التوحيد at-Tawhid

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Ummah

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Risalat置l Mufidat置l Muhimmat置l Jalilah
« on: 07.06.2015, 08:13:13 AM »


اَلرِّسَالَةُ الْمُفِيدَةُ الْمُهِمَّةُ الْجَلِيلَةُ
Risalat置l Mufidat置l Muhimmat置l Jalilah

Beneficial, Important and Precious Pamphlet (Concerning the Terms; Tawhid, Shirk, Kufr and Nifaq)

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Abd段l Wahhab (rahimahullah), ad-Durar'us Saniyyah, 2/67-73


تَوْحِيدُ Tawhid

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim (In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful),

al-Hamdulillah (All praise is to Allah), He is sufficient for us. May peace be upon those worshipers whom He has chosen, Amma Bad (to proceed): 

May Allah Ta誕la guide you, know that Allah had created his creation to worship Him and so that they do not associate anything to Him. Allah Ta誕la stated:


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

"I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me." (adh-Dhariyat 51/56)

الْعِبَادَةُ هِيَ التَّوْحِيدُ Ibadaah (Worship) is Tawhid
 
Ibadaah is Tawhid. For this reason this has been al-Khusumat (the dispute) between al-Anbiya (the Prophets) and their Ummah (people/nation). Just as Allah Ta誕la stated:


وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الطَّاغُوتَ

"And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun Taghout (false gods)." (an-Nahl 16/36)

Types of Tawhid

When it comes to Tawhid it is of three types: Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship), Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allah alone for worship) and Tawhid al-Asma wa痴 Sifaat (Oneness/Uniqueness of the Divine Names and Attributes).


الأصل الأول First Asl (Principle) تَوْحِيدُ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah

When it comes to Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship): it is that which those Kuffar (pl., Kafir) who lived during the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam accepted, yet this did not enter them into Islam. Rasulullah sallalahu alayhi wa sallam fought them, and considered their blood and wealth to be Halal (permissible).

This (type of Tawhid) is making Tawhid in (Allah) Ta誕la in His Fiil (actions). Evidence for this is in this statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ

"Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Who provideth for you from the sky and the earth, or Who owneth hearing and sight; and Who bringeth forth the living from the dead and bringeth forth the dead from the living; and Who directeth the course? They will say: Allah. Then say: Will ye not then keep your duty (unto Him)?" (Yunus 10/31)

And His statement:


قُل لِّمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهَا إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ قُلْ مَن بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلَا يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ

"Say: Unto Whom (belongeth) the earth and whosoever is therein, if ye have knowledge? They will say: Unto Allah. Say: Will ye not then remember? Say: Who is Lord of the seven heavens, and Lord of the Tremendous Throne? They will say: Unto Allah (all that belongeth). Say: Will ye not then keep duty (unto Him)? Say: In Whose hand is the dominion over all things and He protecteth, while against Him there is no protection, if ye have knowledge? They will say: Unto Allah (all that belongeth). Say: How then are ye bewitched?" (al-Mu知inun 23/84-89)

Ayaat (pl., Ayah; verses of Qur'an) in this regards are many. Too many to summarize and well known to mention.


الأصل الثاني the Second Asl (Principle), تَوْحِيدُ الْأُلُوهِيَّةِ Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah

When it comes to the second Asl (principle), it is Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah: It is that which most struggle in the past and the present took place. It is making Tawhid in Allah Ta誕la with Afal段l Ibad (actions of the worshipers). Like
الدُّعَاءِ ad-Du誕 (supplication), الرَّجَاءِ ar-Rajaa (Hope), الْخَوْفِ al-Khawf (fear), الخشية al-Khashyah (awe), الاستعانة al-Isti誕nah (seeking aid), الاستعاذة al-Isti誕zah (appeal for refuge), المحبة al-Muhabbah (love), الْإنَابَةِ al-Inabah (penitence), النَّذْرِ an-Nadhr (vow), الذبح al-Dhabh (sacrifice), الرَّغْبَةِ ar-Raghbah (aspiration), الخشوع al-Khushu (submissive humility), التذلل al-Tazallul (submissiveness) and التعظيم at-Tadhim (glorification).

