التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: Istighfaar for the Kuffar and Praying Their Janazah Prayer  (Read 639 times)

Fahm'us Salaf

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  • أنصار المل الحنيفية وحماة الشرع المحمديةť
Narrations from Scholars Indicates Istighfar (Seeking forgiveness) for Kuffar and Praying Their Janazah (Funereal) Prayer is Haraam*

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The Hanbali Madhhab

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (728H) explains the issue of asking Maghfirah (forgiveness) for the Kuffar as follows:


وَالتَّوَسُّلُ بِدُعَائِهِ وَشَفَاعَتِهِ يَنْفَعُ مَعَ الْإِيمَانِ بِهِ وَأَمَّا بِدُونِ الْإِيمَانِ بِهِ فَالْكُفَّارُ وَالْمُنَافِقُونَ لَا تُغْنِي عَنْهُمْ شَفَاعَةُ الشَّافِعِينَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ.  وَلِهَذَا نُهِيَ عَنْ الِاسْتِغْفَارِ لِعَمِّهِ وَأَبِيهِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا مِنْ الْكُفَّارِ وَنُهِيَ عَنْ الِاسْتِغْفَارِ لِلْمُنَافِقِينَ وَقِيلَ لَهُ: {سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَسْتَغْفَرْتَ لَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ لَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ} وَلَكِنَّ الْكُفَّارَ يَتَفَاضَلُونَ فِي الْكُفْرِ كَمَا يَتَفَاضَلُ أَهْلُ الْإِيمَانِ فِي الْإِيمَانِ قَالَ تَعَالَى: {إنَّمَا النَّسِيءُ زِيَادَةٌ فِي الْكُفْرِ} . فَإِذَا كَانَ فِي الْكُفَّارِ مَنْ خَفَّ كُفْرُهُ بِسَبَبِ نُصْرَتِهِ وَمَعُونَتِهِ فَإِنَّهُ تَنْفَعُهُ شَفَاعَتُهُ فِي تَخْفِيفِ الْعَذَابِ عَنْهُ لَا فِي إسْقَاطِ الْعَذَابِ بِالْكُلِّيَّةِ كَمَا فِي صَحِيحِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ {الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: قُلْت يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَهَلْ نَفَعْت أَبَا طَالِبٍ بِشَيْءِ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ يَحُوطُكَ وَيَغْضَبُ لَك؟ قَالَ: نَعَمْ هُوَ فِي ضِحْضَاحٍ مِنْ نَارٍ وَلَوْلَا أَنَا لَكَانَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنْ النَّارِ} وَفِي لَفْظٍ {: إنَّ أَبَا طَالِبٍ كَانَ يَحُوطُكَ وَيَنْصُرُك وَيَغْضَبُ لَك فَهَلْ نَفَعَهُ ذَلِكَ؟ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَجَدْته فِي غَمَرَاتٍ مِنْ نَارٍ فَأَخْرَجْته إلَى ضِحْضَاحٍ} وَفِيهِ {عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذُكِرَ عِنْدَهُ عَمُّهُ أَبُو طَالِبٍ فَقَالَ لَعَلَّهُ تَنْفَعُهُ شَفَاعَتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَيُجْعَلُ فِي ضِحْضَاحٍ مِنْ النَّارِ يَبْلُغُ كَعْبَيْهِ يَغْلِي مِنْهُمَا دِمَاغُهُ} وَقَالَ {إنَّ أَهْوَنَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ عَذَابًا أَبُو طَالِبٍ وَهُوَ مُنْتَعِلٌ بِنَعْلَيْنِ مِنْ نَارٍ يَغْلِي مِنْهُمَا دِمَاغُهُ} . وَكَذَلِكَ يَنْفَعُ دُعَاؤُهُ لَهُمْ بِأَنْ لَا يُعَجَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ الْعَذَابُ فِي الدُّنْيَا كَمَا كَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَحْكِي نَبِيًّا مِنْ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ ضَرَبَهُ قَوْمُهُ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ " اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِقَوْمِي فَإِنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ". وَرُوِيَ أَنَّهُ دَعَا بِذَلِكَ أَنْ اغْفِرْ لَهُمْ فَلَا تُعَجِّلْ عَلَيْهِمْ الْعَذَابَ فِي الدُّنْيَا؛ قَالَ تَعَالَى: {وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِمَا كَسَبُوا مَا تَرَكَ عَلَى ظَهْرِهَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ وَلَكِنْ يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى} . وَأَيْضًا فَقَدْ يَدْعُو لِبَعْضِ الْكُفَّارِ بِأَنْ يَهْدِيَهُ اللَّهُ أَوْ يَرْزُقَهُ فَيَهْدِيَهُ أَوْ يَرْزُقَهُ كَمَا دَعَا لِأُمِّ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ حَتَّى هَدَاهَا اللَّهُ وَكَمَا دَعَا لِدَوْسِ فَقَالَ {اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِ دَوْسًا وَأْتِ بِهِمْ} فَهَدَاهُمْ اللَّهُ وَكَمَا رَوَى أَبُو دَاوُد أَنَّهُ اسْتَسْقَى لِبَعْضِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ لَمَّا طَلَبُوا مِنْهُ أَنْ يَسْتَسْقِيَ لَهُمْ فَاسْتَسْقَى لَهُمْ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ إحْسَانًا مِنْهُ إلَيْهِمْ يَتَأَلَّفُ بِهِ قُلُوبَهُمْ كَمَا كَانَ يَتَأَلَّفُهُمْ بِغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ. وَقَدْ اتَّفَقَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ عَلَى أَنَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَعْظَمُ الْخَلْقِ جَاهًا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ لَا جَاهَ لِمَخْلُوقِ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَعْظَمُ مِنْ جَاهِهِ وَلَا شَفَاعَةَ أَعْظَمُ مِنْ شَفَاعَتِهِ. لَكِنَّ دُعَاءَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ وَشَفَاعَتَهُمْ لَيْسَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الْإِيمَانِ بِهِمْ وَطَاعَتِهِمْ فَإِنَّ الْإِيمَانَ بِهِمْ وَطَاعَتَهُمْ يُوجِبُ سَعَادَةَ الْآخِرَةِ وَالنَّجَاةَ مِنْ الْعَذَابِ مُطْلَقًا وَعَامًّا فَكُلُّ مَنْ مَاتَ مُؤْمِنًا بِاَللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ مُطِيعًا لِلَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ قَطْعًا وَمَنْ مَاتَ كَافِرًا بِمَا جَاءَ بِهِ الرَّسُولُ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ قَطْعًا.
وَأَمَّا الشَّفَاعَةُ وَالدُّعَاءُ فَانْتِفَاعُ الْعِبَادِ بِهِ مَوْقُوفٌ عَلَى شُرُوطٍ وَلَهُ مَوَانِعُ فَالشَّفَاعَةُ لِلْكُفَّارِ بِالنَّجَاةِ مِنْ النَّارِ وَالِاسْتِغْفَارِ لَهُمْ مَعَ مَوْتِهِمْ عَلَى الْكُفْرِ لَا تَنْفَعُهُمْ - وَلَوْ كَانَ الشَّفِيعُ أَعْظَمَ الشُّفَعَاءِ جَاهًا - فَلَا شَفِيعَ أَعْظَمُ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثُمَّ الْخَلِيلُ إبْرَاهِيمُ وَقَدْ دَعَا الْخَلِيلُ إبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُ كَمَا قَالَ تَعَالَى عَنْهُ {رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ} . وَقَدْ كَانَ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرَ لِأَبِي طَالِبٍ اقْتِدَاءً بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَأَرَادَ بَعْضُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرَ لِبَعْضِ أَقَارِبِهِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى: {مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قُرْبَى مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَابُ الْجَحِيمِ} . ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ عُذْرَ إبْرَاهِيمَ فَقَالَ: {وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إلَّا عَنْ مَوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَا إيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ إنَّ إبْرَاهِيمَ لَأَوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ} {وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِلَّ قَوْمًا بَعْدَ إذْ هَدَاهُمْ حَتَّى يُبَيِّنَ لَهُمْ مَا يَتَّقُونَ} وَثَبَتَ فِي صَحِيحِ الْبُخَارِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ {يَلْقَى إبْرَاهِيمُ أَبَاهُ آزَرَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَعَلَى وَجْهِ آزَرَ قَتَرَةٌ وَغَبَرَةٌ فَيَقُولُ لَهُ إبْرَاهِيمُ: أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَك لَا تَعْصِنِي؟ فَيَقُولُ لَهُ أَبُوهُ: فَالْيَوْمَ لَا أَعْصِيك. فَيَقُولُ إبْرَاهِيمُ: يَا رَبِّ أَنْتَ وَعَدْتنِي أَنْ لَا تُخْزِنِي يَوْمَ يُبْعَثُونَ وَأَيُّ خِزْيٍ أَخْزَى مِنْ أَبِي الْأَبْعَدِ؟ فَيَقُولُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: إنِّي حَرَّمْت الْجَنَّةَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ ثُمَّ يُقَالُ: اُنْظُرْ مَا تَحْتَ رِجْلَيْك فَيَنْظُرُ فَإِذَا هُوَ بِذِيخِ مُتَلَطِّخٍ فَيُؤْخَذُ بِقَوَائِمِهِ فَيُلْقَى فِي النَّارِ} فَهَذَا لَمَّا مَاتَ مُشْرِكًا لَمْ يَنْفَعْهُ اسْتِغْفَارُ إبْرَاهِيمَ مَعَ عِظَمِ جَاهِهِ وَقَدْرِهِ وَقَدْ قَالَ تَعَالَى لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ: {قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّى تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ إلَّا قَوْلَ إبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ وَمَا أَمْلِكُ لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ رَبَّنَا عَلَيْكَ تَوَكَّلْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ أَنَبْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ} {رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا رَبَّنَا إنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ} . فَقَدْ أَمَرَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِأَنْ يَتَأَسَّوْا بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمَنْ اتَّبَعَهُ إلَّا فِي قَوْلِ إبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ {لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ} فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ. وَكَذَلِكَ سَيِّدُ الشُّفَعَاءِ مُحَمَّدٌ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَفِي صَحِيحِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: {اسْتَأْذَنْت رَبِّي أَنْ أَسْتَغْفِرَ لِأُمِّي فَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لِي وَاسْتَأْذَنْته أَنْ أَزُورَ قَبْرَهَا فَأَذِنَ لِي} . وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ {أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ زَارَ قَبْرَ أُمِّهِ فَبَكَى وَأَبْكَى مَنْ حَوْلَهُ ثُمَّ قَالَ اسْتَأْذَنْت رَبِّي أَنْ أَسْتَغْفِرَ لِأُمِّي فَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لِي وَاسْتَأْذَنْته فِي أَنْ أَزُورَ قَبْرَهَا فَأَذِنَ لِي فَزُورُوا الْقُبُورَ فَإِنَّهَا تُذَكِّرُ الْمَوْتَ


