التوحيد at-Tawhid

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Fahm'us Salaf

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THE RULING ON PRAYER BEHIND A KÂFIR IMÂM
« on: 14.06.2015, 11:08:07 PM »
The Ruling on Prayer Behind a Kafir Imam

Narrations from the Four Madhahib*

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The Hanbali Madhhab

Ibn Qudamah al-Maqdisi (620H) stated:


مَسْأَلَةٌ الصَّلَاةُ خَلْفَ مُشْرِكٍ أَوْ امْرَأَةٍ أَوْ خُنْثَى مُشْكِلٍ.

(1140) مَسْأَلَةٌ؛ قَالَ: (وَإِنْ صَلَّى خَلْفَ مُشْرِكٍ أَوْ امْرَأَةٍ أَوْ خُنْثَى مُشْكِلٍ، أَعَادَ الصَّلَاةَ) وَجُمْلَتُهُ أَنَّ الْكَافِرَ لَا تَصِحُّ الصَّلَاةُ خَلْفَهُ بِحَالٍ سَوَاءٌ عَلِمَ بِكُفْرِهِ بَعْدَ فَرَاغِهِ مِنْ الصَّلَاةِ، أَوْ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ، وَعَلَى مَنْ صَلَّى وَرَاءَهُ الْإِعَادَةُ. وَبِهَذَا قَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ، وَأَصْحَابُ الرَّأْيِ، وَقَالَ أَبُو ثَوْرٍ، وَالْمُزَنِيُّ: لَا إعَادَةَ عَلَى مَنْ صَلَّى خَلْفَهُ، وَهُوَ لَا يَعْلَمُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ ائْتَمَّ بِمَنْ لَا يُعْلَمُ حَالُهُ، فَأَشْبَهَ مَا لَوْ ائْتَمَّ بِمُحْدِثٍ. وَلَنَا، أَنَّهُ ائْتَمَّ بِمَنْ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الصَّلَاةِ، فَلَمْ تَصِحَّ صَلَاتُهُ، كَمَا لَوْ ائْتَمَّ بِمَجْنُونٍ، وَأَمَّا الْمُحْدِثُ فَيُشْتَرَطُ أَنْ لَا يَعْلَمَ حَدَثَ نَفْسِهِ، وَالْكَافِرُ يَعْلَمُ حَالَ نَفْسِهِ

The issue of Salah behind a Mushrik or a woman or a Khuntha (bi-sexual person) whose gender is not known
 
Abu’l Qasim al-Hiraki (334H) stated: And if prayer is performed behind a Mushrik, woman or Khuntha (bi-sexual) whose gender is not known, repeat the Salah (prayer).

Sharh: Meaning; The Salah (prayer) behind any Kafir will never be Sahih in any condition whether he was aware of his (i.e., the Kafir) Kufr after he finishes the Salah (prayer) or before (he finishes the prayer) it and the one who performed Salah behind him will repeat it (the prayer). This is what Shafii and Ashab-i Ray stated. Abu Thawr and Mudhani stated: The one who performed Salah behind him (i.e., the Kafir) and does not know (his state of being a Kafir) does not repeat the prayer. It is because he took as an Imam a person; whose condition is unknown. And this is similar to taking an unclean person as an Imam.

Our view is: because he took someone who is not from Ahl Salah (i.e., amongst the Muslimin) as an Imam, his Salah is not Sahih (valid). Just like the one who would take a Majnun (insane) as an Imam. When it comes to the (validity of the prayer behind) unclean individual, it is bound to the condition of him (i.e., the Imam) not knowing his Hadath (filth meaning not being clean, i.e., Junub etc.,). (On the other hand) The Kafir (Imam) knows his own state.” (Ibn Qudamah, al-Mughni, 2/146)

The Shafii Madhhab

Imam Shafii (204H) made reference to the issue of Praying behind a Kafir in his book al-Umm and stated the following:


إمَامَةُ الْكَافِرِ

وَلَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلًا كَافِرًا أَمَّ قَوْمًا مُسْلِمِينَ وَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا كُفْرَهُ، أَوْ يَعْلَمُوا لَمْ تَجْزِهِمْ صَلَاتُهُمْ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ صَلَاتُهُ إسْلَامًا لَهُ إذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ تَكَلَّمَ بِالْإِسْلَامِ قَبْلَ الصَّلَاةِ وَيُعَزَّرُ الْكَافِرُ وَقَدْ أَسَاءَ مَنْ صَلَّى وَرَاءَهُ وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ كَافِرٌ

Imamah of the Kafir

“If a Kafir man is to lead Salah of a Muslim group, their Salah will not be valid; whether they did not know of his Kufr (i.e., his being Kafir) or they know (his Kufr). If he did not say a word of (submission to) Islam prior to the prayer his Salah is not his submission (to Islam). And the Kafir will be punished (for leading prayer). And whoever performed Salah behind him knowing he is a Kafir, has done a bad thing.

Continued:


وَلَوْ صَلَّى رَجُلٌ غَرِيبٌ بِقَوْمٍ، ثُمَّ شَكُّوا فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ فَلَمْ يَدْرُوا أَكَانَ كَافِرًا، أَوْ مُسْلِمًا لَمْ تَكُنْ عَلَيْهِمْ إعَادَةٌ حَتَّى يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّهُ كَافِرٌ؛ لِأَنَّ الظَّاهِرَ أَنَّ صَلَاتَهُ صَلَاةُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ لَا تَكُونُ إلَّا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ وَلَيْسَ مَنْ أَمَّ فَعَلِمَ كُفْرَهُ مِثْلُ مُسْلِمٍ لَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ غَيْرُ طَاهِرٍ؛ لِأَنَّ الْكَافِرَ لَا يَكُونُ إمَامًا فِي حَالٍ وَالْمُؤْمِنُ يَكُونُ إمَامًا فِي الْأَحْوَالِ كُلِّهَا إلَّا أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ إلَّا طَاهِرًا وَهَكَذَا لَوْ كَانَ رَجُلٌ مُسْلِمٌ فَارْتَدَّ، ثُمَّ أَمَّ وَهُوَ مُرْتَدٌّ لَمْ تَجْزِ مَنْ خَلْفَهُ صَلَاتُهُ حَتَّى يُظْهِرَ التَّوْبَةَ بِالْكَلَامِ قَبْلَ إمَامَتِهِمْ فَإِذَا أَظْهَرَ التَّوْبَةَ بِالْكَلَامِ قَبْلَ إمَامَتِهِمْ أَجْزَأَتْهُمْ صَلَاتُهُمْ مَعَهُ

If a Gharib (stranger, unknown) man performed Salah with a group of people, later they (the group) doubted their Salah and they didn’t know if he (the stranger) is a Kafir or a Muslim, they do not have to repeat their prayer until they learn he is a Kafir; because in the Dhahir (outwardly) his (the Kafir) Salah is like the Salah of the Muslim. None other than a Muslim will do it. The one who lead prayer knowing his Kufr is not the same as the Muslim who did not know he is unclean. It is because the Kafir can not be an Imam under any condition. (Where as) The Mu’min can be an Imam in any condition with the exception that he is unclean during prayer. Likewise if a Muslim man made Irtidad (apostate) then lead prayer as a Murtad (apostate), it is not permissible for whosoever is behind him to perform Salah with him until, he verbally declares Tawbah prior to leading them in prayer. If he declares Tawbah verbally prior to leading them in prayer then performing Salah with him (i.e., behind him) is permissible.” (Imam Shafii, al-Umm, 1/195)

Abu’l Hasan al-Mawardi (450H) also assigned a section regarding the issue of praying behind a Kafir Imam and stated:


( [القول في إمامة الكافر] )

(مسألة)

