Allh nor about Allh not having a partner in creating, or providing. On the contrary, it was about the unification of Allh in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. As known, except for those who stubbornly deny such as the likes of Pharaoh and Nimrod, most of the previous nations did not deny Allh. yh 36 of Suratun Nahl mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh indicates this. This matter will be dealt with in detail in the following pages while describing the types of Tawhd Inshllh.

15- Linguistically, Tawhd means unification. In the Sharah, it means to unify Allhu Tal in what is peculiar to Him and to deny them from any other. As it will be explained in the following pages what is peculiar to Allhu Tal is Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes.

16- In his al-Ibnah, the Muhaddith (Hadth scholar) Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar Rahimahullh (d. 387H) from amongst the Hanbal jurists, while sticking to the order Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes, stated the following regarding these types of Tawhd,

and this is because the basis of faith in Allh that is obligatory upon the creation to believe in when confirming faith in Allhu Tal is in three things:

1.   The servant believes in His existence, so that this would serve to contradict the Maddhab (school of thought) of Ahlut Tatl (people of denial) who do not recognize the existence of a Creator. [In many texts, the term
رَبَّانِيَّتَهُ, meaning His Rabbniyyah (Lordship) is used in place of His existence, although this term appears in the narration we have chosen to quote here. Translator.]

2.   That he believes in His Wahdniyyah (Oneness), so that this would serve to contradict the Madhhib (pl. Madhhab) of Ahlus Shirk (polytheists/pagans), who recognize the Creator and associate others (as partners) with Him in worship.

3.   That he believes in Him as described by the Attributes which are not possible for Him to not be described with of Ilm (Knowledge), Qudrah (Power), Hikmah (Wisdom), and everything else that He described Himself with in His Book.

For we know that many of those -who affirm in an absolute manner and unify Allh- often deviate in His Sift. His deviation in Allhs Sift becomes something which damages his Tawhd. For this reason, we find that Allhu Tal has addressed His servants by calling them to believe in every one of these three aspects and to have faith in them. When it comes to Him calling them to affirm His existence and Oneness, we are not going to mention it here due to the length and vastness of speech regarding it.

This is also because the Jahm claims he affirms both [Rubbiyyah and Ulhiyyah. Translator], whereas his denial of the Sift nullifies his claim of both. (Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar, al-Ibnatul Kubr, 6/173)

17- In the original script, this and the following two headings regarding the types of Tawhd are actually sentences such as The first foundation is Tawhdur Rubbiyyah However, we found it beneficial to present them in a heading structure in order to simplify it for the reader.

18- In the English language, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah can be translated as the Oneness of Allhu Tal in Divine Lordship, i.e. affirming Allhu Tal as the sole Lord.

Rabb is a word that comes from the root letters
ر - ب - ب (in the Arabic language). It denotes the meanings lord, master, educator, sovereign, administrator etc.

According to this, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah means affirming Allhu Tal as the creator and administrator of the universe, the sole disposer over all creation.

This is in opposition to some Ghult Sf (extremist mystics) and their likes, which attribute the authority of disposing to the Awliy (pl. Wal; saints), claim these Awliy come to the help of those in request, and answer the call of those who call upon them. Surely, all of these are beliefs that encompass taking those other than Allh as Rabb.

19- The affirmation of the Mushrikn regarding Tawhdur Rubbiyyah is generally their acceptance of Allhu Tal as the sole creator, provider, and administrator of the affairs of the universe. Hence, this is the indication of the yt (pl. yah; sign, verse from the Qurn) mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh in evidence. Again, in another yah, Allhu Tal stated,


وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ.
And most of them believe not in Allh without associating (other as partners) with Him! (Ysuf 12/106)

According to what Ibnu Jarr at-Tabar narrated with its Isnd, Ikrimah Rahimahullh said in explanation to the point at issue,

تَسْأَلُهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ وَمَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، فَيَقُولُونَ: اللّٰهُ، فَذٰلِكَ إِيمَانُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ، وَهُمْ يَعْبُدُونَ غَيْرَهُ.
You ask them, Who created them, and who created the heavens and the earth, they say Allh. This is their mn (belief) in Allh while they worship other than Him.

