التوحيد at-Tawhid

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Fahm'us Salaf

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Walayah of the Kuffar in Nikah
« on: 14.06.2015, 10:51:20 PM »
Narrations from Scholars with regards to the Walayah of the Kuffar in Nikah*

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

المبحث الخامس: اشتراط الإسلام فى وليّ النِّكاح

أوّلاً: اشتراطه فى وليّ المسلمة:
الإسلام يعلو ولا يُعْلى عليه، به أعزّ الله عباده، وبه قطع الموالاة بين أوليائه المؤمنين وأعدائه الكافرين؛ فلا ولاية لكافر على مسلم بإجماع أهل العلم، كما حكاه ابن المنذر وغيره1.
وهذا هو المعتمد في المذاهب الأربعة مما أمكن الوقوف عليه2.


Condition of the Wali of Nikah being Muslim

Islam is dominant and can not be over dominated. Allah (Azza wa Jall) honored His slaves with it (i.e., Islam). And (Allah), cut off the Walayah between the Mu’minin who are His ally and the Kuffar who are His enemies with it (i.e., Islam). For this reason with the Ijmaa of the Ahl Ilm; the Kafir has no Walayah over the Muslim. This Ijmaa had been reported by Ibn Mundhir and others.1

As much as we are aware of, this is the Mutamad (approved/most acceptable) Qawl (view, opinion) in Four Madhhahib.2


وحكى بعض الحنابلة وجهًا في المذهب لصحّة ولاية الكافر على ابنته المسلمة، وهل يباشر تزويجها بنفسه على هذا الوجه؟ أو يعقده مسلم بإذنه؟ أو يعقده الحاكم بإذنه؟ أو جه على هذا الوجه، أصحها الأوّل1. إلاّ أن المعتمد الذي عليه المذهب أنَّه لا ولاية لكافر على مسلمة، سواء أكان أبًا أم غيره، وهو المنصوص عن الإمام أحمد رحمه الله2. وهذا هو الصحيح لما تقدَّم من حكاية الإجماع المستند لعموم الكتاب والسنة ومن ذلك:

Some among the Hanabila reported a Wajih (opinion) that; in the (Hanbali) Madhhab, Kafir fathers' Walayah over his Muslim daughter is Sahih (valid). If this opinion is correct then what would be its meaning? There are different possibilities and Wujuh (opinions) concerning it. (Meaning;)

Can a Kafir marry (off) his Muslim daughter on his own? Or with the permission of this Kafir, a Muslim performs the Nikah? Or again with his permission a (Muslim) Qadi perform the Nikah (i.e., perform Walayah to the Nikah)?

First one is the Sahih (valid).3 It is because in the Hanbali Madhhab the view that reliance on is in the direction that whether the father or someone else; the Kafir has no Walayah over a Muslim women.4 This matter had been narrated from Imam Ahmad, in this manner and certainty.5 As it was mentioned before, this is the Sahih view according to the Ijmaa which is based upon the evidences from the Book and Sunnah which we will be mentioned.


أ- من القرآن الكريم ما يلى:
أوّلاً: قوله تعالى: {وَلَنْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلاً} 3.
وولاية الكافر على المسلمة نوع من هذا السبيل المنفي شرعاً.
ثانيًا: قوله تعالى: {وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ} 4.
ثالثًا: قوله تعالى: {وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ} 5.

ففي هاتين الآيتين الكريمتين قد قسم الله تعالى الناس إلى قسمين، مؤمن وكافر؛ فجعل المؤمنين بعضهم لبعض أولياء، والكافرين بعضهم لبعض أولياء، ومفهوم ذلك أنَّ لا ولاية بين مؤمن وكافر. والله أعلم. رابعًا: قوله تعالى: {مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ وَلايَتِهِمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ} 1. وهذه الآية وإن كانت ليست في الكافرين، بل هي في المؤمنين؛ لبيان الموالاة بين من أسلم ولم يهاجر، ومن هم في دار الإسلام، إلا أنَّ بعض العلماء - كمالك رحمه الله - قد استدلَّ بها على منع الموالاة بين المؤمنين والكافرين من باب أولى2 والله أعلم


a- Evidences from Qur’an al-Karim:

(Sum up) first of all, saying of Ta’ala: “And never will Allah grant to the unbelievers a way (to triumphs) over the believers.” (an-Nisa 4/141) secondly;

“And the believers, men and women, are protecting friends one of another.” (at-Tawbah 9/71) thirdly;

“And those who disbelieve are protecting friends one of another.” (al-Anfal 8/73) and lastly;

“ye owe no duty of protection to them…” (al-Anfal 8/72)