 قال الشافعي رحمه الله تعالى: " وَإِنِ ائْتَمَّ بكافرٍ ثُمَّ عَلِمَ أَعَادَ، وَلَمْ يَكُنْ هَذَا إِسْلَامًا مِنْهُ وَعُزِّرَ، وَلِأَنَّ الْكَافِرَ لَا يَكُونُ إِمَامًا بِحَالٍ وَالْمُؤْمِنُ يَكُونُ إِمَامًا فِي الْأَحْوَالِ الظَّاهِرَةِ "

قَالَ الْمَاوَرْدِيُّ: هَذَا صَحِيحٌ

إِذَا صَلَّى الْكَافِرُ إِمَامًا أَوْ مَأْمُومًا أَوْ مُنْفَرِدًا فِي مَسْجِدٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ إِسْلَامًا مِنْهُ

وَقَالَ أبو حنيفة: إِنْ صَلَّى جَمَاعَةً كَانَ ذَلِكَ إِسْلَامًا مِنْهُ إِمَامًا كَانَ أَوْ مَأْمُومًا، وَإِنْ صَلَّى مُنْفَرِدًا فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي مَسْجِدٍ كَانَ ذَلِكَ إِسْلَامًا مِنْهُ فِي إِحْدَى الرِّوَايَتَيْنِ عَنْهُ، وَإِنْ كَانَ فِي غَيْرِ مَسْجِدٍ لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ إِسْلَامًا مِنْهُ
،

The Statement Regarding the Imamah of the Kafir
 
Shafii (rahimallahu Ta’ala) stated: If a Kafir is taken as an Imam in prayer, later (the Muslim) learns (the Imam is Kafir) he will repeat (his prayer). This (Kafir leading the prayer) is not submission (to Islam) from him and he will be punished. It is because the Kafir can not become an Imam in any condition and the Mu’min in the Dhahir (apparent) can become an Imam in any condition.

Mawardi stated: This is true, when a Kafir performs Salah as an Imam, or behind an Imam or on his own, in a Masjid or elsewhere this is not submission (to Islam) from him.
   
Abu Hanifah stated: If he prays in Jama’ah (congregation) this will be his submission (to Islam) whether (he is praying) as an Imam or behind an Imam. According to a narration from him; if he (the Kafir) performs Salah alone in a Masjid this will be (a sign of) his submission (to Islam) however if he is somewhere other than a Masjid this will not be (a sign of) his submission (to Islam).

(Then he takes the issue of whether Salah is a unique sign of Islam or not in hand and discusses the proofs for those who dispute both views…)


(فَصْلٌ)

: فَأَمَّا صَلَاةُ مَنِ ائْتَمَّ بِهِ وَهُوَ لَا يَعْلَمُ بِكُفْرِهِ، فَلَا يَخْلُو حَالُ إِمَامِهِ الْكَافِرِ مِنْ أَحَدِ أَمْرَيْنِ:

إِمَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ مُظْهِرًا لِكُفْرِهِ كَأَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ وَالْمُعَاهَدِينَ، فَصَلَاةُ مَنِ ائْتَمَّ بِهِ بَاطِلَةٌ، وَهُوَ مَذْهَبُ الْفُقَهَاءِ كَافَّةً، وَقَالَ الْمُزَنِيُّ صَلَاتُهُ جَائِزَةٌ كَالْمُصَلِّي خَلْفَ جُنُبٍ، وَهَذَا غَلَطٌ، وَالْفَرْقُ بَيْنَهُمَا مِنْ وَجْهَيْنِ:

أَحَدُهُمَا: أَنَّ الْكَافِرَ مَعَهُ عِلْمٌ ظاهر يدل على كفره، لأنه يوجد لا يدين بلبس الغيار، وشد الزُّنَّارِ، وَتَغْيِيرِ الْهَيْئَةِ، فَإِذَا خَفِيَ عَلَيْهِ فَلِتَفْرِيطِهِ وَقِلَّةِ تَأَمُّلِهِ

And said:

When it comes to the prayer (Salah) of whosoever takes him (the Kafir) as an Imam and does not know his Kufr. The state of the Kafir Imam whom he prayed behind would be one of the following two:

He either openly displays his Kufr like the Ahl Dhimmi and the covenants in which case the Salah of the one who took him (the Kafir) as an Imam (in Salah) is Baatil (invalid); this is the Madhhab (view) of the entire Fuqaha. Mudhani said that his (the one who prayed behind the Kafir) Salah is valid just like (without knowledge of his impurity) the Salah behind a Junub (unclean), however this is incorrect.

