التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: ASPECTS OF PEOPLE OF THE JAAHILIYYAH THAT RASULULLAH OPPOSED  (Read 587 times)

Fahm'us Salaf

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المسائل التي خالف فيها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أهل الجاهلية
Aspects of the People of Jaahiliyyah (Days of Ignorance Pre-Islamic Times) that which Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) Opposed

Shaykh'ul Islam Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhab (d 1206H)

Introduction

قال الشيخ محمد بن عبد الوهاب رحمه الله تعالى:
هذه أمور خالف فيها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ما عليه أهل الجاهلية الكتابيين والأميين، مما لا غنى للمسلم عن معرفتها.
فالضد يضر حسنَه الضدُ      وبضدها تتبين الأشياءُ
فأهم ما فيها وأشدها خطراً عدم إيمان القلب بما جاء به الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، فإن انضاف إلى ذلك استحسان ما عليه أهل الجاهلية تمت الخسارة كما قال تعالى: {والذين ءامنوا بالباطل وكفروا بالله أولئك هم الخاسرون}.


Shaykh Muhammad Ibn Abdi'l-Wahhab (rahimahullahu Ta’ala) said:

These are the aspects that the people of the Days of Ignorance –both the people of the Book and the non-People of the Book– were upon, which Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) opposed. They are from the matters that every Muslim is required to possess knowledge of. This is since with (understanding) one side of the opposite, the goodness of the other side of the opposite can be made apparent. And it is by (making apparent the) opposite of something that matters become clarified. The most important of these aspects (of the Days of Ignorance) and most severe in terms of danger was the absence of faith in the heart, for what Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) came with. And if approval for what the people of the Days of Ignorance were upon is further added to this (absence of faith), then the total ruin is achieved, as Allah says: “And those who believe in the falsehood while disbelieving in Allah, it is they who are the losers.” (al-Ankabut 29/52)

Supplicating to Righteous Individuals


[1] : أنهم يتعبدون بإشراك الصالحين في دعاء الله وعبادته، يريدون شفاعتهم عند الله، لظنهم أن الله يحب ذلك وأن الصالحين يحبونه، كما قال تعالى: {ويعبدون من دون الله ما لا يضرهم ولا ينفعهم ويقولون هؤلآء شفعآؤنا عند الله} وقال تعالى: {والذين اتخذوا من دونه أولياء مانعبدهم إلا ليقربونآ إلى الله زلفى} وهذه أعظم مسألة خالفهم فيها رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فأتى بالإخلاض، وأخبر أنه دين الله الذي أرسل به جميع الرسل، وأنه لا يُقبل من الأعمال إلا الخالص، وأخبر إن من فعل ما استحسنوا فقد حَرم الله عليه الجنة ومأواه النار.
وهذه هي المسألة التي تَفرق الناس لأجلها بين مسلم وكافر، وعندها وقعت العداوة، ولأجلها شرع الله الجهاد كما قال تعالى: {وقاتلوهم حتى لا تكون فتنة ويكون الدين كله لله}.


1- They performed worship by mixing righteous people into their supplication and worship of Allah. They only did this desiring that these (righteous people) act as intercessors for them before Allah, based on their notion that Allah loved this and that these righteous people loved Him. Allah says: “And they worship besides Allah things that harm them not nor profit them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah.” (Yunus 10/18) And He (subhanahu wa ta'ala) says: “And those who take associates apart from Him, (say): We worship them only so that they may bring us nearer to Allah.” (az-Zumar 39/3) This is the greatest of matters that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) opposed them in. So he brought sincerity (i.e.,, doing deeds sincerely for Allah alone and not for anyone else) and informed that it was the Religion of Allah, which all the messengers were sent with. And he informed us that no deeds are accepted (by Allah), except those done sincerely (for Him alone). And he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) informed that whosoever does what these (polytheists) approved of, and then Allah has forbidden Paradise for him and his final destination will be the Hellfire. It is due to this aspect that mankind becomes divided into Muslims and disbelievers. And it is due to it that enmity (between the two) occurs. And it is for this purpose that Jihaad was legislated, as Allah says: “And fight them (disbelievers) until there is no more Fitnah (evil/disbelief) left, and the religion is for Allah alone.” (al-Anfal 8/39)

Division of the People of Jaahiliyyah with regard to their Worship and Religion


[2] : أنهم متفرقون في دينهم، كما قال تعالى: {كل حزب بما لديهم فرحون}، وكذلك في دنياهم ويرون أن ذلك هو الصواب، فأتى بالاجتماع في الدين بقوله: {شرع لكم من الدين ما وصى به نوحا والذي أوحينا إليك وما وصينا به إبراهيم وموسى وعيسى أن أقيموا الصلاة ولا تتفرقوا فيه}، وقال تعالى {إن الذين فرقوا دينهم وكانوا شيعا لست منهم في شئ}، ونهانا عن مشابهتهم بقوله: {ولا تكونوا كالذين تفرقوا واختلفوا من بعد ما جآءهم البينات}، ونهانا عن التفرق في الدنيا يقوله: {واعتصموا بحبل الله جميعا ولا تفرقوا}.

2- They divided into sects within their religion. Allah says: “And do not be among the polytheists –of those who split up their religion and became divided into sects– each sect rejoicing in that which it has.” (ar-Rum 30/32) They also split up into divisions with regard to their worldly affairs, and they saw that as being the correct thing to do. So Allah prescribed unity and agreement in the Religion, saying: “He has ordained for you the same religion which He ordained for Nuh and that which We have inspired in you (O Muhammad), and that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and Isa, (saying): You should establish the Religion and make no divisions within it.” (ash-Shura 42/13) And He says: “Verily, those who split up their religion and became sects; you have no concern with them in the least.” (al-An'am 6/159) He has forbidden us from being similar to them, saying: “And be not like those who split up and differed after the clear signs came to them.” (Al-i Imran 3/105) And He has forbidden us from splitting up into sects in the Religion: “And hold firmly onto the Rope of Allah, all of you together, and be not divided.” (Al-i Imran 3/103)

Considering opposing the Ruler as a Virtue


[3] : أن مخالفة ولي الأمر وعدم الانقياد له فضيلة، والسمع والطاعة له ذل ومهانة، فخالفهم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وأمر بالصبر على جور الولاة، وأمر بالسمع والطاعة لهم والنصيحة، وغلظ في ذلك وأبدى فيه وأعاد.
وهذه الثلاث هي التي جمع بينها فيما صح عنه في الصحيح أنه قال: "إن الله يرضى لكم ثلاثاً أن تعبدوه ولا تشركوا به شيئاً، وأن تعتصموا بحبل الله جميعاً ولا تفرقوا، وأن تناصحوا من ولاه الله أمركم" (أخرجه مسلم). ولم يقع خلل في دين الناس ودنياهم إلا بسبب الإخلال بهذه الثلاث أو بعضها.