Tawassul along with the Du'a and Shafaah (of Rasulullah) will only benefit with Iman. The Shafa'ah (intercession) of no one will benefit the Kafir and Munafiq in the Hereafter. Because of this, Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) had been prohibited from asking forgiveness for his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) uncle, his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) father and other Kuffar and Munafiqin. It is said (by Allah) to him: “Whether thou ask forgiveness for them or ask not forgiveness for them is all one for them; Allah will not forgive them.” (al-Munafigun 63/6)

However as Ahl Iman are by degrees; Kuffar are also by degrees in Kufr. Thus Allah (Azza wa Jall) commands: “Verily the transposing (of a prohibited month) is an addition to Unbelief: the Unbelievers are led to wrong thereby: for they make it lawful one year, and forbidden another year, in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their course seems pleasing to them. But Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.” (at-Tawbah 9/37)

Amongst the Kuffar, their Kufr becomes lighter for the reason of having helped him and aided him (i.e., Rasulullah) and for this reason; the Shafaah of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) will benefit him concerning lightening his punishment but not benefit concerning lifting all of his punishment.

Thus in the Sahih of Muslim, it was narrated that Abbas bin Abd'ul Muttalib (radiyallahu anh) said: “O Rasulullah, have you benefited Abu Talib in any way for he defended you and was fervent in your defence? Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Yes; he would be in the shallowest part of the Fire: and but for me he would have been in the lowest part of Hell.” (Bukhari; Muslim)

Another version of this Hadith is as follows: “I said: O Rasulullah, verily Abu Talib defended you and helped you; would it be beneficial for him? He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Yes; I found him in the lowest part of the Fire and I brought him to the shallow part.”

Again concerning Abu Talib, it was said in the Hadith which was related from Abu Sa’id (radiyallahu anh): “A mention was made of his uncle Abu Talib before Rasulullah (therefore) he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: My intercession may benefit him on the Day of Resurrection and he may be placed in the shallow part of the Fire which would reach his ankles and his brain would be boiling.” (Bukhari; Muslim)

Again he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “The least tormented of the inhabitants of the Hell would be he who would wear two shoes of Fire and his brain would boil on account of the heat of the shoes.” (Muslim; Ahmad, Musnad)

In the same manner, his (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) Du'a will benefit them (i.e., the Kuffar) concerning them not being punished in this life while; they are alive.

Thus Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) had been narrated saying that one of the prophets made Du'a saying: “My Lord, forgive my people, for they do not know.” (Muslim) It was also reported that he (alayhi salam) said: “My Lord, forgive them, do not punish them in this life; while they are alive.”

Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) commands: “If Allah were to punish men according to what they deserve. He would not leave on the back of the (earth) a single living creature: but He gives them respite for a stated Term: when their Term expires, verily Allah has in His sight all His Servants.” (Fatir 35/45)

Again Du'a can be made for some Kuffar to Allah; guide to him to Hidayah or give him Rizq (sustanence).
 
Thus the Du'a for the mother of Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) and finally Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) guided her to Hidayah.
 
Again (Rasulullah) made Du'a for the Daws Tribe (saying): “O Allah! Guide Daws to Hidayah and make them Muslim!”
 
According to the Riwayah of Abu Dawud, some amongst the Mushrikin asked him (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) to make Du'a for rain and he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) requested (invoked) rain for them.

Indeed, this is Ihsan for them and with this he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) wanted their hearts to be reconciled with Islam. Thus he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) was trying this (i.e., their hearts to be reconciled with Islam), by doing some other things as well.

The Muslimin agreed concerning the matter that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) is the most honorable amongst the creation in the presence of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala). There is no one more honorable than him (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) in the presence of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala). However, Du'a and Shafaah of the Prophets; is not the same as having Iman in them (believing) and obedience to them. It is because, believing in them and obeying necessitate the happiness of the Akhirah, and both generally and absolutely escaping form the punishment.

Whoever died while believing and obeying Allah (Azza wa Jalla) and His Prophet, they are absolutely among Ahl Saadat (happiness, i.e., Paradise) and whoever died while rejecting whatever the Prophet brought out, they are absolutely among Ahl Nar (Jahannam). When it comes to the Shafaah and Du'a, there are some conditions for the slave benefiting from them. There are also some obstacles.

Performing Shafaah for Kuffar to be saved from Jahannam and making Du'a for their sins to be forgiven for the Kuffar who died as Kufr will not benefit them even if the performer of Shafaah is the most honorable person. There is no greater who perform Shafaah than Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam). Khalil Ibrahim (alayhi salam) comes (as the most honorable performer of Shafaah) after him (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).

“On the Day of Resurrection Ibrahim (alayhi salam) will meet his father Azar whose face will be dark and covered with dust. (The Prophet Ibrahim will say to him): Didn't I tell you not to disobey me? His father will reply: Today I will not disobey you. Ibrahim (alayhi salam) will say: O Lord! You promised me not to disgrace me on the Day of Resurrection; and what will be more disgraceful to me than cursing and dishonoring my father? Then Allah will say (to him): I have forbidden Paradise for the disbelievers. Then he will be addressed: O Ibrahim! Look! What is underneath your feet? He will look and there he will see a Dhabh (an animal) blood-stained, which will be caught by the legs and thrown in the (Hell) Fire.” (Bukhari)

As seen, Ibrahim (alayhi salam) invoked Maghfirah for him however it is because he died as a Mushrik his (alayhi salam) asking Maghfirah for him does not benefit him. Whereas honor of Ibrahim (alayhi salam) is very much in the presence of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala). Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) while addressing Mu’minin commands:

“Indeed, there is for you a good example in Ibrahim and those with him when they said to their people: Surely we are clear of you and of what you serve besides Allah; we declare ourselves to be clear of you, and enmity and hatred have appeared between us and you forever until you believe in Allah alone! But not in what Ibrahim said to his father: I would certainly ask forgiveness for you, and I do not control for you aught from Allah. Our Lord! On Thee do we rely, and to Thee do we turn, and to Thee is the eventual coming.” (al-Mumtahina 60/4)

Ibrahim (alayhi salam) made Du'a and invoked Maghfirah for his own father. Thus Haqq Ta’ala while mentioning it, said:
 
“O our Lord! Cover (us) with Thy Forgiveness; me, my parents, and (all) Believers, on the Day that the Reckoning will be established!” (Ibrahim 14/41)

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) following Ibrahim (alayhi salam) wanted to invoke Maghfirah for Abu Talib. Also some of the Muslim wanted to invoke Maghfirah for their relatives. Therefore the following Ayah had been revealed:

“It is not fitting, for the Prophet and those who believe, that they should pray for forgiveness for Pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear to them that they are companions of the Fire.” (at-Tawbah 9/113)

Then Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) while mentioning the excuse of Ibrahim (alayhi salam) commanded:

“And Ibrahim prayed for his father's forgiveness only because of a promise he had made to him. But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy to Allah, he dissociated himself from him: for Ibrahim was most tender-hearted, forbearing. And Allah will not mislead a people after He hath guided them, in order that He may make clear to them what to fear (and avoid); for Allah hath knowledge of all things.” (at-Tawbah 9/114-115)

In the Sahih of Bukhari, he narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) commanded Mu’minin to take Ibrahim (alayhi salam) and those who follow him as examples except, his (i.e., Ibrahim) saying: “Verily, I will ask forgiveness for you!” (al-Mumtahina 60/4) to his father.
 
“Surely Allah does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him.” (an-Nisa 4/48)

The situation of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) –the greatest performer of Shafa'ah- is also the same.

According to the narration in Sahih of Muslim which was reported from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “I asked my Lord for permission to pray for forgiveness for my mother, but He did not give me permission. And I asked Him for permission to visit her grave, and He gave me permission.” (Muslim; Abu Dawud)

In another report it was said: “I asked my Lord for permission to pray for forgiveness for my mother, but He did not give me permission. And I asked Him for permission to visit her grave, and He gave me permission. Visit the graves, for indeed they remind of death.” (Abu Dawud; Ibn Maajah)1

Muwaffaq ad-Din Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi (d620H) said the following in his book: “al-Kafi fi Fiqh'il Imam Ahmad”


فصل
ولا تجوز الصلاة على كافر، لقول الله تعالى: {وَلا تُصَلِّ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ مَاتَ أَبَدًا وَلا تَقُمْ عَلَى قَبْرِهِ} [التوبة: 84] ، وقال الله تعالى: {مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُوا
لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا أُولِي قُرْبَى} [التوبة: 113] . ومن حكمنا بكفره من أهل البدع لم يصل عليه، قال أحمد: لا أشهد الجهمي ولا الرافضي، ويشهدهما من أحب


It is not permissible to perform (funeral) prayer for a Kafir since Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) commands:

“Nor do thou ever pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected Allah and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion.” (at-Tawbah 9/84);

“It is not fitting, for the Prophet and those who believe, that they should pray for forgiveness for Pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear to them that they are companions of the Fire.” (at-Tawbah 9/113)

Likewise the (funeral) prayers of those whom we give judgment of Kufr amongst the Ahl Bi’dah will not be performed. Ahmad said: I will not attend the funeral prayers of neither the Jahmi nor the Rafidi. Their lovers will attend their funeral prayers.”2

Amongst the Ulama of Najd the grandson of Muhammad Ibn Abd'il Wahhab; Abd'ur Rahman ibn Hasan Al'ash Shaykh (d1285H) stated in his book: “Fath'il Majid li Sharh Kitab at-Tawhid”

Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) commands: “It is not fitting, for the Prophet and those who believe, that they should pray for forgiveness for Pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear to them that they are companions of the Fire.” (at-Tawbah 9/113)

In the explanations of this Ayah said:


وفيه تحريم الاستغفار للمشركين وموالاتهم ومحبتهم; لأنه إذا حرم الاستغفار لهم فموالاتهم ومحبتهم أولى

“In this; being Haraam of asking Maghfirah for Mushrikin, showing Walaya (friendship) to them and loving them is seen. Even asking Maghfirah for them is Haraam, showing Walayah and love towards them being Haraam becomes much clearer.”3

The Shafii Madhhab

Imam Nawawi (d676H) said:


وَأَمَّا) الصَّلَاةُ عَلَى الْكَافِرِ وَالدُّعَاءُ لَهُ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ فَحَرَامٌ بِنَصِّ الْقُرْآنِ وَالْإِجْمَاعِ

“When it comes to performing (funeral) prayer for a Kafir and asking Maghfirah for him; this is Haraam with the Nass of Qur’an and the Ijmaa.”4

Abu Ishaq ash-Shirazi (d476H) said:


فصل: وإن مات كافر لم يصل عليه لقوله عز وجل {وَلا تُصَلِّ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ مَاتَ أَبَداً وَلا تَقُمْ عَلَى قَبْرِهِ} [التوبة:84] ولأن الصلاة لطلب المغفرة والكافر لا يغفر له فلا معنى للصلاة عليه ويجوز غسله وتكفينه لأن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر علياً عليه السلام أن يغسل أباه وأعطى قميصه ليكفن به عبد الله بن أبي سلول

“When a Kafir dies, his (funeral) prayer will not be performed. It is because Allah Ta’ala commanded: “Nor do thou ever pray for any of them that dies, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected Allah and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion.” (at-Tawbah 9/84)

(Funeral) prayer is for requesting Maghfirah and Kafir will not receive Maghfirah. Therefore praying (funeral prayer) is meaningless. It is permissible to wash and shroud since Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded Ali (radiyallahu anh) to wash his father Abi Talib when he died and (Rasulullah) gave his shirt to be shrouded when Abdullah ibn Salul died.”5

The Maliki Madhhab

Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) commands: “It is not fitting, for the Prophet and those who believe, that they should pray for forgiveness for Pagans, even though they be of kin, after it is clear to them that they are companions of the Fire.” (at-Tawbah 9/113)

Abu Abdillah al-Qurtubi (d671H) stated the following in the Tafsir of this Ayah:


هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ تَضَمَّنَتْ قَطْعَ مُوَالَاةِ الْكُفَّارِ حَيِّهِمْ وَمَيِّتِهِمْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ فَطَلَبُ الْغُفْرَانِ لِلْمُشْرِكِ مِمَّا لَا يَجُوزُ

“This Ayah includes the necessity of cutting of relationship with the Kuffar both alive and died. It is because Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) did not give the Mu’minin; right of asking Maghfirah for the Mushrikin. According to this, requesting Maghfirah for the Mushrikin is amongst the things which are not permissible.”6

Shihab'ud Din an-Nafrawi (d1126H) said the following while explaining the Risala of Qayrawani:


وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ حُرْمَةَ الِاسْتِغْفَارِ لِلْكَافِرِ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ مُجْمَعٌ عَلَيْهَا وَلَوْ لِلْأَبَوَيْنِ، وَإِنَّمَا وَقَعَ خِلَافٌ فِي اسْتِغْفَارِهِ لِلْأَبَوَيْنِ حَالَ حَيَاتِهِمَا إذْ قَدْ يُسْلِمَانِ

“The point is; there is Ijmaa on requesting Magfirah for the Kuffar is Haraam –even if they were parents- after death. However there is Ikhtilaaf regarding the permission of making Du'a for them so that they may become Muslim while (still) alive.”7

The Hanafi Madhhab

Burhan'ud Din Ibn Mazah al-Bukhari (d616H) said the following in his book “al-Muhit'il Burhani”


فنقول: لا يصلى على الكافر لقوله تعالى: {وَلاَ تُصَلّ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مّنْهُم مَّاتَ أَبَداً وَلاَ تَقُمْ عَلَى قَبْرِهِ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُواْ وَهُمْ فَسِقُونَ} (التوبة: 84) ، وروي أنه لما مات أبو طالب جاء علي رضي الله عنه إلى رسول الله عليه السلام وقال: إن عمك الضال قد مات فقال عليه السلام: «اغسله وكفنه وادفنه وما تحدث به حدثاً حتى تلقاني» ، أي: لا تصلِ عليه؛ ولأن الصلاة على الميت دعاء واستغفار له، والاستغفار للكافر حرام قال الله تعالى: {اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ أَوْ لاَ تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ إِن تَسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ مَرَّةً فَلَن يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَهُمْ ذلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُواْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْفَسِقِينَ} (التوبة: 80)

“We say that: Funeral prayer will not be performed for the Kafir. Since Allah Ta’ala said:

“Nor do thou ever pray for any of them that die, nor stand at his grave; for they rejected Allah and His Messenger, and died in a state of perverse rebellion.” (at-Tawbah 9/84)

According to a narration; when Abu Talib died, Ali (radiyallahu anh) came to Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and said: “Your uncle in Dalalah (heresy) died!” Therefore Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “Wash him, shroud and bury him, do not speak about him until you come to me!”

It means: Do not pray (funeral) prayer over him. It is because praying funeral prayer, making Du'a for deceased and requesting Mahgfirah for him means Istighfar. It is Haraam to request Maghfirah for the Kafir. Since Allah Ta’ala commands:

“Whether thou ask for their forgiveness, or not, (their sin is unforgivable): if thou ask seventy times for their forgiveness, Allah will not forgive them: because they have rejected Allah and His Messenger: and Allah guideth not those who are perversely rebellious.” (at-Tawbah 9/80)”8

Those Who Say, Requesting Maghfirah for the Kuffar is Kufr

Shihab'ud Din al-Qarafi (d684H) amongst the Maliki Madhhab in his book “al-Furuq” after naming the heading: “272th Difference: Differences between the Types of Kufr Du'a and Du'a which is not Kufr” classified the type of Kufr Du'a to be four. First of them is; requesting from Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) things which were invalidated by Qati and Sami evidences from Qur’an and the Sunnah. He gave three examples for this first section. The first of these examples is related with Istighfar.