This last Ayah says that; there is no Walayah between the Mu’minin and those Muslimin who had not made Hijrah which becomes a –favorable way of- proof for the issue. Meaning, if there is no Walayah with the Muslim in this situation then not having Walayah with the Kuffar is more favorable. This Istidlal (deduction) had been made by some scholars such as Imam Malik.6


ب- وأمَّا من السنَّة فمنها:
أوّلاً: زواج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أمّ حبيبة، ابنة أبي سفيان من غير ولاية أبيها"3.
قال الشافعي رحمه الله: ولا يكون الكافر وليًّا لمسلمة وإن كانت بنته، قد زوّج ابن سعيد4 بن العاص النبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أمّ حبيبة، وأبو سفيان حيّ؛


b- Evidences from the Sunnah:

1- Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) married Umm Habiba bint Abu Sufyan (radiyallahu anha) without her fathers’ permission. Imam Shafii (rahimahullaah) said the following concerning this:

"The Kafir has no Walayah over a Muslim woman even if she was his daughter. Likewise although Abu Sufyan was alive, Ibn Sa’id bin As (radiyallahu anh) married Umm Habiba (radiyallahu anha) with Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).7 Both of them (i.e., Ibn Sa’id bin al-As and Umm Habiba) were Muslim and I (Imam Shafi’i) don’t know any Muslim man who had closer relationship with her other than him. Abu Sufyan did not show Walayah over his daughter. It is because Allah Ta’ala had cut off Muwalat (friendship) relationship therefore also the inheritance and Diyah (blood money) etc., relationship between the Muslim and the Mushrik."8


ثانياً: حديث "الإسلام يعلو ولا يُعْلى":
والولاية في النكاح فيها استعلاء على الموْلِيِّ عليه، فلا ينبغي أن تكون لكافر على مسلم. والله أعلم.
وهذا الحديث قد رواه الدارقطني والبيهقي وغيرهم مرفوعًا عن عائذ ابن عمرو المزني رضي الله عنه2.
ورواه البخاري في صحيحه تعليقًا موقوفاً على ابن عباس رضي الله عنه3.
ووصله الطحاوي بإسناده إلى ابن عباس رضي الله عنه في اليهوديَّة والنصرانيَّة تكون تحت النصرانيِّ أو اليهوديِّ، فتُسلم هي، قال: "يفرق

بينهما، الإسلام يَعْلُو ولا يُعْلى عليه"1. وساقه من طريق آخر ولكن بدون لفظ "الإسلام يَعْلُو ولا يُعْلى عليه"2.
وهو صحيح موقوفاً على ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما، وحسن مرفوعاً بمجموع طرقه التي يشدّ بعضها بعصًا.
قال الألباني في إرواء الغليل: "حديث الإسلام يَعْلُو ولا يُعْلَى" حسن. روي من حديث عائذ بن عمرو المزني، وعمر بن الخطاب، ومعاذ ابن جبل مرفوعاً، وعبد الله بن عباس مرفوعاً3.
ثم فصّل القول في هذه الطرق كلّها، وقال في آخر البحث:
وجملة القول: "أنَّ الحديث حسن مرفوعاً بمجموع طريقي عائذ ومعاذ، وصحيح موقوفاً"4


2- The Hadith: "Islam dominates and is not dominated." (Daraqutni; Bayhaqi and others)

ج- وأمَّا من الآثار.
فقد ذكر ابن قدامة في المغني عن الإمام أحمد رحمه الله أنَّه قال: "بلغنا أنَّ عليًّا رضي الله عنه أجاز نكاح الأخ، وردّ نكاح الأب وكان نصرانيًّا


c- Narrations from the Salaf

Ibn Qudamah in al-Mughni, narrated that Imam Ahmad said: According to what reached us from Ali (radiyallahu anh) that he permitted the brother to marry off his sister instead of father when the father is Christian.9


د- وأمَّا من المعقول.
فولاية الكافر على المسلمة ممنوعة قياساً على منع التوارث بينهما2.
لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم: "لا يرث الكافر المسلم ولا المسلم الكافر" متفق عليه3.
وأيضًا ففي ولاية الكافر على المسلم إذلال للمسلم، مع عدم النظر له غالبًا؛ لما بينهما من العداوة في الدِّين، ولهذا صينت المسلمة عن نكاح الكافر إجماعاً. والله المستعان.
(…)
إذا كانت الأمة مسلمة وسيِّدها كافر فهل يزوِّجها؟
وكذلك إذا أسلمت الأمة وبقي سيِّدها كافرًا فلا يلي نكاحها كالحرَّة، إلا أن تكون أمَّ ولده في أحد الوجهين للحنابلة،4 وهو وجه


When a Jariyah is Muslim and her owner is Kafir then can he marry her off?