3- They held the acts of opposing the figure of authority and failing to comply with him as being something virtuous. And they saw the acts of hearing and obeying as being humiliating and degrading. So Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) opposed them and commanded that patience be observed when facing the oppression of the rulers. And he commanded with hearing and obeying them, as well as advising (them). And he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) spoke extensively in regards to that and he constantly brought it up and repeated it. These (first) three aspects (of the Days of Ignorance) have been gathered together in what has been related on Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) in Sahihayn (the two Sahih i.e., Bukhari & Muslim), that he said: “Indeed, Allah is pleased with three things for you: That you not worship (anything else) except Allah and that you not associate anything with Him; that all of you, together, hold tightly onto the Rope of Allah and not be divided into groups, and; that you mutually advise he whom Allah has given authority over your affairs.” There did not occur any defects in the religious and worldly affairs of mankind, except that it was due to a violation of these (first) three aspects, or one of them.

Blind following and its dangers


[4] : أن دينهم مبني على أصول أعظمها التقليد، فهو القاعدة الكبرى لجميع الكفار أولهم وآخرهم، كما قال تعالى: {وكذلك مآ أرسلنا من قبلك في قرية من نذير إلا قال مترفوهآ إنا وجدنا ءاباءنا على أمة وإنا على ءاثرهم مقتدون} وقال تعالى: {وإذا قيل لهم اتبعوا ما أنزل الله قالوا بل نتبع ما وجدنا عليه ءابآءنآ أولو كان الشيطان يدعوهم إلى عذاب السعير}، فأتاهم بقوله: {قل إنمآ أعظكم بواحدة أن تقوموا لله مثنى وفرادى ثم تتفكروا ما بصاحبكم من جنة}، وقوله: {اتبعوا مآ انزل إليكم من ربكم ولا تتبعوا من دونه أولياء قليلا ما تذكرون}

4- Their religion was built upon certain principles, the greatest of which was taqlid (blind following). So this was the biggest principle for all of the disbelievers –the first and last of them– as Allah says: “And similarly, We sent not a warner before you (Muhammad) to any town (people), except that the luxurious ones among them said: Verily, we found our forefathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow in their footsteps.” (az-Zukhruf 43/23) And He says: “And when it is said to them: Follow that which Allah has sent down! They say: Nay, we shall follow that which we found our forefathers (following). Would they do so even if the Devil invites them to the torment of the Fire?” (Luqman 31/21) So He revealed to them His saying: “Say: I exhort you to one thing only –that you stand up for Allah’s sake in pairs and singly– and then reflect (upon the life of the Prophet). There is no madness in your companion (Muhammad).” (as-Saba 34/46) And His saying: “(Say to the disbelievers): Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord, and follow not any partners besides Him. Little do you remember!” (al-A’raf 7/3)

Relying on what the Majority is upon as proof


[5] : أن من أكبر قواعدهم الاغترار بالأكثر، ويحتجون به على صحة الشئ، ويستدلون على بطلان الشئ بغربته وقلة أهله، فأتاهم بضد ذلك وأوضحه في غير موضغ من القرآن.

5- From their greatest principles was that they were deceived by (following) the majority, using that as a proof against the correctness of a matter. And they also used as evidence for declaring the falsehood of something, the fact that it was strange and that its adherents were few. So Allah prescribed the opposite of that and He clarified this in many places of the Qur'an.

Relying on what the Ancestors is upon as proof


[6] الاحتجاج بالمتقدمين كقوله: {قال فما بال القرون الأولى}، {ما سمعنا بهذا فى ءابآءنا الأولين}.

6- They relied upon (the actions of) their ancestors as evidence (for their doings), as is found in His saying: “Then what about the generations of old?” (Ta-Ha 20/51) And His saying: “We never heard of this thing (which you have brought), amongst (the speech of) our forefathers.” (al-Mu’minun 23/24)

Using what the Influential are upon as proof


[7]: الاستدلال بقوم أعطوا قوى في الأفهام والأعمال، وفي الملك والمال والجاه، فرد الله ذلك بقوله: {ولقد مكانهم فيمآ إن مكناهم فيه}، وقوله: {وكانوا من قبل يستفتحون على الذين كفروا فلما جاءهم ما عرفوا كفروا به}، وقوله: {يعرفونه كما يعرفون أبناءهم}.

7- They would use as a basis of proof that any people that had been given strength in understanding and works, as well as in dominion, wealth and status; that they were upon the truth. So Allah refuted that by saying: “And indeed We had firmly established them (disbelievers of old) with that wherewith We have not established you (O Quraysh)!” (al-Ahqaf 46/26) And saying: “Although aforetime, they had invoked Allah (for the coming of Muhammad) in order to gain victory over those who disbelieved. Then when there came to them that which they recognized (i.e.,, the Prophet), they disbelieved in him.” (al-Baqarah 2/89) And saying: “Those who have been given the Scripture recognize him (Muhammad) as they recognize their own sons.” (al-Baqarah 2/146)

Believing to what the Weak were upon was not the Truth


[8]الاستدلال على بطلان الشئ بأنه لم يتبعه إلا الضعفاء، كقوله: {أنؤمن لك واتبعك الأرذلون}، وقوله: {أهؤلآء من الله عليهم من بيننآ}، فرده الله بقوله: {أليس الله بأعلم بالشاكرين}.