الْقِسْمُ الْأَوَّلُ ) أَنْ يَطْلُبَ الدَّاعِي نَفْيَ مَا دَلَّ السَّمْعُ الْقَاطِعُ مِنْ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ عَلَى ثُبُوتِهِ وَلَهُ أَمْثِلَةٌ : ( الْأَوَّلُ ) أَنْ يَقُولَ اللَّهُمَّ لَا تُعَذِّبْ مَنْ كَفَرَ بِك أَوْ اغْفِرْ لَهُ ، وَقَدْ دَلَّتْ الْقَوَاطِعُ السَّمْعِيَّةُ عَلَى تَعْذِيبِ كُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِمَّنْ مَاتَ كَافِرًا بِاَللَّهِ تَعَالَى لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى { إنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ } وَغَيْرُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ النُّصُوصِ فَيَكُونُ ذَلِكَ كُفْرًا ؛ لِأَنَّهُ طَلَبٌ لِتَكْذِيبِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فِيمَا أَخْبَرَ بِهِ وَطَلَبُ ذَلِكَ كُفْرٌ فَهَذَا الدُّعَاءُ كُفْرٌ

First example: Saying: “O Allah! Do not punish the one that does disbelieves in You, forgive him!” Whereas this will be Kufr because of the Qati, Sami evidences regarding every soul that dies in Kufr being tortured such as “Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him!” (an-Nisa 4/48; an-Nisa 4/116) It is because such Du'a means; requesting Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) to be a denier regarding things that He (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) informed. Therefore this is a Du'a which is Kufr.

Ibn Abidin amongst the Mutaahhirun Hanafi stated in his Sharh “Radd'ul Mukhtar” to “Durr'ul Mukhtar fi Sharh Tanwir al-Absaar” of Ala'ud Din al-Haskafi:


مَطْلَبٌ فِي الدُّعَاءِ الْمُحَرَّمِ (قَوْلُهُ وَالْحَقُّ إلَخْ) رَدٌّ عَلَى الْإِمَامِ الْقَرَافِيِّ وَمَنْ تَبِعَهُ حَيْثُ قَالَ: إنَّ الدُّعَاءَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ لِلْكَافِرِ كُفْرٌ لِطَلَبِهِ تَكْذِيبَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فِيمَا أَخْبَرَ بِهِ وَإِنَّ الدُّعَاءَ لِجَمِيعِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِمَغْفِرَةِ جَمِيعِ ذُنُوبِهِمْ حَرَامٌ لِأَنَّ فِيهِ تَكْذِيبًا لِلْأَحَادِيثِ الصَّحِيحَةِ الْمُصَرِّحَةِ بِأَنْ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ تَعْذِيبِ طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِالنَّارِ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَخُرُوجِهِمْ مِنْهَا بِشَفَاعَةٍ أَوْ بِغَيْرِهَا، وَلَيْسَ بِكُفْرٍ لِلْفَرْقِ بَيْنَ تَكْذِيبِ خَبَرِ الْآحَادِ وَالْقَطْعِيِّ، وَوَافَقَهُ عَلَى الْأَوَّلِ صَاحِبُ الْحِلْيَةِ الْمُحَقِّقُ ابْنُ أَمِيرِ حَاجٍّ، وَخَالَفَهُ فِي الثَّانِي وَحُقِّقَ ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُ مَبْنِيٌّ عَلَى مَسْأَلَةٍ شَهِيرَةٍ، وَهِيَ أَنَّهُ هَلْ يَجُوزُ الْخُلْفُ فِي الْوَعِيدِ؟ فَظَاهِرُ مَا فِي الْمَوَاقِفِ وَالْمَقَاصِدِ أَنَّ الْأَشَاعِرَةَ قَائِلُونَ بِجَوَازِهِ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يُعَدُّ نَقْصًا بَلْ جُودًا وَكَرَمًا. وَصَرَّحَ التَّفْتَازَانِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ بِأَنَّ الْمُحَقِّقِينَ عَلَى عَدَمِ جَوَازِهِ، وَصَرَّحَ النَّسَفِيُّ بِأَنَّهُ الصَّحِيحُ لِاسْتِحَالَتِهِ عَلَيْهِ تَعَالَى، لِقَوْلِهِ {وَقَدْ قَدَّمْتُ إِلَيْكُمْ بِالْوَعِيدِ} [ق: 28] {مَا يُبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَيَّ} [ق: 29]
[رد المحتار]
وقَوْله تَعَالَى {وَلَنْ يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ} [الحج: 47] أَيْ وَعِيدَهُ، وَإِنَّمَا يُمْدَحُ بِهِ الْعِبَادُ خَاصَّةً، فَهَذَا الدُّعَاءُ يَجُوزُ عَلَى الْأَوَّلِ لَا الثَّانِي مَطْلَبٌ فِي خُلْفِ الْوَعِيدِ وَحُكْمِ الدُّعَاءِ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ لِلْكَافِرِ وَلِجَمِيعِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
وَالْأَشْبَهُ تَرَجُّحُ جَوَازِ الْخُلْفِ فِي الْوَعِيدِ فِي حَقِّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ خَاصَّةً دُونَ الْكُفَّارِ تَوْفِيقًا بَيْنَ أَدِلَّةِ الْمَانِعِينَ الْمُتَقَدِّمَةِ وَأَدِلَّةِ الْمُثْبِتِينَ الَّتِي مِنْ نَصِّهَا قَوْله تَعَالَى {إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَغْفِرُ أَنْ يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ} [النساء: 48] وَقَوْلُهُ، عَنْ إبْرَاهِيمَ {رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ} [إبراهيم: 41] وَأَمَرَ بِهِ نَبِيَّنَا - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - بِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنْبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ} [محمد: 19] وَفَعَلَهُ - عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ - كَمَا فِي صَحِيحِ ابْنِ حِبَّانَ " أَنَّهُ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - قَالَ «اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِعَائِشَةَ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهَا وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ، مَا أَسَرَّتْ وَمَا أَعْلَنَتْ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: إنَّهَا لِدُعَائِي لِأُمَّتِي فِي كُلِّ صَلَاةٍ» . وَحَاصِلُ هَذَا الْقَوْلِ جَوَازُ التَّخْصِيصِ لِمَا دَلَّ عَلَيْهِ اللَّفْظُ بِوَضْعِهِ، اللُّغَوِيِّ مِنْ الْعُمُومِ فِي نُصُوصِ الْوَعِيدِ، وَلَا يُنَافِي النُّصُوصَ الصَّحِيحَةَ الْمُصَرِّحَةَ بِأَنَّ مِنْ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَنْ يَدْخُلُ النَّارَ وَيُعَاقَبُ فِيهَا عَلَى ذُنُوبِهِ لِأَنَّ الْغَرَضَ جَوَازُ مَغْفِرَةِ جَمِيعِ الذُّنُوبِ لِجَمِيعِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَا الْجَزْمُ بِوُقُوعِهَا لِلْجَمِيعِ، وَجَوَازُ الدُّعَاءِ بِهَا مَبْنِيٌّ عَلَى جَوَازِ وُقُوعِهَا لَا عَلَى الْجَزْمِ بِوُقُوعِهَا، هَذَا خُلَاصَةُ مَا أَطَالَ بِهِ فِي الْحِلْيَةِ.
وَحَاصِلُهُ أَنَّ مَا دَلَّ مِنْ النُّصُوصِ عَلَى عَدَمِ جَوَازِ خُلْفِ الْوَعِيدِ مَخْصُوصٌ بِغَيْرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَهُوَ جَائِزٌ عَقْلًا فَيَجُوزُ الدُّعَاءُ بِشُمُولِ الْمَغْفِرَةِ لَهُمْ وَإِنْ كَانَ غَيْرَ وَاقِعٍ لِلنُّصُوصِ الصَّحِيحَةِ الْمُصَرِّحَةِ بِأَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ تَعْذِيبِ طَائِفَةٍ مِنْهُمْ، وَجَوَازُ الدُّعَاءِ يُبْتَنَى عَلَى الْجَوَازِ عَقْلًا، لَكِنْ يُرَدُّ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّ مَا ثَبَتَ بِالنُّصُوصِ الصَّرِيحَةِ لَا يَجُوزُ عَدَمُهُ شَرْعًا.
وَقَدْ نَقَلَ اللَّقَانِيُّ عَنْ الْأَبِيِّ وَالنَّوَوِيِّ انْعِقَادَ الْإِجْمَاعِ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَا بُدَّ مِنْ نُفُوذِ الْوَعِيدِ فِي طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ الْعُصَاةِ، وَإِذَا كَانَ كَذَلِكَ يَكُونُ الدُّعَاءُ بِهِ مِثْلَ قَوْلِنَا اللَّهُمَّ لَا تُوجِبْ عَلَيْنَا الصَّوْمَ وَالصَّلَاةَ، وَأَيْضًا يَلْزَمُ مِنْهُ جَوَازُ الدُّعَاءِ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ لِمَنْ مَاتَ كَافِرًا أَيْضًا؛ إلَّا أَنْ يُقَالَ إنَّمَا جَازَ الدُّعَاءُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِذَلِكَ إظْهَارًا لِفَرْطِ الشَّفَقَةِ عَلَى إخْوَانِهِ، بِخِلَافِ الْكَافِرِينَ، وَبِخِلَافِ لَا تُوجِبْ عَلَيْنَا الصَّوْمَ لِقُبْحِ الدُّعَاءِ لِأَعْدَاءِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَرَسُولِهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - وَإِظْهَارِ التَّضَجُّرِ مِنْ الطَّاعَةِ، فَيَكُونُ. عَاصِيًا بِذَلِكَ لَا كَافِرًا عَلَى مَا اخْتَارَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ وَقَالَ إنَّهُ الْحَقُّ، وَتَبِعَهُ الشَّارِحُ، لَكِنَّهُ مَبْنِيٌّ عَلَى جَوَازِ الْعَفْوِ عَنْ الشِّرْكِ عَقْلًا، وَعَلَيْهِ يُبْتَنَى الْقَوْلُ بِجَوَازِ الْخُلْفِ فِي الْوَعِيدِ، وَقَدْ عَلِمْت أَنَّ الصَّحِيحَ خِلَافُهُ؛ فَالدُّعَاءُ بِهِ كُفْرٌ لِعَدَمِ جَوَازِهِ عَقْلًا وَلَا شَرْعًا وَلِتَكْذِيبِهِ النُّصُوصَ الْقَطْعِيَّةَ بِخِلَافِ الدُّعَاءِ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ كَمَا عَلِمْت، فَالْحَقُّ مَا فِي الْحِلْيَةِ عَلَى الْوَجْهِ الَّذِي نَقَلْنَاهُ عَنْهَا لَا عَلَى مَا نَقَلَهُ ح فَافْهَمْ


