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Author Topic: Ruling of Taking Kuffar as an Arbitrator  (Read 585 times)

Fahm'us Salaf

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Ruling of Taking Kuffar as an Arbitrator
« on: 14.06.2015, 07:46:22 PM »
Ruling of Taking Kuffar as an Arbitrator

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim,

Qadi Abu Yusuf said the following concerning arbitrator during the war:


وَإِن سَأَلُوا يَنْزِلُوا عَلَى حُكْمِ رَجُلٍ مِنَ أهل الذِّمَّة لم يجابوا إِلَى ذَلِك لِأَنَّهُ لَا يحل أَن يحكم أهل الْكفْر فِي حروب الْمُسلمين فِي أُمُور الدَّين؛ فَإِن أَخطَأ الْوَالِي وأجابهم إِلَى ذَلِك فَحكم فيهم بِبَعْض هَذِه الْوُجُوه لم يجز شَيْء من حكمه

(...) When (the Kuffar) ask to come down (from the castle) by the Hukm (i.e., arbitration) of a man, amongst the Ahl Dhimma (non-Muslim who paid Jizyah; a protection tax to reside in Dar'ul Islam i,e., Abode of Islam) their offer will not be accepted. It is because it is not Halal (permissible) for a Muslim that Ahl Kufr gives verdict with regards to Harb (war) and issues of Din (religion). If the Wali (governor/commander of the army) mistakenly accepts their offer and (this Dhimmi) gave his Hukm (ruling) on one of the Hukm (i.e., with regards to Harb and issues of Din) then his Hukm will not be Jaiz (permissible) in anything.

وَإِنْ سَأَلُوا أَنْ يَنْزِلُوا عَلَى حُكْمِ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَسَمَّوْهُ وَرَجُلا مِنْهُمْ فَلا يُجَابُوا إِلَى ذَلِكَ وَلا يُشْرَكُ فِي الْحُكْمِ فِي الدِّينِ كَافِرٌ.
وَلَوْ أَخْطَأَ الْوَالِي؛ فَأَجَابَهُمْ إِلَى ذَلِكَ فَحُكِّمَا لَمْ يُنْفِذْ حُكْمُهُمَا الإِمَامُ؛ إِلا فِي أَنْ يَصِيرُوا ذِمَّةً لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ أَوْ يُسْلِمُوا؛ فَإِنَّهُمْ لَوْ أَسْلَمُوا لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلٌ، وَلَوْ صَارُوا ذِمَّةً قُبِلَ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُمْ بِغَيْرِ حُكْمٍ


(...) When/if they ask to come down (from the castle) by the arbitration of a man amongst the Muslimin whom they know by name (i.e., specify him) and a man amongst them(selves) their offer will not be answered. It is because a Kafir will not be associated into the Hukm concerning the matters of the Din.

If the Wali allowed their arbitration mistakenly, Imam (of the Muslimin) will not perform their Hukm. However if the Hukm was given in accordance to them being Dhimmi or entering the Religion of Islam; this will be accepted. It is because once entered in the Religion of Islam without need for an arbitrator as there will be no molestation against them, when they become Dhimmi without need for an arbitrator their becoming Dhimmi will be accepted. (Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-Kharaj)

The following is recorded in Fatawa-i Hindiyya aka Fatawa al-Alamgiri under the topic Kitab'ul Adab'il Qadi (Book of the Manner of the Judge) under the subsection which is called Appointment of the Arbitrator.


حَكَّمَ الذِّمِّيَّانِ ذِمِّيًّا ثُمَّ أَسْلَمَ أَحَدُ الْخَصْمَيْنِ خَرَجَ مِنْ الْحُكُومَةِ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُمَا أَرَادَ بِهِ فِي الْحُكْمِ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ لَا عَلَى الذِّمِّيِّ حَتَّى لَوْ حَكَمَ لِلذِّمِّيِّ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ لَا يَجُوزُ، وَإِنْ حَكَمَ لِلْمُسْلِمِ عَلَى الذِّمِّيِّ يَجُوزُ نَصَّ عَلَيْهِ

The Dhimmi who is the arbitrator of two Dhimmi becomes Islam (i.e., Muslim) then when one of these rivals become Muslim the arbitrator will be left out from passing judgment between them. If he rules in favor of the Dhimmi and in the opposition of the Muslim this will not be Jaiz. But if he rules in favor of the Muslim and in the opposition of the Dhimmi then this will be Jaiz. There are Nass (explicit texts) for this (in other places).

مُسْلِمٌ وَذِمِّيٌّ حَكَّمَا ذِمِّيًّا جَازَ حُكْمُهُ عَلَى الذِّمِّيِّ دُونَ الْمُسْلِمِ وَكَذَلِكَ مُسْلِمٌ وَذِمِّيٌّ حَكَّمَا مُسْلِمًا وَذِمِّيًّا فَإِنْ حَكَمَا لِلْمُسْلِمِ عَلَى الذِّمِّيِّ جَازَ وَإِنْ حَكَمَا لِلذِّمِّيِّ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ لَا يَجُوزُ كَمَا لَوْ حَكَّمَا عَبْدًا وَحُرًّا فَحَكَمَا لَمْ يَجُزْ حُكْمُهُمَا؛ لِأَنَّ حُكْمَ الْعَبْدِ لَا يَجُوزُ فَبَقِيَ الْحُرُّ مُنْفَرِدًا بِالْحُكْمِ وَقَدْ رَضِيَا بِتَحْكِيمِهِمَا فَلَا يَنْفَرِدُ أَحَدُهُمَا بِهِ

If a Muslim and a Dhimmi have another Dhimmi arbitrate between them, the Hukm of this arbitrator with regards to the Dhimmi is valid; the Hukm with regards to the Muslim is not.

Likewise, (when) a Muslim and a Dhimmi make a Muslim and a Dhimmi arbitrate between them; if (both) the Muslim and the Dhimmi rule in the favor of the Muslim against the Dhimmi, this will be Jaiz. If they rule in favor of the Dhimmi and in the opposition of the Muslim then this will not be Jaiz.

If they made a slave and a free to arbitrate (amongst them) and they ruled then it will not be Jaiz. It is because the ruling of the slave is not valid. Then the free (person) become alone.

If both party show consent to their rule and they are not separated, the ruling is the same.


.حَكَمَ ذِمِّيٌّ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمَيْنِ فَأَجَازَاهُ لَمْ يَجُزْ، كَمَا لَوْ حَكَّمَاهُ فِي الِابْتِدَاءِ

(When) a Dhimmi arbitrated between two Muslim even if both of them show consent to him, as it was in the beginning this will not be Jaiz.

.ذِمِّيَّانِ حَكَّمَا ذِمِّيًّا فَأَسْلَمَ الْحَكَمُ قَبْلَ الْحُكْمِ فَهُوَ عَلَى حُكُومَتِهِ

(When) two Dhimmi arbitrate concerning a Dhimmi, before the ruling is passed, if the arbitrator becomes Muslim, the ruling is over his Hukm. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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