8- They used as evidence for determining the falsehood of a matter, the fact that only the weak ones followed it, as is found in Allah's saying: “They said: Shall we follow you, when the lowliest of people follow you?” (ash-Shuara 26/111) And He says (relating their statements): “Is it these (poor believers) whom Allah has favored from amongst us?” (al-An'am 6/53) So Allah refuted this claim, saying: “Should not Allah know best those who are grateful?” (al-An'am 6/53)

Emulating the Wicked Scholars and Ignorant Worshippers


[9] الاقتداء بفسقة العلماء والعباد فأتى بقوله: {يا أيها الذين ءامونا إن كثيرا من الأحبار والرهبان ليأكلون أموال الناس بالباطل ويصدون عن سبيل الله}، وبقوله: {لا تغلوا في دينكم غير الحق ولا تتبعوا أهوآء قوم قد ضلوا من قبل وأضلوا كثيرا وضلوا عن سواء السبيل}.

9- They followed and took their example from their evil and wicked scholars and worshipers. So Allah revealed His saying: “O you who believe! Verily, there are many of the (Jewish) rabbis and (Christian) monks that take the wealth of mankind unjustly and hinder them (mankind) from the way of Allah.” (at-Tawbah 31/34) And His saying: “Do not go to extremes in your religion (by believing in something) other than the truth. And do not follow the vain desires of people that went astray, from times of past, and who misled many and strayed (themselves) from the Right Path.” (al-Ma’idah 5/77)

Accusing the Religious People of having Little Understanding and a Lack of Intellect


[10] الاستدلال على بطلان الدين بقلة أفهام أهله وعدم حفظهم كقولهم {بادي الرأي

10- They used the following argument for determining the falsehood of a religion that the ones who followed it possessed a short amount of understanding and lacked good memory, as Allah says: “They followed you without thinking.” (Huud 11/27)

Relying on a Corrupt Form of Reasoning while Rejecting the Correct Form of Reasoning


[11] : الاستدلال بالقياس الفاسد كقولهم: {إن أنتم إلا بشر مثلنا}.
[12] : إنكار القياس الصحيح، والجامع لهذا وما قبله عدم فهم الجامع والفارق.


11- They used a wicked and corrupt type of reasoning to establish evidence, as occurs in His saying: “You are no more than human beings like us!” (Ibrahim 14/10)

12- They rejected the correct and true way of reasoning. The reason for the occurrence of this aspect and the one before it was due to a lack of understanding, on their part, of (what consisted of) similarities and differences (i.e., similarities and differences between the prophets and normal human beings).

Extremism with regard to the People of Knowledge and Righteousness


[13] الغلو في العلماء الصالحين، كقوله: {يا أهل الكتاب لا تغلوا في دينكم ولا تقولوا على الله إلا الحق}.

13- They went to extremes with regard to their scholars and righteous people, as is found in His saying: “O People of the Book! Do not go to extremes in your religion (by exceeding the limits set forth by Allah). And do not speak concerning Allah, except that which is true.” (an-Nisa 4/171)

Their negation of the Truth and Affirmation of Falsehood


[14] أن كل ما تقدم مبني على قاعدة وهي النفي والإثبات، فيتبعون الهوى والظن ويُعرضون عما جاءت به الرسل.

14- Everything that has been mentioned previously is based upon a principle, which is denying and affirming (i.e., they denied what Allah affirmed and affirmed what Allah denied). So they followed vain desires and speculation while turning away from what Allah revealed to them.

Using False Excuses to not Accept the Truth


15]اعتذارهم عن اتباع ما آتاهم الله بعدم الفهم كقولهم: {قلوبنا غلف}، {يا شعيب ما نفقه كثيراً مما تقول}، فأكذبهم الله وبين أن ذلك بسبب الطبع على قلوبهم، وأن الطبع بسبب كفرهم.

15- They used the claim that they had a “lack of comprehending” as an excuse for not following what Allah revealed to them, as Allah says: “(They said): Our hearts are sealed (with coverings).” (al-Baqarah 2/88) And He says: “(They said): O Shuayb, we do not understand much of what you say!” (Huud 11/91) So Allah declared them to be liars and clarified that their lack of understanding was due to the sealing of their hearts, and the sealing of their hearts was due to their disbelief.

The Jews replaced the Tawrah with Books of Magic


[16]اعتياضهم عما أتاهم من الله بكتب السحر، كما ذكر الله ذلك في قوله: {ولما جاءهم رسول من عند الله مصدق لما معهم نبذ فريق من الذين أوتوا الكتاب كتاب الله ورآء ظهورهم كأنهم لا يعلمون * واتبعوا ما تتلوا الشياطين على ملك سليمان وما كفر سليمان ولكن الشياطين كفروا يعلمون الناس السحر ومآ}.

16- They replaced what came to them from Allah with books of magic, as Allah mentions in His saying: “And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the scripture threw the Book of Allah behind their backs, as if they did not know! And they followed (instead) what the devils gave out (falsely of magic) in the lifetime of Sulayman.” (al-Baqarah 2/101-102)

Ascribing Falsehood to the Prophets


[17] نسبةُ باطلهم إلى الأنبياء كقوله: {وما كفر سليمان}، وقوله: {ما كان إبراهيم يهودياً ولا نصرانياً}.

17- They ascribed their falsehood to the prophets, as is found in Allah’s saying: “And Sulayman did not disbelieve.” (al-Baqarah 2/102) and His saying: “Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian.” (Al-i Imran 3/67)

They would Ascribe themselves to the Prophets in spite of Opposing them


[18]تناقضهم في الانتساب، ينتسبون إلى إبراهيم مع إظهارهم ترك اتباعه.

18- They contradicted themselves in their ascriptions, for they would ascribe themselves to Ibrahim (alayhi salam), yet openly manifest their lack of following him.

Blaming Righteous People based on the actions of some who Ascribe themselves to them


[19] قدحهم في بعض الصالحين بفعل بعض المنتسبين إليهم، كقدح اليهود في عيسى، وقدح اليهود والنصارى في محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم.

19- They slandered and accused righteous people based on the actions of others who “ascribed” themselves to these (righteous people). An example of this is found in the Jews' slander of Isa (alayhi salam) and the Christians' and Jews' slander of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).