Matn (Text)

Haskafi’s statement in Durr'ul Mukhtar:


وَالْحَقُّ حُرْمَةُ الدُّعَاءِ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ لِلْكَافِرِ لَا لِكُلِّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كُلَّ ذُنُوبِهِمْ بَحْرٌ

The correct (view) is, requesting Maghfirah for the Kuffar being Haraam. Requesting Maghfirah for all the Mu’minin is not like this (meaning not Haraam). Bahr (i.e., Ibn Nujaym’s book “Bahr'ur Raik”)

Sharh (Explanation)

Words of “Haqq of Sharih (explanatory)…” is a refutation against Qarafi and those who follow him.

Qarafi stated: “Making Du'a for Maghfirah of the Kuffar is Kufr.

It is because, (whoever performs this) wanted to make Allah Ta’ala a denier regarding things that (Allah) informed of.

Making Du'a for, all of the sins of all the Mu’minin to be forgiven is Haraam.

It is because in this (request), there is rejecting the Sahih Ahadith regarding, a group of Mu’minin will be punished in the Jahannam for their sins and they will come out of it (Jahannam) with Shafaah or with some other reasons. However this (request) is not Kufr. It is because there is difference between denying Habar-i Wahid and Qat’i.

Ibn Amiri Hajj owner of the Hilyah consented with Qarafi regarding the first view (Making Du'a for Maghfirah of the Kuffar is Kufr). For his second view (Making Du'a for, all of the sins of all the Mu’minin to be forgiven is Haraam) he opposed him. He made Tahqiq of it and declared that, it was settled on a famous issue. The point is:

Is it permissible or not for Allah Ta’ala to turn back from Wa’id?

Asharis said that it is permissible what is understood from Mawafiq and Maqasid. It is because this is not a deficiency but generosity and kindness.

According to what Taftazani and others explained; the Muhaqqiq Ulama were on the view that, it is not permissible. Meaning; Sahih Qawl (statement) is this. It is because this is Mustahil (impossible) for Allah Ta’ala. Ta’ala commanded:

“I had already in advance sent you Warning. My word shall not be changed!” (Qaf 50/28-29) and in another Ayah: “Allah will not fail in His Promise.” (Al-i Imran 3/9; al-Hajj 22/47)

Intention of this Waad is threat. The most fitting is; preferring for (Allah) that the permissibility of turning back from the threat, concerning the Muslimin and impermissibility of turning back from the threat concerning the Kuffar. With this, evidences of those who say it is impermissible and also evidences of those who say it is permissible would be combined.

The clearest view of those who say it is permissible is the Ayat-i Karima: “Allah forgiveth not that partners should be set up with Him; but He forgiveth anything else, to whom He pleaseth.” (an-Nisa 4/48; an-Nisa 4/116) and narrated from Ibrahim (alayhi salam): “O our Lord! Cover (us) with Thy Forgiveness; me, my parents, and (all) Believers, on the Day that the Reckoning will be established!” (Ibrahim 14/41)

(Allah) Ta’ala commanded this to our Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) with the Ayah: “Ask forgiveness for thy sin and for believing men and believing women.” (Muhammad 47/19) As it was said in the Sahih of Ibn Hibban (d354H), Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) performed it himself. Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) made a Du'a saying: “O Lord! Forgive all of the sins; present and past, hidden and open of Aishah!” and then added: “This is my Du'a for all of my Ummah in every prayer.”