The evidence for
الدُّعَاءِ ad-Du'a is the statement (of Allah Ta誕la):

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

"And your Lord hath said: Pray unto Me and I will hear your prayer. Lo! Those who scorn My service, they will enter Hell, disgraced." (Mu知in 40/60)

For all these types there is evidence in the Qur誕n for all of them.


َأصْلُ al-Asl (the Bases) of الْعِبَادَةِ al-Ibadaah; al-Ikhlaas (sincerity) solely for Allah and adherence to the Rasulullah

al-Asl (the Bases) of al-Ibadaah is to isolate al-Ikhlaas (sincerity) solely for Allah Ta誕la (Almighty) the One and Only and to isolate adherence to the Rasul (Prophet of Allah) sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. (Allah) Ta誕la stated:

وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَداً

"And the Masajid (places of worship) are only for Allah, so pray not unto anyone along with Allah." (Jinn 72/18)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


{قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ}

"Say: O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah, to Whom belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that giveth both life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allah and His Words: follow him that (so) ye may be guided." (al-A池af 7/158);

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

"And We sent no messenger before thee but We inspired him, (saying): There is no God save Me (Allah), so worship Me." (al-Anbiya 21/25)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُم بِشَيْءٍ إِلاَّ كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاء لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ وَمَا دُعَاء الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلاَلٍ

"Unto Him is the real prayer. Those unto whom they pray beside Allah respond to them not at all, save as (is the response to) one who stretcheth forth his hands toward water (asking) that it may come unto his mouth, and it will never reach it. The prayer of disbelievers goeth (far) astray." (ar-Ra壇 13/14)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

"That is because Allah, He is the True, and that whereon they call instead of Him, it is the False, and because Allah, He is the High, the Great." (al-Hajj 22/62)

al-Ayaat (regarding this matter) are known.

And (Allah) Ta誕la stated:


وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا

"And whatsoever the messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it)." (al-Hashr 59/7)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

"Say (O Muhammad, to mankind): If ye love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful." (Al-i Imran 3/31)

الأصل الثالث the Third Principle,تَوْحِيدُ الذَّاتِ وَالْأسَمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ Tawhid adh-Dhat al-Asma wa痴 Sifaat

When it comes to the third principle it is Tawhid in adh-Dhat (the essence of Allah), al-Asma (the names of Allah) and as-Sifaat (the attributes of Allah): As (Allah) Ta誕la stated:


قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ

"Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally Besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him." (al-Ikhlas 112/1-4)

And (Allah) Ta誕la stated:


وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ ۚ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

"Allah's are the fairest names. Invoke Him by them. And leave the company of those who blaspheme His names. They will be requited what they do." (al-A池af 7/180)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

"Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer." (ash-Shura 42/11)

Shaykh置l Islam Mujaddid Muhammad ibn Abd段l Wahhab (rahimahullah) answered a question regarding the Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah and Tawhid as-Sifaat in the following manner:1

Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah is the (type of) Tawhid which the Kuffar accepted. As it is in the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ

"Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Who provideth for you from the sky and the earth, or Who owneth hearing and sight; and Who bringeth forth the living from the dead and bringeth forth the dead from the living; and Who directeth the course? They will say: Allah. Then say: Will ye not then keep your duty (unto Him)?" (Yunus 10/31)

When it comes to the Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah; it is al-Ikhlaas (sincerity) in Ibadaah (worship) to Allah other than all of the creation. Since the term, "al-Ilah" in Kalaam (speech) of the Arab is the one whom worship is directed. And (the Mushrikin) were saying: "Allah is the Ilah (deity) of the al-Alah (pl., Ilah; deities)" however they were having other (fake) gods with Him such as the Salihin (righteous) and the Malaikah (angels) and other than them. Moreover, they were saying, 羨llah is consent with this (worship) and these will be intercessors for us in His presence. Once you learn this, the strangeness of the Din will become evident for you.

(Allah) Subhanahu made Istidlaal (deduction) with their acceptance of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah against them regarding the crookedness of their Madhhab (way, religion). Since He is the only al-Mudabbir (Provider and Maker of this world) and other than Him do not own even the weight of an atom, and they themselves accept this, how could they direct their Dua (worship) to Allah and direct their Dua to another along with Him?

When it comes to the Tawhid as-Sifaat; neither the Tawhid al-Rububiyyah nor the Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah will be steadfast without accepting the Sifaat. However, the Kuffar is more intelligent than those who reject the Sifaat. Wallahu A値am! (And Allah knows best)!..