Believing that the Act of Sorcerers and Magicians is from the Miraculous Endowments of the Righteous


[20] اعتقادهم في مخاريق السحرة وأمثالهم أنها من كرامات الصالحين، ونسبته إلى الأنبياء كما نسبوه لسليمان عليه السلام.

20- They believed that the tricks of the sorcerers and their likes were from the miraculous endowments that Allah granted to some righteous people. And they attributed it to the prophets, such as their ascribing it to Sulayman (alayhi salam).

Worshiping Allah by Whistling and Clapping Hands


[21] تعبدهم بالمُكَاءِ والتَصِديةِ.

21- They performed worship by whistling and clapping their hands.

Taking the Religion as an Amusement and Game


[22] أنهم اتخذوا دينهم لهواً ولعباً.

22- They took their Religion as an amusement and a game.

Being Delude by the Worldly Life


[23] أن الحياة الدنيا غرتهم، فظنوا أن عطاء الله منها يدل على رضاه كقولهم: {نحن أكثر أموالا وأولاداً وما نحن بمعذبين}.

23- They were deluded by the life of this world. So they perceived Allah’s bestowal of worldly material (on someone), as an indication of He was pleased (with that person), as He says: “And they say: We are abundant in wealth and in children. And (because of that) we are not going to be punished.” (as-Saba 34/35)

Abstaining from the Truth if the Weak Ones Follow it


24] ترك الدخول في الحق إذا سبقهم إليه الضعفاء تكبراً وأنفة، فأنزل الله تعالى: {ولا تطرد الذين يدعون ربهم}. الآيـات.

24- They refused to enter into the truth when they saw that they had already been preceded to it by the weak and poor -out of pride and disdain- so Allah revealed: “And turn not away those who invoke their Lord, morning and afternoon seeking His Face.” (al-An'am 6/52)

Considering something to be False based on the Weak being the first to Accept it


[25] الاستدلال على بطلانه بسبق الضعفاء، كقوله: {لو كان خيراً ما سبقونا إليه}.

25- They determined the truth to be false based upon their argument that the weak and poor people took precedence in accepting it. This is as He says: “(They said): Had it (i.e., Islam) been something good, they (poor and weak ones) would not have preceded us in (accepting) it.” (al-Ahqaf 46/11)

Distorting the Evidences from the Book after Acknowledging them


[26] تحريف كتاب الله من بعد ما عقلوه وهم يعلمون.

26- They distorted (i.e., Tahrif) the Book of Allah after having comprehended it, while doing so knowingly (i.e., deliberately and not out of ignorance).

Authoring Books of Falsehood and Ascribing them to Allah


[27] تصنيف الكتب الباطلة ونسبتها إلى الله، كقوله: {فويل للذين يكتبون الكتاب بأيديهم ثم يقولون هذا من عند الله} الآية.

27- They authored books of falsehood and then attributed them to Allah, as is found in His saying: “Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say: This is from Allah.” (al-Baqarah 2/79)

Rejecting the Truth found with others


[28]أنهم لا يقبلون من الحق إلا الذي مع طائفتهم، كقوله: {قالوا نؤمن بمآ انزل علينا}.

28- They did not accept anything from the truth, except for that which was (in accordance) with their party/group. Allah says: “And when it is said to them (Jews): Believe in what Allah has sent down! They say: We will believe in (only) what was sent down to us. And they disbelieved in that which came after it; whereas it is the truth confirming what is with them.” (al-Baqarah 2/91)

Not Acting on the Views of those whom they claimed to Follow


[29] أنهم مع ذلك لا يعلمون بما تقوله طائفتهم، كما نبه الله تعالى عليه بقوله: {قل فَلِمَ تقتلون أنبياء الله من قبل إن كنتم مؤمنين}.

29- But in spite of this, they did not even have knowledge of what the party/group (that they adhered to) used to believe, as Allah points out in His saying: "Then why have you killed the prophets of Allah aforetime, if you indeed were believers?" (al-Baqarah 2/91)

Adhering to Division and Abandoning Unity


[30]وهي من عجائب آيات الله، أنهم لما تركوا وصية الله بالاجتماع، وارتكبوا ما نهى الله عنه من الإفتراق، صار كل حزب بما لديهم فرحين.

30- It is from the amazing signs of Allah that when these people abandoned the command of Allah to unite and began to commit that which Allah forbade from evil, the matter became such as: "Each group rejoicing in that which it has."

Enmity towards the True Religion and Love for the False Religion


[31]وهي من أعجب الآيات أيضاً، معاداتهم الدين الذي انتسبوا إليه غاية العداوة، ومحبتهم دين الكفار الذين عادوهم وعادوا نبيهم وفئتهم غاية المحبة، كما فعلوا مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما أتاهم بدين موسى عليه السلام، واتبعوا كتب السحرة، وهي من دين آل فرعون.

31- It is also from the amazing signs of Allah that these people held the highest degree of hatred for the religion they affiliated themselves with, while having love for the religion of the disbelievers; those who were enemies to them and their prophet. And their trial was found in the extent of their love (for that religion of their enemies). As they did with Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) when they approached him with the religion of Musa (alayhi's-salam), while (in reality) they were following the books of magic. And that (magic) was from the religion of the people of Pharaoh.

Denying the Truth when it was with Others whom they did not Like


[32] كفرهم بالحق إذا كان مع من لا يهوونه، كما قال تعالى: {وقالت اليهود ليست النصارى على شئ وقالت النصارى ليست اليهود على شئ}.

32- They disbelieved in the truth if it was found with someone that they did not like or agree with. Allah says: "The Jews say that the Christians follow nothing (i.e., are on the wrong Religion) and the Christians say that the Jews follow nothing." (al-Baqarah 2/113)

Contradictions in Affirming and Denying


[33]إنكارهم ما أقروا أنه من دينهم، كما فعلوا في حج البيت، فقال تعالى: {ومن يرغب عن ملة إبراهيم إلا من سَفِهَ نفسه}.

33- They rejected what they agreed was part of their Religion, as they did during the Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (i.e., the Ka’bah). Allah says: "And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim (pure Tawhid), except he who fools himself." (al-Baqarah 2/130)

Each Sect Praise itself apart from Others


[34] أن كل فرقة تدعي أنها الناجية، فأكذبهم الله بقوله: {هاتوا برهانكم إن كنتم صادقين}، ثم بين الصواب بقوله: {بلى من أسلم وجهه لله وهو محسن}.