If a Jariyah becomes Muslim but her owner remains Kafir, just as the Kafir can not have Walayah over a free Muslim woman with regards to the marriage, he can not perform Walayah over his Muslim Jariyah as well. However according to a view in Hanabila (Madhhab), Jariyah’s being Umm al-Walad (i.e., delivered a child to her owner) is excluded from this.10


أيضاً في مذهب الشافعية1؛ لأنَّها مملوكته فيلي نكاحها كالمسلم في تزويج أمته الكافرة2.
وقد قرّر صاحب (الإنصاف) من الحنابلة: أنَّ هذا الوجه هو المذهب3.
فعلى هذا هل يباشر تزويجها بنفسه؟ أو يباشره بإذنه مسلم؟ أو الحاكم؟ أوجه4.
وأمَّا على الوجه الأول، وهو: أنَّه لا ولاية له عليها فيزوِّجها الحاكم، واختاره ابن قدامة في المغني5؛ لما سبق من حكاية الإجماع على أنَّه لا ولاية لكافر على مسلم. والله أعلم


This view is also found in Shafiies.11 Hence that woman is his slave. Just as the Muslim man can perform Walayah with regards to his Kafir Jariyah, the Kafir can also perform Walayah over his Muslim Jariyah in her marriage.12

Author (of the book “al-Insaf”), amongst the Hanabila (Madhhab) established: This is the view of our Madhhab. In this (as it was related with the free woman) there are these matters:

Can a Kafir marry off his Muslim Jariyah on his own? Or with the permission this Kafir, a Muslim perform the Nikah? Or again with his permission the (Muslim) Hakim (ruler) perform the Nikah (i.e., perform Walayah to the Nikah)?
 
According to the first view, there is no Walayah of the Kafir over her (Muslim Jariyah) and the ruler will marry her off. Ibn Qudamah preferred this view in al-Mughni. This is because as we had mentioned before, a Kafir does not have Walayah over a Muslim.13

Allahu a’lam.


وبحث هذه المسألة- أعني تزويج الكافر أَمَتَه المسلمة- بحث قليل الجدوى؛ إذ مبناه على أنَّ الكافر هل يثبت له ملك شرعيّ على مسلم عبد أو أمة؟ وعلى القول بثبوته فهو ملك غير مستقرٍّ؛ لإجبار الكافر على إزالة ملكه عنهما بنحو بيع أو كتابة6. والله أعلم

If investigating this issue –meaning the issue of can a Kafir marry off his Muslim Jariyah- is going to based upon; Kafirs’ ownership over his Muslim slave or Muslim Jariyah whether valid or not then there will be no gain. It is because those who say that; it is valid, this ownership is unstable. It is because he is forced to sell or construct a written agreement etc., so that his ownership is removed.

Allahu A'lam.14



* The views of scholars and Madhahib will be quoted in this work. Amongst those who are quoted there are some whom are in opposition with the Aqidah of Salaf. Moreover some might be affiliated with Ahl Kalam and Ahl Tasawwuf. The reason we have quoted them is not because we legitimize their Manhaj or Aqidah but merely bring to light the views of the Madhhab they are affiliated with.

1- Ibn Mundhir, al-Ishraf, 4/40; Ibn Qudamah, al-Mughni, 7/356, 7/363; al-Muhalla, 9/473; al-Bahr'uz Zahhar, 4/53

2- Hanafi: Mabsut, 4/223; Hidayah, 3/285; Durr al-Mukhtar, 3/77

Maliki: Bidayat'ul Mujtahid, 2/9

Shafii: Mughn'il Muhtaj, 3/156

Hanbali: al-Insaf, 8/78-79

3- Meaning, Kafir can no way marry a Muslim.

4- al-Insaf, 8/79; al-Mubdi, 7/38

5- Ibn Qayyim, Ahkamu Ahl adh-Dhimma, 2/410-412

6- al-Mabsut, 4/223

7- Khalid ibn Sa’id ibn al-As (radiyallahu anh) was cousin (her uncles son) of Umm Habiba (radiyallahu anha).

There are some other narrations stating that the one who performed Walayah over her marriage with Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) was Uthman ibn Affan (radiyallahu anh) or Nagus. All of these narrations show that not her father Abu Sufyan but a Muslim married her.

It was also said that Abu Sufyan married her but this is too far from the truth.

8- Imam Shafii, al-Umm, 5/15

9- al-Mughni wa ssh-Sharh'ul Kabir, 7/356

10- al-Mughni, 7/363; al-Insaf, 8/78; al-Mubdi, 7/38; Kashshaf al-Kina, 5/55

11- Rawdat'ut Talibin, 7/67; Takmilatu al-Majmu'is Saniya, 16/161

12- al-Mughni, 7/363

13- al-Mughni, 7/363

14- Awd ibn Raja bin Furayj al-Awfi, Walayah over Nikah, Master Thesis, Islamic University of Madinah, 1423 (2002)
 
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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