Footnotes


Quote
1- This passage is mentioned in Durar置s Saniyyah, after the explanation of the term Nifaaq (Hypocrisy). However, due to its content and relation with the term Tawhid we gave place to it right after the chapters of Tawhid. (Durar置s Saniyyah, 2/72-73)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Risalat置l Mufidat置l Muhimmat置l Jalilah
« Reply #1 on: 07.06.2015, 09:04:09 AM »


الشِّرْكُ ash-Shirk and its Types

Then know that, the opposite of at-Tawhid is ash-Shirk (polytheism; the worship of others along with Allah) and it (Shirk) is of three types: Shirk置l Akbar (Major Shirk), Shirk置l Asghar (Minor Shirk) and Shirk置l Khafi (Inconspicuous Shirk).

الشِّرْكِ الْأكْبَرِ 1- ash-Shirk置l Akbar (Major Shirk)

The evidence for ash-Shirk置l Akbar is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


إِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلاَلاً بَعِيداً

"Lo! Allah pardoneth not that partners should be ascribed unto Him. He pardoneth all save that to whom He will. Whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah hath wandered far astray." (an-Nisa 4/116)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:


لَقَدْ كَفَرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ هُو الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ وَقَالَ الْمَسِيحُ يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبَّكُمْ إِنَّهُ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ اللّهُ عَلَيهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَاهُ النَّارُ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنصَارٍ

"Lo! whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah, for him Allah hath forbidden Paradise. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers." (al-Ma段dah 5/72)

And it (i.e., ash-Shirk置l Akbar) has four types:

The first type is
شِرْكُ الدَّعْوَةِ Shirk'ud Du'a (invocation, supplication or praying to other deities besides Allah), and the evidence  (for this) is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

فإذا ركبوا في الفلك دعوا الله مخلصين له الدين فلما نجاهم إلى البر إذا هم يشركون، ليكفروا بما آتيناهم وليتمتعوا فسوف يعلمون

"Now, if they embark on a boat, they call on Allah, making their devotion sincerely (and exclusively) to Him; but when He has delivered them safely to (dry) land, behold, they give a share (Of their worship to others)! Disdaining ungratefully Our gifts, and giving themselves up to (worldly) enjoyment! But soon will they know." (al-Ankabut 29/65-66)

The second type is
شِرْكُ الإرَادَةِ وَالْقَصْدِ Shirk'ul Iraadah (purpose) wa'l Qasd (determination), (directed towards other than Allah), and the evidence (for this) is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

مَن كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا نُوَفِّ إِلَيْهِمْ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فِيهَا وَهُمْ فِيهَا لَا يُبْخَسُونَ أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا النَّارُ ۖ وَحَبِطَ مَا صَنَعُوا فِيهَا وَبَاطِلٌ مَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

"Whoso desireth the life of the world and its pomp, We shall repay them their deeds herein, and therein they will not be wronged. Those are they for whom is naught in the Hereafter save the Fire. (All) that they contrive here is vain and (all) that they are wont to do is fruitless." (Huud 11/15-16)

The third type is
شِرْكُ الطَّاعَةِ Shirk置t Ta'at (rendering obedience to any authority against the Order of Allah), and the evidence (for this) is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

اتَّخَذُواْ أَحْبَارَهُمْ وَرُهْبَانَهُمْ أَرْبَاباً مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ وَالْمَسِيحَ ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ وَمَا أُمِرُواْ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُواْ إِلَـهاً وَاحِداً لاَّ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ سُبْحَانَهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

"They have taken as lords beside Allah their rabbis and their monks and Isa (the Messiah) son of Maryam, when they were bidden to worship only One God. There is no God save Him. Be He glorified from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him)!" (at-Tawbah 9/31)

There is no obscurity in its Tafsir (exegesis) of it (i.e., this Ayah; verse). Such that, they worship by Ta'at (by obeying) Ulama (the scholars) and Ibaad (the saints) in Masiyah (sin) to Allah Subhanahu even though they do not invocate them (in other means). Just like Rasulullah Nabi (Prophet) sallallahu alayhi wa sallam clarified it to Adi ibn Hatim (radiyallahu anh) when he (i.e., Adi ibn Hatim) asked: "We do not worship them (i.e., Rabbis and Monks)." And he (Rasullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) informed him that such worship is by obeying them in the matters of Masiyah (sin) to Allah.2