34- Every one of (their) groups claimed that they were the saved one. So Allah declared them to be liars with His saying: "Bring forth your proof if you are indeed truthful.” (al-Baqarah 2/111) Then He clarifies what is correct, saying: "Rather, whosoever submits himself to Allah while he is a good-doer, his reward is with Allah.” (al-Baqarah 2/112)

Seeking Nearness to Allah by Committing the Prohibited


[35]التعبد بكشف العورات كقوله: {وإذا فعلوا فاحشة قالوا وجدنا عليهآ ابآءنآ والله أمرنا بها},

35- They performed their acts of worship while exposing their private parts, as Allah says: "And when they committed an evil deed (i.e., going around the Ka’bah in a naked state), they said: We found our forefathers doing it.” (al-A’raf 7/28)

Seeking Nearness to Allah by Prohibiting the Lawful and Permitting the Unlawful


[36] التعبد بتحريم الحلال، كما تعبدوا بالشرك.

36- They performed worship by forbidding the lawful, in the same manner that they worshiped by ascribing partners to Allah.

Taking the Rabbis and Monks as Lords besides Allah


[37]التعبد باتخاذ الأحبار والرهبان أرباباً من دون الله.

37- They observed their worship by taking their rabbis and monks (i.e., learned people) as lords besides Allah.

Denying Allah's Names and Attributes


[38]الإلحاد في الصفات، كقوله تعالى: {ولكن ظننتم أن الله لا يعلم كثيراً مما تعملون}

38- They denied Allah's Attributes, as Allah says: "But you thought that Allah did not know much of what you were doing." (Fussilat 41/122)

Denying Allah's Names


[39]الإلحاد في الأسماء، كقوله: {وهم يكفرون بالرحمن}.

39- They denied Allah's Names, as Allah says: "While they disbelieve in ar-Rahman (The Most Merciful)." (ar-Ra’d 13/30)

Denial of the Lord


[40] التعطيل، كقول آل فرعون.

40- They committed Ta’til (negation of Allah's Names and Attributes), as is found in the statement of the people of Pharaoh.

Describing Allah with Deficiencies


[41] نسبة النقائص إليه سبحانه، كالولد والحاجة والتعب، مع تنزيه رهبانهم عن بعض ذلك.

41- They attributed deficiencies to Allah, such as (Him having) a child, a need and being tired, while (on the other hand), they would eliminate some of these deficiencies from their religious leaders (i.e., monks).

Ascribing Partners to Allah with regard to His Dominion


[42] الشرك في الملك، كقول المجوس.

42- They committed Shirk in Allah's sovereignty (mulk), as is found in the beliefs of the Majus.

Denying Allah's Divine Pre-Decree


[43] جحود القدر.

43- They rejected al-Qadar (Divine Pre-ordainment).

Using Allah's Divine Decree as an Excuse for their Disbelief


[44]الاحتجاج على الله به.

44- They used al-Qadar as an excuse (for themselves) against Allah.

Claiming a Contradiction between Allah's Legislation and His Divine Decree


[45]معارضة شرع الله بقدره.

45- They opposed Allah's Legislation (i.e., commandments) by using His Divine Pre-ordainment (as an argument).

Attributing Events to Time and Reviling it


[46]مسبة الدهر، كقولهم: {وما يهلكنا إلا الدهر}.

46- They reviled time as is found in their saying: "There is nothing but our life of this world. We die and we live and nothing destroys us except ad-Dahr (time)." (al-Jathiyah 45/24)

Denying Allah's Blessing


[47] إضافة نعم الله إلى غيره، كقوله: {يعرفون نعمت الله ثم ينكرونها}.

47- They attributed Allah's blessings to someone other than Him, as He says: "They recognize the blessings of Allah, yet they deny them (by worshiping others besides Allah)." (an-Nahl 16/83)

Disbelieving in Allah's Verses in General


[48] الكفر بآيات الله.

48- They disbelieved in the signs of Allah.

Disbelieving in Some of Allah's Verses


[49]جحد بعضها.

49- They rejected some of them (these signs).

Denying Allah's Revelation of Books to Messengers


[50] قولهم: {ما أنزل الله على بشرمن شئ}.

50- They said: "Allah did not send down anything to a man." (al-An'am 6/91)

Describing the Qur'an as being the speech of a Human Being

[51]قولهم في القرآن: {إن هذآ إلا قول البشر}.

51- They said about the Qur’an: "Verily, this is nothing but the word of a man." (al-Muddaththir 74/25)

Negating Wisdom from Allah's Actions


[52] القدح في حكمة الله تعالى.

52- They attacked the wisdom of Allah, the Mighty.

Employing schemes to nullify Allah's Legislation


[53] إعمال الحيل الظاهرة والباطنة في دفع ماجاءت به الرسل كقوله
تعالى: {ومكروا ومكر الله}، وقوله: {وقالت طآئفة من أهل الكتاب امنوا وجه النهار واكفروا اخره}.


53- They employed different schemes –both hidden and apparent– to repel what the messengers came with. This is as is found in His saying: "And they (disbelievers) plotted, while Allah (too) plotted." (Al-i Imran 3/54) And His saying: "And a party of the people of the Scripture say: Believe in the morning in that which is revealed to the believers, and reject it at the end of the day, so that they may turn back." (Al-i Imran 3/72)

Agreeing with the Truth as a means to Repel it


[54] الإقرار بالحق ليتواصلوا به إلى دفعه كما قال في الآية.

54- They agreed with the truth in order to find a way to repel it, as Allah has stated in the aforementioned verse.

Fanatical Attachment to Falsehood


[55] التعصب للمذهب، كقوله تعالى: {لا تؤمنوا إلا لمن تبع دينكم}.