Then he stated the following,


يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ رَبُّهُمْ، وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَهُمْ، وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ.
They know that He is their Rabb and that He is the one who created them while they associate partners to Him.

Ibnu Jarr quoted similar narrations from Ibnu Abbs, Mujhid, and others. (at-Tabar, Tafsrut Tabar, Ahmad Shkir print, 16/286+.)

With this, it is established that the Mushrikn accept Rubbiyyah in the sense of Allh being the Creator and that they do affirm this. However, they associate partners with Allh in Ibdah. Otherwise, it is not at issue that anyone from among the Mushrikn accepts Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in the absolute sense. Hence, if they had truly unified Allhu Tal in His Rubbiyyah, this would have necessitated them to unify Allh in His Ulhiyyah and making Du to a being other than Allh, requesting aid and Shafah (intercession) from a being other than Allh would have never been relevant for them. All of these are actions of Shirk in the Rubbiyyah of Allh because benefiting and causing harm are characteristics of Rubbiyyah.

Therefore, it is not possible for any Mushrik to truly affirm Tawhdur Rubbiyyah. All types of Tawhd (Rubbiyyah, Ulhiyyah, and al-Asm was Sift) are pertinent to one another and necessitate one another. Scholars have made this allotment so that Tawhd is understood accurately, otherwise, all types of Tawhd denote to the same truth.

The Shaykh Rahimahullh stated that the Mushrikn accept Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in order to clarify that if one is associating partners to Allh in worship just like the Mushrikn of today do, merely unifying Allh in His creating and providing; it does not enter him into the fold of Islm. Wallhu Alam!

20- Tawhdul Ulhiyyah can be translated as Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship in the English language. The meaning of Ilah is Mabd; i.e. the worshipped one. According to this, as Tawhdul Ulhiyyah means recognizing Allhu Tal as the One and Only Deity worthy of worship, it also signifies not associating any partners to Him in Ibdah. Explanations regarding the term Ilah by Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh will be given in the pages to come. Imm al-Qurtub Rahimahullh stated the following regarding Ibdah i.e., servitude,

The Asl (base) of Ibdah is at-Tadhallul (submissiveness) and al-Khud (subservience). The functions of the Sharah (Islamic law) which abide the Mukallafn (pl. Mukallaf; legally responsible) are called Ibdah. This is because those who are Mukallaf observe and carry them out submissively and in servitude to Allhu Tal. (Quoted by Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, Fathul Majd, 14)

Indeed, this meaning is found in the description given to the types of Ibdah by the Shaykh Rahimahullh.

Fundamentally, each action that comprises lowering oneself, submissiveness, absolute obedience, unconditional love etc. in the position of perfection before a deity is Ibdah. The Ibdah mentioned here are the most prevalent types.

21- The full text of the yah mentioned by the Shaykh is as follows,


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ إِلاَّ كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلاَلٍ.
For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way. Their case is like the one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not. And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)

22- The intent here is to unify Allhu Tal in His essence, divine names and attributes. Meaning, not to section the Dht (Essence) of Allh by attributing a spouse, child etc. to Him, isolating al-Asm was Sift (the divine names and attributes) only to Him without associating any partner to Him, and to accept and confirm al-Asm was Sift of Allhu Tal without resembling Him to His creation, with no Tawl (figurative interpretation) nor Tahrf (distortion).
5





اَلرِّسَالَةُ الْمُفِيدَةُ الْمُهِمَّةُ الْجَلِيلَةُ
THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET

(REGARDING THE TERMS TAWHD, SHIRK, KUFR, AND NIFQ)10







Quote
Footnotes:

10- This pamphlet is found between pages 66-72 in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, which contains the pamphlets of the Ulam of Najd, compiled by Abdur Rahmn bin Qsim. In addition, due to its benefit, even though it is not found in many of the wide-spread copies of the Rislah, we have included a response given by the Shaykh Rahimahullh to a question regarding the types of Tawhd. The question and its answer can be found in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, pages 72-73.
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Imn / Mumin - Islm / Muslim - Ihsn / Muhsin / Re: AL-ISTITHN IN ONE'S MN
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 04.09.2019, 04:08:50 AM »

"Know, may Allah have mercy upon us and you, that it is from the affair of Muminin (the believers) and from their characteristics, that Iman (faith) is found with them, and they are in constant fear for their Iman, and are severely cautious about their devotional actions. Hence, their hearts are in awe of the fear of losing this Iman. This awe has encompassed them, they do not know what Allah will do with them for the remainder of their lives, and so they are cautious of (false) self-praise, and they follow what they have been commanded by their Noble Master, when He says:

فَلَا تُزَكُّوا أَنفُسَكُمْ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ اتَّقَى

So do not purify yourselves, rather He is most aware of who truly has taqwaa (piety). (an-Najm 53/32)

so they fear being overcome by the plot of Allah in dying upon an evil condition. They do not known in what condition they will be in the morning and nor the evening. What He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has cautioned them from has made them inherit this awe in every step that they take:


وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ

And no soul knows what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul knows in what land it will die. (Luqman 31/34)

Hence, they are in the state that He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) has described them with, when He said:


وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْتُونَ مَا آتَوا وَّقُلُوبُهُمْ وَجِلَةٌ أَنَّهُمْ إِلَى رَبِّهِمْ رَاجِعُونَ

And those who give what they give (in charity) while their hearts are in awe, in that they will be returning to their Lord. (al-Muminun 23/60)

Hence, they work righteous deeds, and fear losing these deeds. They also avoid the shameful and evil deeds, having great awe and fear of falling into them, and it is precisely this (i.e., this condition of the hearts of the believers) that the Sunnah has portrayed, from al-Mustafa (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).

Narrations

1175- (Isnaad omitted) from Aishah (radiyallahu anha) who said: I said: O Rasulullah, Those who give what they give (in charity) while their hearts are in awe, this is a man who steals, fornicates and drinks alcohol? He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: No o daughter of (Abu Bakr) as-Siddiq. But it is a man who fast, prays and gives in charity, but fears that it will not be accepted from him.

So when this fear was bound to their hearts, it also made binding upon them to make the Istithnaa in their words, concerning the future of their deeds, hence it is from the characteristics of the people of knowledge and intellect that a man say: I am a believer, Inshallah (if Allah wills).

And this is not from the angle of being doubtful (in the basis of ones Iman), and we seek refuge in Allah from having doubt in al-Iman, since Iman (faith) is Iqraar (affirmation) of Allahs Rububiyyah (Lordship), submission to Him in Ubudiyyah (subservience, enslavement), and believing in everything He says or commands or forbids. But the one who doubts in any of that is a Kafir (disbeliever) no doubt. However, making the Istithnaa is correct and justified from two angles:

The first: To negate Tazkiyah (self-purification and praise), such that a person does not testify for his own soul the realities of Iman, and those matters which make up its perfection. For whoever declared these characteristics for himself, then he has testified Jannah (Paradise) for himself, and Allahs pleasure and happiness with him, and whoever made this testimony for himself, then he is actually deserving of its exact opposite

The second: And Istithnaa is also correct and justified from the perspective of what is yet to occur of ones actions and of ones condition at death, and of the remainder of ones life. And what is meant is that: I am a believer if Allah seals my life with the actions of the believers, and if I remain firm and amongst the people of Iman, in Allahs view, and if the condition I am currently in of performing the actions of the believers, lasts and continues until I meet Allah. And I do not know will I actually wake up or enter the evening upon Iman or not?