The fourth type is
شِرْكُ الْمُحَبَّةِ Shirk置l Mahabbah (showing the love which is due to Allah Alone, to others than Him), and the evidence (for this) is from the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ أَندَاداً يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللّهِ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَشَدُّ حُبّاً لِّلّهِ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلّهِ جَمِيعاً وَأَنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ

"And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allah as rivals (to Allah). They love them as they love Allah. But those who believe, love Allah more (than anything else). If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is Severe in punishment." (al-Baqarah 2/165)

up to:


وَمَا هُم بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ

"...Nor will there be a way for them out of the Fire." (al-Baqarah 2/167)

شِرْكٌ أصْغَرُ 2- Shirk置l Asghar which is الرِّيَاءِ ar-Riya (the Minor Shirk, acts performed to show off)

The second type of (Shirk) is
Shirk置l Asghar which is ar-Riya (showing off), and the evidence (for this) is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاء رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحاً وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَداً

"And whoever hopeth for the meeting with his Lord, let him do righteous work, and make none sharer of the worship due unto his Lord." (al-Kahf 18/110)

شِرْكٌ خَفِيٌّ 3- Shirk置l Khafi (the Inconspicuous Shirk)

The third type of (Shirk) is Shirk置l Khafi (the Inconspicuous Shirk), and the evidence  (for this) is the statement of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam:


اَلشِّرْكُ فِي هَذِهِ الأمَّةِ أخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلَةِ السَّوْدَاءِ عَلَى صِفَاةٍ سَوْدَاءٍ فِي ظُلْمَةِ اللَّيْلِ 

"Shirk in my Ummah (nation) is much more hidden than the pace of an ant crawling upon a black stone."

And the Kaffarah (expiation) of it (inconspicuous Shirk) is his (i.e., Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) statement:


للهم إني أعوذ بك أن أشرك بك شيئاً وأنا أعلم وأستغفرك من الذنب الذي لا أعلم

"O Allah, I seek protection in You from that I ascribe partners to You knowingly and I seek forgiveness from You for those things which I do not know."3


Footnotes


Quote
2- Imam Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Ibn Jarir at-Tabari recorded a Hadith via several chains of narration, from Adiyy ibn Hatim (radiyallahu anh), who became a Christian during the time of Jahiliyyah. When the call of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) reached his area, Adiyy ibn Hatim (radiyallahu anh) ran away to ash-Sham, and his sister and several of his people were captured. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) freed his sister and gave her gifts. So she went to her brother and encouraged him to become Muslim and to go to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Adiyy ibn Hatim (radiyalalhu anh), who was one of the chiefs of his people (the tribe of Tai) and whose father, Hatim at-Ta段, was known for his generosity, went to al-Madinah. When the people announced his arrival, Adi ibn Hatim (radiyallahu anh) went to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) wearing a silver cross around his neck. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) recited this Ayah; They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah. (at-Tawbah 9/31) Adiyy ibn Hatim (radiyallahu anh) commented; I said: They did not worship them. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Yes they did. They (i.e., Rabbis and Monks) prohibited the allowed for them (Christians and Jews) and allowed the prohibited, and they obeyed them. This is how they worshiped them. () They took their Rabbis and their Monks to be their lords besides Allah () that the Christians and Jews obeyed their monks and rabbis in whatever they allowed or prohibited for them" (Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir)

This Hadith related by Tirmidhi (Tafsir #9) Tabari, (14/210 #61631-61634) as Hasan with Shahawid (witnesses). Suyuti attribute it to Ibn Sa'd, Abd ibn Humayd, Ibn Mundhir, Ibn Abu Hatim, Tabarani, Abu'sh Shaykh, Ibn Marduwayh and Bayhaqi (Durr'ul Manthur, 3/230)

3- Ma談il ibn Yesar (radiyallahu anh) said that we went to Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) with Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (radiyallahu anh). Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