55- They held fanaticism for a particular Madhhab (i.e., belief, school of thought), as is found in His saying concerning that (quoting from the disbelievers): “And do not believe (in anyone), except he who follows your religion (way of thinking).” (Al-i Imran 3/73)

Calling Tawhid Shirk


[56]تسمية اتباع الإسلام شركاً، كما ذكره في قوله تعالى: {ما كان لبشر أن يؤتيه الله الكتاب والحكم والنبوة ثم يقول للناس كونوا عبادا لي من دون الله} الآيتين.

56- They labeled the aspect of following Islam as being a form of Shirk (association of partners in the worship of Allah). This has been mentioned by Allah in His saying: “It is not possible for a human being that Allah give him the Book, the rule and the prophethood and then he (turns around after that) saying to the people: Be my worshipers, rather than Allah's. On the contrary, (he would say): Be you Rabbaniyyun (learned religious men) because of your having taught and studied the Book. Nor would he order you to take angels and prophets as lords (i.e., gods). Would He order you to disbelieve after you have submitted to Allah's Will?” (Al-i Imran 3/79-80)

Distorting the Words and Twisting the Meanings of Allah's Book


[57] تحريف الكلم عن مواضعه.

[58]لي الألسنة بالكتاب.


57- They distorted (Allah’s) words from their original state (i.e., meanings).

58- They twisted (the meanings of) the words found in the Book.

Giving the People of Truth Horrendous Nicknames


[59] تلقيب أهل الهدى بالصباة والحشوية.

59- They labeled the people of guidance with evil names such as “Sabian” (one who apostates from the truth) and “Hashawi” (one without any benefit in his speech).

Fabricating lies against Allah and Denying the Truth


[60] افتراء الكذب على الله.

[61] التكذيب بالحق.


60- They fabricated lies upon Allah.

61- They disbelieved in the truth.

Inciting Kings against People of truth


[62] كونهم إذا غُلبوا بالحُجة فزعوا إلى الشكوى للملوك، كما قالوا: {اتذر موسى وقومه ليفسدوا في الأرض}.

62- They held the condition that, whenever overcome by established proof (against them), they fled to complain to the king (or ruler), as Allah says: "The chiefs of the people of Pharaoh said (to Pharaoh): Will you leave Musa and his people to spread mischief in the land?" (al-A'raf 7/127)

Accusing the People of Truth with that which they are Free from


[63] رميهم إياهم بالفساد في الأرض كما في الآية.

63- They accused them (i.e., the prophets who refuted them) of causing mischief in the land, as is stated in the (previous) verse.

[64] رميهم إياهم بانتقاص دين الملك، كما قال تعالى: {ويذرك والِهَتَكَ} الآية، وكما قال تعالى: {إني أخاف أن يبدل دينكم}.

64- They accused them of defaming and belittling the religion of the king (or ruler), as Allah says: “The chiefs of Pharaoh's people said: Will you leave Musa and his people to spread mischief in the land and to abandon you and your gods." (al-A'raf 7/127) And He says (quoting Pharaoh): “Verily, I fear that he will change your religion.” (Ghafir 40/26)

[65] رمهيهم إياهم بانتقاص آلهة الملك في الآية.

65- They accused them of defaming and belittling the (false) gods of the king, as is stated in the (previous) verse.

[66]رميهم إياهم بتبديل الدين، كما قال تعالى: {إني أخاف أن يبدل دينكم أو أن يظهر في الأرض الفساد}.

66- They accused them of changing the Religion, as Allah says: “Verily, I fear that he will change your religion or that mischief and evil will spread throughout the land.” (Ghafir 40/26)

[67]رميهم إياهم بانتقاص الملك كقولهم: {ويذرك والهتك}.

67- They accused them of defaming and belittling the king (ruler), as Allah says: “The chiefs of Pharaoh's people said: Will you leave Musa and his people to spread mischief in the land and to abandon you and your gods." (al-A'raf 7/127)

They would praise themselves for what they did not Have


[68] دعواهم العمل بما عندهم من الحق، كقولهم: {نؤمن بمآ أنزل علينا}، مع تركهم إياه.

68- They claimed that they acted upon what was with them from the truth, as is found in His saying: “They say: We will believe in what was sent down to us.” (al- Baqarah 2/91), while (in reality) they abandoned it.

Making Additions and Deletions to Worship, over how Allah Legislated it


[69] الزيادة في العبادة، كفعلهم يوم عاشوراء.

69- They would make additions to their acts of worship (by innovating into them), as was done by them on the day of Ashura.

[70]نقصهم منها، كتركهم الوقوف بعرفات.

70- They would (on the other hand) make decreases in their worship also, as was done in their abandonment of stopping at the mountain of Arafat.

Abandoning what Allah has Obligated out of (False) Piety


[71] تركهم الواجب ورعاً.

71- They abandoned performing obligatory matters out of (false) piety.

Seeking Nearness to Allah by Abandoning the Good Lawful Things


[72] تعبدهم بترك الطيبات من الرزق.

72- They performed worship by forsaking the good things that were bestowed unto them (by Allah).

[73]تعبدهم بترك زينة الله.

73- They performed worship by abandoning the beautification of Allah.

Calling People to Misguidance


[74]دعوتهم الناس إلى الضلال بغير علم.

74- They called the people towards misguidance, without any knowledge.

Calling the People to Disbelieving Knowingly


[75]دعوتهم إياهم إلى الكفر مع العلم.

75- They called the people towards disbelief, while knowing.

Making tremendous Plots to Establish Shirk and Repel the Truth


[76] المكر الكُبار، كفعل قوم نوح.

76- They would plot powerful plots (against the prophets), as was done by the people of Nuh (alayhi's-salam).

Following one who is not Fit to be Followed


[77]أن أئمتهم إما عالم فاجر وإما عابد جاهل، كما في قوله: {وقد كن فريق منهم يسمعون كلام الله ثم يحرفونه من بعد ما عقلوه وهم يعلمون * وإذا لقوا الذين امنوا قالوا امنا وإذا خلا بعضهم إلى بعض قالوا أتحدثونهم بما فتح الله عليكم ليحاجوكم به عند ربكم أفلا تعقلون * أولا يعلمون أن الله علم ما يسرون وما يعلنون * ومنهم أميون لا يعلمون الكتاب إلا آماني وإن هم إلا يظنون}.