And this is precisely how Allah has actually conditioned His Prophet and the believers from amongst His servants, when He (Jalla Jalaluhu) said:


وَلَا تَقُولَنَّ لِشَيْءٍ إِنِّي فَاعِلٌ ذَلِكَ غَداً إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ

And do not say about a matter, that I will do such and such tomorrow. Except by saying: If Allah wills. (al-Kahf 18/23-24)

Hence, it is not permissible for you, if you are one who believes in Allah and whose knows that his heart is in the Hand of Allah, who turns it in whatever direction He wills, that you say, with firm resolution, and absolution: I will enter the morning as a believer..." except while adding the Istithnaa to your words, so you say: Inshallah (If Allah wills). This is the from the characteristics of the sensible believers

1181- (Isnaad omitted) from Abu Waail who said: "A man came to Abdullah (Ibn Masud) and said: O Abu Abd'ur Rahman, I met a group of people and said to them: Who are you? and they replied: We are believers. So Abdullah (Ibn Mas'ud) said: Why did they not say: We are the people of Paradise?

1182- (Isnaad omitted) that a man said in the presence of Abdullah Ibn Masud (radiyallahu anh): I am a believer. So it was said to Ibn Masud: This person thinks he is a believer. He said: Ask him if he is in Paradise or Hellfire. So they asked him and he said: Allah knows best. So Abdullah said to him: If only you had entrusted the (judgment) in this life, as you have entrusted it for Akhirah (the next life).

1187- (Isnaad omitted) from Ali ibn Bahr who said: al-Amash, Mansur, Mughirah, Layth, Ata ibnus Saaib, Ismail ibn Abi Khalid, Ammarah ibnul Qaqaa, al-Ala ibnul Musayyib, Ibn Shabrimah, Sufyaan ath-Thawri, Abu Yahya, the companion of Hasan (al-Basri), and Hamzah az-Ziyaat used to say: We are believers, if Allah wills! and they used to criticize those who would not make this Istithnaa (exception)."

1188- al-Marwadhi said: And I heard one of the Mashaayikh say: Have you heard Abd'ur Rahman ibn Mahdi say: Abandoning the Istithnaa is the foundation of al-Irjaa.

1189- (Isnaad omitted) al-Fadal ibn Ziyaad narrated to us: I heard Abu Abdullah (i.e., Ahmad ibn Hanbal) say: I never met any of our associates except that they would make al-Istithna (i.e., except themselves from having perfect, complete Iman), and Yahya said: Sufyan use to hate to say: I am a believer.

1190- (Isnaad omitted) Sufyan said: The people are considered believers to us (i.e., outwardly) with respect to legal rulings and the laws of inheritance, and we hope that it is actually like that with Allah, and we do not know what is (the reality of) our condition in the sight of Allah.

So this is the way of the believers, and the way of the intelligent ones from amongst the scholars, that they adhere to al-Istithna, and Khawf (fear) and Rajaa (hope). They do not know their state is with Allah, and nor the status of their actions, whether they are accepted or rejected. Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) said:


إِنَّمَا يَتَقَبَّلُ اللّهُ مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

Indeed, Allah accepts from the Muttaqin (the pious). (al-Maidah 5/27)

And He informed about His righteous servant, Sulayman (alayhi salam) concerning his own matter:


فَتَبَسَّمَ ضَاحِكاً مِّن قَوْلِهَا وَقَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَى وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحاً تَرْضَاهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ

[And he said: So he (Sulayman) smiled, amused at her speech and said: My Lord! Inspire and bestow upon me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your Favors which You have bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds that will please You, and admit me by Your Mercy among Your righteous slaves. (an-Naml 27/19)

So have you not observed how he asked Allah to be pleased with him on account of righteous action, since he knew that actions, in and of themselves are not beneficial, even if they appear to be righteous, unless Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) is pleased with them and accepts them.

So is it then permissible for anyone who believes in Allah and the Last Day to be resolute that his righteous actions are actually from good and commendable actions, in their entirety and that they are all actions that Allah is pleased with, and are pure, and are accepted by Him?