Sum of this statement is: Tahsis of it is permissible. It is because, with regards to the lexicon, the word indicates generality evidences of Wa’id (threat). This is not opposed with the declaration of Sahih evidences which indicate that some of the Mu’minin would enter Jahannam and would be punished due to their sin. It is because the intention (aim) is the permissibility of the sins of all the Mu’minin to be forgiven and not giving a Qati Hukm with regards to the same would be applied to all the Mu’minin.

Such Duas' being permissible is settled on the permissibility of its occurrence and not settled on its definite occurrence. This is the short of the long statement in Hilyah.

Sum of this is; evidences which declare that it is not permissible to turn back from Wa’id are related with those other than the Mu’minin. For the Mu’minin this is possible form the point of intellect. Therefore it is permissible to make Du'a for the Maghfirah which would comprise all the Mu’minin even if it would not happen. It is because Sahih evidences inform that a group of Mu’minin would definitely be punished. Permissibility of Du'a is settled on the permissibility by intellect. However, this could be opposed by saying: It is not permissible, assuming of absence with regards to the Shari’ah anything which is constant with open Nass.

Lakani quoted the Ijmaa of the Ummah from Ubbi and Nawawi that, Wa’id would definitely occur for a group of (Muslim) rebels. When it is like that, then making such Du'a would resemble saying: “O Lord! Do not make fasting and praying Fardh for us!”

Also from this, it necessitates the permissibility of making Du'a for Maghfirah of a dead Kafir. Even if, making Du'a with this for Mu’minin is permissible only for showing how kind one is towards the brothers in Din. Kuffar are not the same. If it is said, saying: “Do not make fasting Fardh for us!” is not the same! It is because; it is ugly making Du'a for the enemies of Allah (Azza wa Jall) and Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).

Showing tiredness from obedience is also ugly. But with this, that person becomes a rebel. According to the preference of the owner of the Bahir, he will not become Kafir. Author of Bahir said: “This is the Haqq” and the Sharih followed him (in this Hukm). However, this statement is settled on the permissibility of Shirk to be forgiven from the point of intellect. It is permissible to turn back from Wa’id is settled on it. As we have seen, Sahih is opposite of this. Therefore, Du'a for (requesting Maghfirah for a dead) Kafir is Kufr. It is because it is neither intellectly nor in Shari’ah permissible. Also due to rejecting the Qati evidences, it is not permissible. Making Du'a for Mu’minin is not the same.

Therefore the Haqq is in Hilyah. But, in the manner that we narrated and not the manner that Halabi narrated.”9

Anwers Given to Those Who State Requesting Maghfirah for the Kuffar is Kufr

Ibn Nujaym al-Misri (d970H) among the Hanafi in his book “Bahr'ur Raik” after mentioning one can request Maghfirah only for his Mu’min parents he stated:


قَالَ فِي مُنْيَةِ الْمُصَلِّي وَيَسْتَغْفِرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَلِوَالِدَيْهِ إنْ كَانَا مُؤْمِنَيْنِ وَلِجَمِيعِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ، وَإِنَّمَا قَيَّدَ بِإِيمَانِهِمَا؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يَجُوزُ الدُّعَاءُ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ لِلْمُشْرِكِ وَلَقَدْ بَالَغَ الْقَرَافِيُّ الْمَالِكِيُّ كَمَا نَقَلَهُ فِي شَرْحِ مُنْيَةِ الْمُصَلِّي بِأَنْ قَالَ إنَّ الدُّعَاءَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ لِلْكَافِرِ كُفْرٌ لِطَلَبِهِ تَكْذِيبَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى فِيمَا أَخْبَرَ بِهِ

"…As it is not permissible to make Du'a for requesting Maghfirah for the Mushrik. Moreover according to what is narrated at Munyat'ul Musalli, Qarafi among the Maliki going in extremes said “it is Kufr to make Du'a for requesting Maghfirah for the Kafir. It is because; his request indicates denying the news of Allah (for the Mushrik would never be forgiven).”

Then he (i.e., Ibn Nujaym al-Misri) mentions views of Qarafi in his Furuq meaning “the one who request Maghfirah for Kafir will be Kafir and the one who makes Du'a for all the Mu’minin to be forgiven will be sinner due to rejecting Ahad Habar and will not be Kafir” and after evaluating it said:


وَالْحَقُّ أَنَّهُ يَكُونُ عَاصِيًا بِالدُّعَاءِ لِلْكَافِرِ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ غَيْرَ عَاصٍ بِالدُّعَاءِ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ لِجَمِيعِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ؛ لِأَنَّ الْعُلَمَاءَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي جَوَازِ الْعَفْوِ عَنْ الْمُشْرِكِ عَقْلًا، قِيلَ بِالْجَوَازِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْخُلْفَ فِي الْوَعِيدِ كَرَمٌ فَيَجُوزُ مِنْ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى، وَإِنْ كَانَ الْمُحَقِّقُونَ عَلَى خِلَافِهِ كَمَا ذَكَرَهُ التَّفْتَازَانِيُّ فِي شَرْحِ الْعَقَائِدِ

The reality of the matter meaning the Haqq is: the one who makes Du'a for the Kafir to be forgiven becomes disobedient (rebel/sinner) and the one who makes Du'a for all the Mu’minin to be forgiven would not be disobedient (sinner/rebel). It is because, scholars made Ikhtilaaf (disagreement) concerning whether it is permissible from the intellect point if the Mushrik would be forgiven or not.

As Taftazani mentioned in Sharh'ul Aqaid, Muhaqqiqun (verifiers) said –even though the Ahl Tahqiq (People of verifiers) said vice versa- this is permissible it is because turning back from Wa’id meaning threat is kindness and blessing and this is possible for Allah.”10

Wahidi (d468H) in his Tafsir “al-Wasit” said the following in the Tafsir of the Ayah, an-Nisa 4/93, regarding “The permissibility of Allah’s turning back from Wa’id” which is declared as the Illah (reason) for requesting Maghfirah for the Kuffar being Kufr by Ibn Nujaym and others:


وروى عاصم بن أبي النجود، عن ابن عباس في قوله: فجزاؤه جهنم قال: هي جزاؤه، فإن شاء عذبه، وإن شاء غفر له

Asim bin Abu’l Junud narrated from Ibn Abbas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) concerning the statement “his punishment is Jahannam!” (an-Nisa 4/93): Indeed his (i.e., the murderer) punishment is this but if He (i.e., Allah)  wills punish him or if He wills forgive him.

وبهذا قال عون بن عبد الله، وبكر بن عبد الله، وأبو صالح: وقد يقول الإنسان لمن يزجره عن أمر: إن فعلته فجزاؤك القتل والضرب، ثم إن لم يجازه بذلك لم يكن ذلك منه كذبا

Awn ibn Abdillah, Bakr ibn Abdillah and Abu Salih also said this. Like; one would say to the person whom he wanted to condemn: “If you did that (or are going to do that) your punishment is to be killed or to be beaten!” After that if he does not punish him, this would not mean that he lied.