77- Their leaders consisted of two types: Either he was an evil scholar; or he was an ignorant worshiper. This is as Allah says: "Do you (believers) covet that they (Jewish Rabbis) will believe in your religion, in spite of the fact that a party of them (Rabbis) used to hear the word of Allah (i.e., Tawrah), then they used to change it knowingly after they had understood it. And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say: We believe. But when they meet one another in privacy, they say: Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allah as revealed to you, so that they may argue with you about it before their Lord. Have you (Jews) then no understanding? Know they not that Allah knows what they conceal and what they reveal. And there are among them (Jewish Rabbis), unlettered people who know not the Book, but they trust upon false desires and they but guess." (al-Baqarah 2/75-78)

Contradictions in One's Love for Allah


[78] دعواهم أنهم أولياء الله من دون الناس.

78- They claimed that they were the Awliya (friends/supporters) of Allah apart from all other people.

Relying on False Hopes


[79]دعواهم محبة الله مع تركهم شرعه، فطالبهم الله بقوله: {قل إن كنتم تحبون الله}.

79- They claimed to love Allah, while they abandoned His Divine Laws. So Allah tested them, saying: “Say (O Muhammad): If you truly love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your sins.” (Al-i Imran 3/31)

Extremism with regard to Individuals


[80]تمنيهم الأماني الكاذبة، كقولهم: {لن تمسنا النار إلآ أياما معدودة}، وقولهم: {لن يدخل الجنة إلا من كان هوداً أو نصارى}.

80- They held onto false hopes, such as their saying: "The Hellfire will not touch us, except for a limited number of days.” (al-Baqarah 2/80) And their saying: "None shall enter Paradise unless he is a Jew or a Christian." (al-Baqarah 2/111)

Extremism with regard to the landmarks of the Prophets


[81] اتخاذ قبور أنبيائهم وصالحيهم مساجد.

81- They took the graves of their prophets and righteous people as places of worship (Masajid).

Adhering the Means of Shirk


[82]اتخاذ آثار أنبياءهم مساجد كما ذُكر عن عمر.

82- They took the landmarks of their prophets (i.e., places where they had sat or prayed in) as places of worship, as has been narrated on Umar (radiyallahu anh).

Devotion to the Graves


[83] اتخاذ السُرج على القبور

83- They placed lamps upon the graves.

Seeking the Nearness to Allah by Performing Sacrifices at the Grave sites


[84] اتخاذها أعياداً.

84- They took these places (grave sites) as locations for celebrating holidays.

Preserving the Landmarks of Prestigious People


[85] الذبح عند القبور.

85- They performed sacrifices at the grave sites.

[86] التبرك بآثار المعظمين، كدار الندوة، وافتخار من كانت تحت يده بذلك، كما قيل لحكيم بن حزاك: بعثَ مَكرمَةَ قريش؟! فقال: ذهبت المكارم إلا التقوى.

86- They glorified the landmarks and relics of their (deceased) prestigious and revered ones, such as was the case with the central town meeting hall (Dar an-Nadwah). Those who were in its power used to brag and boast about it, as it was said to Hakim bin Hazzaam (when he sold Dar an-Nadwah): “You have sold the honor of Quraysh.” So he said: “All honor has passed away except that of piety (Taqwaa).”

Some Characteristics of the Jaahiliyyah that Remained in Parts of This Ummah


[87] الفخر بالأحساب.

87- They boasted and were prideful about their family descent.

[88]الطعن في الأنساب.

88- They reviled (people’s) chains of lineage.

[89] الاستسقاء بالأنواء.

89- They sought the expectation of rain from (determining it through) the constellations of stars (not from Allah).

[90] النياحة.

90- Their women would wail and lament for the deceased (an-Niyaaha).

Their society is based on Transgression


[91] أن أجل فضائلهم البغي، فذكر الله فيه ما ذكر.

91- The most honorable of their virtues was showing transgression to others by challenging them. So Allah revealed concerning it, what He revealed.

Bragging without Due Right


[92] أن أجل فضائلهم الفخر، ولو بحق، فنهي عنه.

92- The most honorable of their virtues, also, was bragging and boasting, even when they had a right to do so. So Allah forbade that.

The Condemned Form of Fanatical Attachment


[93] أن تعصب الإنسان لطائفته على الحق والباطل أمر لا بد منه عندهم فذكر الله فيه ما ذكر.

93- Holding individual fanaticism and zealotry for one's party/group whether they were upon truth or falsehood was a must according to them. So Allah revealed what He did concerning that matter.

Holding a Person Accountable for the Crime of Another


[94] : أن مِن دينهم أخذ الرجل بجريمة غيره، فأنزل الله: { ولا تزر وازرة وزر اخرى}.

[94] Their religion consisted of holding people accountable for the crimes of others. So Allah revealed: "And no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another." (al-An'am 6/164)

Condemning a Person for the Deficiencies of an Another Person


[95] : تعيير الرجل بما في غيره فقال: "أعيرته بأمه؟ إنك امرؤ فيك جاهلية" (متفق عليه) .

95- They used to condemn a person due to what was found in someone else. This is seen in the Prophet’s saying (to Abu Dharr when he argued with Bilal and called him 'son of a black woman'): "Do you condemn him because of his mother? Indeed you are a man who has in him, (aspects of) Jaahiliyyah (the Days of Ignorance)!"

Boasting about One's Good Feats


[96] : الافتخار بولاية البيت، فذمهم الله بقوله: {مستكبرين به سامرا تهجرون}.

96- They bragged and boasted that they were the caretakers of the House (of Allah, i.e., the Ka’bah). So Allah rebuked them, saying: "In pride, they (Quraysh used to feel pride that they were the dwellers of the Makkah sanctuary) talked evil about it (the Qur'an) by night." (al-Mu’minun 23/67)

Boasting about Ascription to Righteous People in spite of Contradicting Them


[97] : الافتخار بكونهم ذرية الانبياء، فأتى الله بقوله: {تلك امة قد خلت لها ما كسبت}.

97- They would boast about their condition of being from among the offspring of the prophets. So Allah revealed His saying: “That was a nation that has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earned." (al-Baqarah 2/134)

Boasting about Professions


[98] : الافتخار بالصنائع، كفعل أهل الرحلتين على أهل الحرث.