There is no one who is able to be resolute and certain about this, except an ignoramus who is deceived concerning Allah, and we seek refuge in Allah from being deceived concerning Allah, and in persisting upon disobedience of Allah.

Do you not see, may Allah have mercy upon you, at a man from amongst the Muslims, who has just performed prayer, has completed and perfected it, and he may even have performed it in Jamaah, and upon its proper time, and had perfected his ablution for it, and then when it is said to him: Have you prayed? he says: I have prayed, if Allah accepts it." And likewise, a people who fast the month of Ramadaan, and then they say at its end: "We have fasted, if Allah has accepted it from us." And likewise a people who departs from Hajj, after having completed it and Umrah, and also having completed all of the rituals of Hajj, so when you ask him about his Hajj, he says: We have indeed performed Hajj, and nothing has been left out, except Allahs acceptance of it from us." and similarly, the people meet each other at the end of the month of Ramadaan, and they say to each other: May Allah accept from us and you.

This is how the Sunnah of the Muslims passed by, and this is how their habits remained, and those who came after them took it from those before them. And no one opposes this Istithnaa in Iman and refuses to accept it, except a vile, straying Murji whose heart Shaytan (Satan) has deceived, and we seek refuge in Allah from him.

1191- (Isnaad omitted) Abu Nasr Asmah narrated to us: I heard Abu Abdullah saying: Sulayman ibn Harb used to carry this (i.e., the Istithnaa) upon (Allahs) acceptance. They used to say: We act, but we do not know whether it is accepted or not.

1196- (Isnaad omitted) Hammad ibn Zayd informed us, saying: I heard Hisham mentioning: Hasan (al-Basri) and Muhammad (Ibn Sirin) use to be extremely fearful of saying: "Mumin and would instead say Muslim.

1199- (Isnaad omitted) Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Haani al-Athram said: I heard Abu Abdullah (i.e., Ahmad ibn Hanbal) being asked about al-Istithna when he would say: Iman is Qawl (speech) and Amal (action), it increases and decreases. So he would make Istithnaa out of fear and out of caution, and it was not as they would say due to doubt, but it was action for which he would make Istithnaa (i.e., the exception). (al-Ibnah, 2/862-876)
7
Bismillh,

Just a Reminder!..
8
Bismillh,

Just a reminder!..
9
Fiqh / Re: MUHARRAM, ITS VIRTUES AND THE DAY OF ASHURA
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 01.09.2019, 01:03:18 PM »
Bismillh,

Just a reminder!..
10
Timely Fiqh Issues / 1 MUHARRAM (THE MONTH OF ALLH) 1441H
« Last post by Izhr'ud Dn on 31.08.2019, 07:39:51 PM »


بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِِ

١ اَلْمُحَرَّمُ ١٤٤٠
1 MUHARRAM (THE MONTH OF ALLH) 1441H
THE FIRST OF THE NINTH MONTH (01.09) 2019

Tonight, on the 29th of the month of Dhul Hijjah 1440H (the thirty first of the eighth month 2019), the Hill (crescent moon) of the month of Muharram 1441H  was observed and has been sighted by a group of Muwahhidn around the world.

اَللهُ أَكْبَرُ، اَللَّهُمَّ أَهِّلْهُ عَلَيْناَ بِاْلأَمْنِ وَ اْلإِيماَنِ، وَ السَّلاَمَةِ وَ اْلإِسْلاَمِ، وَ التَّوْفِيقِ لِماَ تُحِبُّ رَبَّناَ وَ تَرْضَى، رَبُّناَ وَ رَبُّكَ اللهُ
Allh is the Most Great!.. O Allh, bring us the Hill (crescent moon) with security and mn (faith) with peace and in Islm and in harmony with what our Lord loves and what pleases Him. (O Hill) our Lord and your Lord is Allh!.. (at-Tirmidh, 5/504; ad-Drim, 1/336)

Therefore, the 1st of the month of Muharram 1441H will fall on the first day of the ninth month (01.09.2019). Wallhu A'lam!
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