والأصل في هذا: أن الله تعالى يجوز أن يخلف الوعيد، وإن كان لا يجوز أن يخلف الوعد، بهذا وردت السنة عن رسول الله صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فيما

Reality of the matter is: It is permissible (possible) for Allah to turn back from Wa’id meaning the threat but (Allah’s) turning back from Waad (reward) is impossible. Concerning this; the following Sunnah existed from Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam):

246 - أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الأَصْبَهَانِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الأَصْبَهَانِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا زَكَرِيَّا بْنُ يَحْيَى السَّاجِيُّ، وَأَبُو حَفْصٍ السُّلَمِيُّ، وَأَبُو يَعْلَى الْمَوْصِلِيُّ، قَالُوا: حَدَّثَنَا هُدْبَةُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا سُهَيْلُ بْنُ أَبِي حَزْمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ثَابِتٌ الْبُنَانِيُّ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنْ وَعَدَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى عَمَلِهِ ثَوَابًا فَهُوَ مُنْجِزُهُ لَهُ، وَمَنْ أَوْعَدَهُ عَلَى عَمَلِهِ عِقَابًا فَهُوَ بِالْخِيَارِ

(After he narrated the Sanad i.e.i, chain of the Hadith), narrated from Anas (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “If Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) promised Thawab (reward) to a slave as a recompense for his Amal (i.e., good deeds), Allah will perform it. If (Allah) threatened punishment to him as recompense of his Amal (i.e., bad deeds) then, this is concern of the Mashiah (will) of Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala).” (Haythami, Majma'uz Zawaid, 10/211; Abu Ya’la; Tabarani, Awsat; Bayhaqi, al-Ba’s wa’n Nushur)

أخبرنا أبو بكر، أخبرنا عبد الله، أخبرنا محمد بن حمزة، حدثنا أحمد بن الخليل، حدثنا الأصمعي، قال: جاء عمرو بن عبيد إلى أبي عمرو بن العلاء، فقال: يا أبا عمرو، يخلف الله ما وعد؟ قال: لا.
قال:
أفرأيت مَن أوعده الله على عمل عقابا، أيخلف الله وعده فيه؟ فقال أبو عمرو بن العلاء من العجمة: أتيت يا أبا عثمان؟ إن الوعد غير الوعيد، إن العرب لا تعد عارا ولا خلفا أن تعد شرا ثم لا تفعله، ترى ذلك كرما وفضلا، وإنما الخلف أن تعد خيرا ثم لا تفعله.
قال: فأوجدني هذا في العرب.
قال: أما سمعت قول الأول:
وإني وإن أوعدته أو وعدته ... لمخلف ايعادي ومنجز موعدي


(After he mentioned the Sanad of the Habar i.e., narration) Amr ibn Ubayd (amongst Mu’tazilah) went to Abu Amr ibn A’la (d154H) and said: “O Abu Amr, Will Allah turn back from His Wa’ad? He answered him by saying: No! Then Amr continued, saying: Then will you explain will Allah turn back from Wa’id of whom He threatened for the punishment? Abu Amr bin A’la answered this saying:

(…) Wa’ad (reward) is not the same as Wa’id. Arabs do not consider ones undertaking (a punishment) and then not applying it as disgrace, shame. Rather they see it as kindness and virtue. However, undertaking (reward) and not fulfilling what it necessitates would be blame for turning back from his promise. When Amr said: Bring me evidence for this from the Arabs. Abu Amr said: Haven’t you heard these couplets?

The reality is; whenever I threaten him or promise,
I will not perform the threat but will perform the promise.”


والذي ذكره أبو عمرو بن العلاء رحمه الله مذهب الكرام، ويستحسن عند كل أحد خلف الوعيد كما قال السري الموصلي:
إذا وعد السر أنجز وعده ... وإن أوعد الشر فالعفو مانعه


The thing that Abu Amr ibn A’la mentioned is the Madhhab (way) of good natured ones. Turning back from the threat is accounted well on the eyes of everyone. As, Sirri al-Mawsili (d307H) said:

“When he promises good news, he will fulfill it.
When he promises bad news, forgiveness will be obstacle for him to do it!”


وأحسن يحيى بن معاذ في هذا الفصل حيث قال: الوعد والوعيد حق، فالوعد حق العباد على الله، ضمن لهم إذا فعلوا كذا أن يعطيهم كذا، ومن أولى بالوفاء من الله؟ والوعيد حقه على العباد، قال: لا تفعلوا كذا فأعذبكم ففعلوا فإن شاء عفا وإن شاء أخذ، لأنه حقه، وأولاهما بربنا الكرم والعفو إنه غفور رحيم

How nice, Yahya ibn Mu’adh said regarding this matter: Both Wa’ad and Wa’id are Haqq (true). Wa’ad is the Haqq (right) of the slaves over Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala). He promised them giving this and that, if they do this and that. Who is more loyal than Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala)? Wa’id is His right over His slaves. He (Azza wa Jall) said: Don’t do that otherwise I will punish you!. When they performed that, if He wills He will punish them or if He wills He will forgive them. It is because this is His right. More fitting for our Lord is kindness and forgiveness. It is because He is Ghafur and Rahim.”11


* The views of scholars and Madhahib will be quoted in this work. Amongst those who are quoted there are some whom are in opposition with the Aqidah of Salaf. Moreover some might be affiliated with Ahl Kalam and Ahl Tasawwuf. The reason we have quoted them is not because we legitimize their Manhaj or Aqidah but merely bring to light the views of the Madhhab they are affiliated with.

1- Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmu al-Fatawa, 1/142-145

2- Ibn Qudamah, al-Kafi fi Fiqh'il Imam Ahmad, 1/368

3- Abd'ur Rahman ibn Hasan, Fath'il Majid li Sharhi Kitab'it Tawhid, 217

4- Nawawi, al-Majmu Sharh al-Muhazzab, 5/144

5- Abu Ishaq ash-Shirazi, al-Muhazzab fi Fiqh'il Imam ash-Shafii, 1/250

6- Qurtubi, al-Jamiu li Ahkam al-Qur’an, 8/273

7- an-Nafrawi, Fawakih'ud Dani ala Risalati Ibn Zayd al-Qayrawani, 2/291

8- Burhanu’d-Din Ibn Mazah al-Bukhari, al-Muhit'il Burhani, 2/184

9- Radd'ul Mukhtar ala’d Durr'il Mukhtar, 1/523

10- Ibn Nujaym, Bahr'ur Raik Sharhu Kanuz'id Dakaik (with the Hashiyas), 1/350

11-Wahidi, at-Tafsir'ul Wasit, 2/101; Qurtubi, Tafsir (Ayah; an-Nisa 4/93)
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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