98- They would boast about their trades, just as the merchants do considering themselves above the farmers.

Being Mesmerized by the Worldly Life


[99] : عظمة الدنيا في قلوبهم، كقولهم: {وقالوا لولا نزل هذا القرآن على رجل من القريتين عظيم}.

99- The worldly life was glorified in their hearts, as is found in His saying: “And they say: Why is this Qur'an not sent down to some great man of the two towns (Makkah and Taif)?" (az-Zukhruf 43/31)

Making Amendments and Suggestions over Allah


[100] : التحكم على الله، كما في الآية السابقة.

100- They made suggestions above Allah’s doings, as is seen in His (above) saying.



[101] : ازدراء الفقراء، فأتاهم بقوله: {ولا تطرد الذين يدعون ربهم بالغداة والعشي}.

101- They looked down upon the poor folk. So Allah revealed His saying: "And turn not away those who invoke their Lord morning and afternoon, seeking His Face." (al-An'am 6/52)

Accusing the Believers about their Intentions and Goals


[102] : رميهم أتباع الرسل بعدم الإخلاص وطلب الدنيا، فأجابهم بقوله: {ما عليك من حسابهم من شئ} الآية وأمثالها.

102- They accused those who followed the messengers of having a lack of sincerity and of desiring to achieve worldly ends. So Allah responded to them by saying: “You are accountable for them in nothing." (al-An'am 6/52) and other similar statements.

Disbelieving in the Fundamentals of the Religion


[103] : الكفر بالملائكة.

103- They disbelieved in the angels.

[104] : الكفر بالرسل.

104- They disbelieved in the messengers (sent by Allah).

[105] : الكفر بالكتب.

105- They disbelieved in the revealed books (of Allah).

[106] : الإعراض عما جاء عن الله.

106- They turned away from (accepting) what was reported concerning Allah.

[107] : الكفر باليوم الآخر.

107- They disbelieved in the Last Day.

[108] : التكذيب بلقاء الله.

108- They denied that they would meet Allah (on the Day of Judgment).

Disbelieving in some of what the Messengers Informed of


[109]: التكذيب ببعض ما أخبرت به الرسل عن اليوم الآخر، كما في قوله: {أولئك الذين كفروا بـ ء ـايات ربهم ولقآئه}، ومنها التكذيب بقوله: {مالك يوم الدين}، وقوله: {لا بيع فيه ولا خلة ولا شفاعة}، وقوله: {إلا من شهد بالحق وهم يعلمون}.

109- They denied some of the aspects that the messengers (of Allah) informed of concerning the Last Day, as is found in His saying: “They are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in (their) Meeting (with) Him.” (al-Kahf 18/105) This includes a denial of His saying: “Master of the Day of Recompense.” (al-Fatiha 1/2) And His saying: “Spend of that with which We have provided you before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining nor friendship nor intercession." (al-Baqarah 2/254) and His saying: “Except for those who bear witness to the truth while knowing.” (az-Zukhruf 43/86)

Enmity towards the Callers to Truth


[110] : قتل الذين يأمرون بالقسط من الناس.

110- They killed those people who commanded towards justice and fairness.

Believing in Falsehood; al-Jibt and at-Taghout


[111] : اٌيمان بالجبت والطاغوت.

111- They believed in al-Jibt and at-Taghout (false deities and religions).

Preferring Disbelief over Faith


[112]: تفضيل دين المشركين على دين المسلمين.

112- They preferred the religion of the polytheists over the religion of the Muslims.

Mixing the Truth with Falsehood so that the Falsehood could be Accepted


[113] : لبس الحق بالباطل.

113- They covered the truth with falsehood.

Concealing the Truth Knowingly


[114] : كتمان الحق مع العلم به.

114- They concealed the truth, while possessing full knowledge of it.

Speaking about Allah without Knowledge


[115] : قاعدة الضلال، وهي القول على الله بلا علم.

115- They enforced the source principle of misguidance, and that is speaking about Allah without any knowledge.

Contradiction and Inconsistency in Statements


[116] : التناقض الواضح لما كذبوا بالحق، كما قال تعالى: {بل كذبوا بالحق لما جاءهم فهم في أمر مريج}.

116- They found themselves in clear contradiction when they chose to disbelieve in the truth, as Allah says: “But they disbelieved in the truth when it came to them, so they are in a state of utter confusion.” (Qaf 50/5)

Believing in Parts of the Revelation


[117] : الإيمان ببعض المنزل دون بعض.

117- They believed in some parts of Allah’s revelation, while rejecting other parts.

Believing in some of the Messengers


الرسل التفر يق بين ]118[

118- They differentiated between the messengers.

Arguing in Matters one has no Knowledge of


[119] مخاصمتهم فيما ليس لهم به علم

119- They argued and challenged those things that they had no knowledge of.

Contradictions in the Following of others


[120] : دعواعم اتباع السلف مع التصريح بمخالفتهم.

120- They claimed to follow the Salaf (righteous predecessors), while (in fact) they openly opposed and contradicted them.

Hindering People from the Path of Allah


[121]: صدهم عن سبيل الله من آمن به.

121- The hindered anyone who believed in Allah from His path.

Allegiance towards the Disbelievers


[122] : مودتهم الكفر والكافرين.

122- They loved disbelief and the disbelievers.

Relying on False Notions and Superstitions and appealed to at-Taghout for judgment


[123] و [124] و [125] و[126] و [127] و [128] : العيافة ، والطرق  ، والطيرة ، والكهانة ، والتحاكم إلى الطاغوت، وكراهة التزويج بين العبدين.
والله أعلم
وصلى الله على محمد وعلى آل محمد وصحبه وسلم.


123- They used to believe in omens (al-Iyyaafah).

124- They used to draw lines on the ground in order to predict future events (at-Tarq).

125- They would foretell upcoming events (omens) based upon the flight of birds (at-Tirah).

126- They indulged in soothsaying and fortune telling (al-Kahaanah).

127- They appealed to at-Taghout (false deities and systems) for judgment.

128- They hated that marriage be carried out between the two Ids (as they considered that a bad omen).

And Allah knows best. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon Muhammad, his family and his Companions.
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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