حَدَّثَنَا عَبَّاسٌ النَّرْسِيُّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَاحِدِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنِي رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَصْرَةِ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ مَعْقِلَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، يَقُولُ: " انْطَلَقْتُ مَعَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، إِلَى النَّبِيِّ فَقَالَ: يَا أَبَا بَكْرٍ، لَلشِّرْكُ فِيكُمْ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ، فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: وَهَلِ الشِّرْكُ إِلا مَنْ جَعَلَ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهًا آخَرَ؟ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ: وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، لَلشِّرْكُ أَخْفَى مِنْ دَبِيبِ النَّمْلِ، أَلا أَدُلُّكَ عَلَى شَيْءٍ إِذَا قُلْتَهُ ذَهَبَ عَنْكَ قَلِيلُهُ وَكَثِيرُهُ؟ قَالَ: قُلِ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ أَنْ أُشْرِكَ بِكَ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ، وَأَسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا أَعْلَمُ "

Shirk in my Ummah is much more hidden than the pace of an ant crawling upon a black stone. Shirk is very hidden. It enters the heart very silently and very few are saved from it. Upon hearing this, Abu Bakr Siddiq (radiyallahu anh) asked: How can one be saved from it? Rasulullah (sallallah alayhi wa sallam) said: Should I not show you such a Du'a (supplication) that if you recite it, you will be free from minor and major Shirk. Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (radiyallahu anh) requested him to do so. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) instructed him to say: O Allah, I seek protection in You from that I ascribe partners to You knowingly and I seek forgiveness from You for those things which I do not know. (Hakim; Bukhari, Adab'ul Mufrad, #716)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Risalat置l Mufidat置l Muhimmat置l Jalilah
« Reply #2 on: 07.06.2015, 09:04:53 AM »


كُفْرٌ Kufr (Disbelief) and its Types

1- Kufr置l Akbar (the Major Disbelief): Disbelief that excludes one completely from al-Millah (i.e., the nation of Islam). It (i.e., al-Kufr al-Akbar) is of five types:
 
The first type is
كُفْرُ التَّكْذِيبِ Kufr置t Takdhiib (Disbelief by Denial), and its evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِباً أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِالْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَاءهُ أَلَيْسَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ مَثْوًى لِّلْكَافِرِينَ

"Who doth greater wrong than he who inventeth a lie concerning Allah, or denieth the truth when it cometh unto him? Is not there a home in hell for disbelievers?" (al-Ankabut 29/68)
 
The second type is
كفر الاستكبار، والإباء مع التصديق Kufr置l Istikbar wa値 Iba ma誕t Tasdiq (Disbelief by Pride and Rejection with Affirmation), and its evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

وَكُلاَ مِنْهَا رَغَداً حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلاَ تَقْرَبَا هَـذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الْظَّالِمِينَ

"And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever." (al-Baqarah 2/34)

The third type is
كُفْرُ الشَّكِّ Kufr置sh Shak (Disbelief by Doubt) and it is كُفْرُ الظَّنِّ Kufr置z Zan (Disbelief by Lacking of Conviction), and its evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

ودخل جنته وهو ظالم لنفسه قال ما أظن أن تبيد هذه أبداً، وما أظن الساعة قائمة ولئن رددت إلى ربى لأجدن خيراً منها منقلباً، قال له صاحبه وهو يحاوره أكفرت بالذي خلقك من تراب ثم من نطفة ثم سواك رجلاً

"And he went into his garden, while he (thus) wronged himself. He said: I think not that all this will ever perish. I think not that the Hour will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back unto my Lord I surely shall find better than this as a resort. And his comrade, while he disputed with him, exclaimed: Disbelievest thou in Him Who created thee of dust, then of a drop (of seed), and then fashioned thee a man?" (al-Kahf 18/35-37)

The fourth type is
كُفْرُ الإعْرَاضِ Kufr置l I'raad (Deviating from the Truth Knowingly) and its evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا عَمَّا أُنذِرُوا مُعْرِضُونَ

"But those who disbelieve turn away from that whereof they are warned." (al-Ahqaf 46/3)

The fifth type is
كُفْرُ النِّفَاقِ Kufr置n Nifaq (Hypocritical Disbelief), and its evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا فَطُبِعَ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ

"That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed so that they understand not." (Munafiqun 63/3)

كُفْرٌ أصْغَرُ 2- Kufr置l Asghar (the Minor Disbelief): Disbelief thatلا يُخْرِجُ مِنَ الْمِلِّةِ does not exclude one from al-Millah (i.e., the nation of Islam), and it is كُفْرُ النِّعْمَةِ Kufr'un Ni'mah (Disbelief Manifesting itself in Ungratefulness for Allah's Blessings or Favors). And its evidence is the statement of (Allah) Ta誕la:

وَضَرَبَ اللّهُ مَثَلاً قَرْيَةً كَانَتْ آمِنَةً مُّطْمَئِنَّةً يَأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَداً مِّن كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَتْ بِأَنْعُمِ اللّهِ فَأَذَاقَهَا اللّهُ لِبَاسَ الْجُوعِ وَالْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَصْنَعُونَ

"Allah coineth a similitude: a township that dwelt secure and well content, its provision coming to it in abundance from every side, but it disbelieved in Allah's favours, so Allah made it experience the garb of dearth and fear because of what they used to do." (an-Nahl 16/112)

And the statement of (Allah):


وَآتَاكُم مِّن كُلِّ مَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُ وَإِن تَعُدُّواْ نِعْمَتَ اللّهِ لاَ تُحْصُوهَا إِنَّ الإِنسَانَ لَظَلُومٌ كَفَّارٌ

"And He giveth you of all that ye ask for. But if ye count the favors of Allah, never will ye be able to number them. Verily, man is given up to injustice and ingratitude." (Ibrahim 14/34)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Risalat置l Mufidat置l Muhimmat置l Jalilah
« Reply #3 on: 07.06.2015, 09:20:10 AM »


النِّفَاقُ an-Nifaq (Hypocrisy) and its Types

When it comes to نفاق اعتقادي al-Nifaq (Hypocrisy) is of two types:
 
1-
اِعْتِقَادِيٌّ I稚iqadi Nifaq (Hypocrisy in Belief).

2-
نفاق عملي Amali Nifaq (Hypocrisy in Actions/Deeds).

1- اِعْتِقَادِيٌّ I稚iqadi (Hypocrisy in Belief)

When it comes to I稚iqadi it is of six types:

(1) To belie Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, or (2) to belie some of all that was brought Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, or (3) to hate Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, or (4) to hate some of all that was brought by Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, or (5) to feel happy at the disgrace or becoming low of the religion Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, or (6) to dislike that the religion of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam becoming victorious.
 
The owner of these six types (of Hypocrisy) will be in the lowest depths of an-Naar (the Fire, i.e., Hell).4

We seek refuge to Allah from Shiqaq (separating) and Nifaaq (hypocrisy).

2-
الْعَمَلِيُّ al-A知ali (Hypocrisy in Actions/Deeds)
 
When it comes to al-A知ali (Hypocrisy) it is of five types (as it was stated by Rasullullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam):


إذا حدث كذب، وإذا خاصم فجر، وإذا عاهد غدر، وإذا ائتمن خان، وإذا وعد أخلف

"(1) When he speaks he lies, (2) when he disputes he resorts to obscene speech, (3) when he makes a promise he breaks it, (4) when he is entrusted he betrays the trust and (5) when he promises he breaks his promise."5

Allah Subhanahu Ta誕la knows best!.. Salaat be upon our Sayyid (master) Muhammad, his family and peace and salutations be upon his Ashab (companions).


Footnotes


Quote
4- This was mentioned in the following Ayah:

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيراً

"Lo! the hypocrites (will be) in the lowest deep of the fire, and thou wilt find no helper for them." (an-Nisa 4/145)

5- These attributes are extracted from the following two Hadith:

آيَةُ الْمُنَافِقِ ثَلَاثٌ إِذَا حَدَّثَ كَذَبَ وَإِذَا وَعَدَ أَخْلَفَ وَإِذَا اؤْتُمِنَ خَانَ

"The signs of the Munafiqun (Hypocrite) are three: when he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise and when he is entrusted he betrays the trust." (Bukhari, Iman, #34, Adab, #69; Muslim, Iman, #106, #108; Tirmidhi, Iman, #14, #20; Ahmad, Musnad, 2/291, #397)

وَإِذَا عَاهَدَ غَدَرَ وَإِذَا خَاصَمَ فَجَرَ

"When he disputes he resorts to obscene speech and when he makes a promise he breaks it." (Bukhari, Iman, #24, Mazalim, #17; Muslim, Iman, #106; Abu Dawud, Sunnah, #15; Ahmad, Musnad, 2/189, #198)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)