There are two apparent differences between these two conditions:

First: When it comes to the Kafir there is visible information which signifies his Kufr.

The reason is by wearing the head gear, wrapping the Zunnar (belt worn by non-Muslims) and difference in his outer appearance will be found that are not from Din. This could be hidden about him due to negligence or lack of observation.


وَالثَّانِي: أَنَّ إِمَامَةَ الْكَافِرِ مَعَ الْعِلْمِ بِحَالِهِ لَا تَجُوزُ بِحَالٍ، وَإِمَامَةُ الْجُنُبِ قَدْ تَجُوزُ بِحَالٍ، وَهُوَ الْمُتَيَمِّمُ إِذَا صَلَّى بِالْمُتَطَهِّرِ، لِأَنَّ التَّيَمُّمَ لَا يَرْفَعُ الْحَدَثَ وَكَذَلِكَ لَوْ أَجْنَبَ جَمَاعَةٌ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ مَاءً وَلَا تُرَابًا وَخَافُوا فَوَاتَ الْوَقْتِ جَازَ أَنْ يَأْتَمُّوا بِأَحَدِهِمْ مَعَ الْعِلْمِ بِجَنَابَتِهِ، فَمِنْ أَجْلِ ذَلِكَ وجب اختلاف حكمهما في الإتمام بهما، وبطلت صلات مَنِ ائْتَمَّ بِالْكَافِرِ مِنْهُمَا

Second: The Imamah of the Kafir whose state is known will never be permissible, and the Imamah of the Junub (unclean Muslim) can be permissible in some cases, (for example) he performing Tayammum and performing Salah with clean people. It is because Tayammum (in normal conditions) will not remove Hadath (filth). In the same manner, if a Jama’ah (group of Muslim) is Junub (unclean) and they can not find water or soil and they fear the time of prayer will be over then it is permissible for them to appoint one amongst them as Imam with the knowledge of him being Junub. Because of this, it is Wajib that the Hukkam (judgments and regulations) are different for the Imamah of these two (situations; the Kafir imam and the Junub Imam), and from them the Salah of the one who took the Kafir as an Imam is invalid.

وَإِنْ كَانَ مُسْتَتِرًا بِكُفْرِهِ كَالزَّنَادِقَةِ، فَمَذْهَبُ الشَّافِعِيِّ وَعَامَّةِ أَصْحَابِنَا وُجُوبُ الْإِعَادَةِ عَلَى مَنِ ائْتَمَّ بِهِ

وَقَالَ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا لَا إِعَادَةَ عَلَيْهِ لِزَوَالِ الْعِلْمِ الدَّالِّ عَلَى كُفْرِهِ، وَهَذَا غَلَطٌ لِمَا ذَكَرْنَاهُ مِنْ بُطْلَانِ إِمَامَةِ الْكَافِرِ بِكُلِّ حَالٍ
،

When it comes to those who hide their Kufr like the Zanadiqah, according to ash-Shafii and majority of our Ashab (i.e., Shafii scholars); it is Wajib to repeat his prayer upon whosoever took him as an Imam. Some amongst our Ashab stated that it doesn’t need to be repeated because there is no information proving his Kufr. However this is wrong due to what we had mentioned regarding Imamah of the Kafir being Baatil (invalid) in every condition.” (Mawardi, Haw'il Kabir, 2/333-336)

The Maliki Madhhab and The Dhahiri Madhhab

Khattab ar-Ruayni (954H), in his book “Mawabih'ul Jalil Sharhu Muhtasar'il Khalil” stated:


(وَبَطَلَتْ بِاقْتِدَاءٍ بِمَنْ بَانَ كَافِرًا)

ش: قَالَ ابْنُ حَزْمٍ وَشُرُوطُ الْإِمَامِ الْوَاجِبَةِ عَشْرَةٌ بَالِغٌ عَاقِلٌ ذَكَرٌ مُسْلِمٌ صَالِحٌ قَارِئٌ فَقِيهٌ بِمَا يَلْزَمُهُ فِي صَلَاتِهِ فَصِيحُ اللِّسَانِ وَيُزَادُ فِي الْجُمُعَةِ حُرٌّ مُقِيمٌ ثُمَّ ذَكَرَ الْخِلَافَ فِي الذُّكُورِيَّةِ وَالصَّلَاحِ وَالْبُلُوغِ انْتَهَى
.

“Khalil ibn Ishaq (776H) -whom Khattab had written a commentary on his book-, stated: Following the lead (in Salah) of the one that is a Kafir is Baatil (invalid).

Sharh: Ibn Hazm (456H) stated: The conditions that the Imam must have are 10:

(He must be) Baligh (one who has reached maturity), sane, a male, a Muslim, Salih, fluent in Qiraah (Qur'an recitation), have knowledge of the Fiqh he needs for the prayer and be fluent in speech.

Moreover for Jumu’ah (Prayer), (he must be) free and Muqim (resident and not traveler).

Then he mentioned the Ikhtilaaf (dispute) regarding the conditions of being male, Salih and reaching maturity.” (Khattab ar-Ruayni, Mawabih'ul Jalil Sharhu Muhtasar'il Khalil, 2/92)

The Hanafi Madhhab

Shurunbilali (1069H) in the Sharh of Nur'ul Izah, said:


وشروط صحة الإمامة للرجال الأصحاء ستة أشياء الإسلام" وهو شرط عام فلا تصح إمامة منكر البعث أو خلافة الصديق أو صحبته أو يسب الشيخين أو ينكر الشفاعة أو نحو ذلك ممن يظهر الإسلام مع ظهور صفته المكفرة له

“The validity conditions of Imamate of the healthy men are six:

Islam: It is a general condition.

The Imamate of: the denier of al-Bauth (Resurrection), or (the denier of) the succession of (Abu Bakr) as-Siddiq (radiyallahu anh) or (the denier of) him being a Sahabah or curses the Shaykhayn (i.e., Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab) or denies the Shafa'ah and likes, and the one who displays Islam (to be Muslim) in Dhahir (apparent) along with the characteristic that constitutes his Takfir, is not Sahih.” (Shurunbilali, Marak'ul Falah Sharhu Matni Nur’ul Izah, 110)

Mentioned in Fatawa al-Hindiyyah


[الْفَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ فِي بَيَانِ مَنْ يَصْلُحُ إمَامًا لِغَيْرِهِ]

(الْفَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ فِي بَيَانِ مَنْ يَصْلُحُ إمَامًا لِغَيْرِهِ) قَالَ الْمَرْغِينَانِيُّ تَجُوزُ الصَّلَاةُ خَلْفَ صَاحِبِ هَوًى وَبِدْعَةٍ وَلَا تَجُوزُ خَلْفَ الرَّافِضِيِّ وَالْجَهْمِيِّ وَالْقَدَرِيِّ وَالْمُشَبِّهَةِ وَمَنْ يَقُولُ بِخَلْقِ الْقُرْآنِ وَحَاصِلُهُ إنْ كَانَ هَوًى لَا يَكْفُرُ بِهِ صَاحِبُهُ تَجُوزُ الصَّلَاةُ خَلْفَهُ مَعَ الْكَرَاهَةِ وَإِلَّا فَلَا. هَكَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ وَالْخُلَاصَةِ وَهُوَ الصَّحِيحُ.

هَكَذَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَمَنْ أَنْكَرَ الْمِعْرَاجَ يُنْظَرُ إنْ أَنْكَرَ الْإِسْرَاءَ مِنْ مَكَّةَ إلَى بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ وَإِنْ أَنْكَرَ الْمِعْرَاجَ مِنْ بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ لَا يَكْفُرُ وَلَوْ صَلَّى خَلْفَ مُبْتَدِعٍ أَوْ فَاسِقٍ فَهُوَ مُحْرِزٌ ثَوَابَ الْجَمَاعَةِ لَكِنْ لَا يَنَالُ مِثْلَ مَا يَنَالُ خَلْفَ تَقِيٍّ. كَذَا فِي الْخُلَاصَةِ

Marghinani stated: The prayer behind Ahl Hawa and Ahl Bid’ah is permissible. It is not permissible behind the Rafidi, the Jahmi, the Qadariyyah, the Mushabbiha and the one who says Qur’an is created. However, with it; if Hawa (& Bi’dah) does not make its owner disbeliever with it, then the prayer behind him is Maa’l Karahat (it is permissible although, it is Makruh i.e., disliked), otherwise it is not (permissible). It is the same in at-Tabyin and al-Khulasat, and it is the Sahih (Hukm). It is also the same in al-Badai.

The one who denies Miraj he (his view) will be looked upon; if he denies al-Isra from Makkah (Masjid-i Haraam) to Bayt'ul Maqdis (Quddus) he is a Kafir and if he denies Miraj from Bayt'ul Maqdis he will not do Kufr (become Kafir).

When one performs Salah behind a Mubtadi (Ahl Bid’ah) or Fasiq he will gain the reward of the Jama’ah (prayer) however this gain will not be as much as the gain behind a Muttaqi (pious Imam). (Mentioned) in Khulasat as well.” (al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah, 1/84)

Narrations Concerning Performing Prayer Behind a Kafir in Taqiyyah (the practice of concealing one’s belief and foregoing ordinary religious duties when under threat of death or injury) and Mudahana (flattery, hypocrisy, deceit, compromising one’s principles i.e., to give up the Din in order to obtain what is worldly)

Qadi Iyad (544H) narrates Fatawa from the Ulama with regards to the Imams of the Batini Madhhab whom had settled in North Africa. Their state had been known as Banu Ubayd and also as The Fatimids.


قال القاضي الإمام عياض بن موسى بن عياض السبتي، المتوفى سنة 544 هجرية، في كتابه المذكور، في المجلد السابع / صفحة 274 وما يليها:

أبو بكر إسماعيل بن إسحاق بن عذرة الأنوي:

أثنى عليه ابن أبي يزيد [1] في شبيبته في كتابه معه، لأنه سُئل - أي ابن عذرة - عن خطباء بني عُبيد، وقيل له: إنهم سُنِّية، فقال: (أليس يقولون؛ اللهم صلِّ على عبدك الحاكم وورثة الأرض؟)، قالوا: نعم، قال: (أرأيتم لو أنّ خطيبا خطب فأثنى على الله ورسوله، فأحسن الثناء، ثم قال: أبو جهل في الجنة، أيكون كافرا؟)، قالوا: نعم، قال: (فالحاكم أشد من أبي جهل).

قال عياض: وسُئل الداودي عن المسألة، فقال: (خطيبهم الذي يخطب لهم ويدعو لهم يوم الجمعة؛ كافرٌ يُقتل، ولا يُستتاب، وتحرم عليه زوجته، ولا يرث ولا يورث، وماله فيء للمسلمين، وتعتق أمهات أولاده، ويكون مدبّروه [2] للمسلمين، يعتق أثلاثهم بموته، لأنه لم يبق له مال، ويؤدي مكاتبوه للمسلمين، ويُعتقون بالأداء، ويرقون بالعجز، واحكامه كلها أحكام الكفر، فإن تاب قبل أن يُعزل، إظهارا للندم، ولم يكن أخذ دعوة القوم قُبلت توبته، وإن كان بعد العزل أو بشيء منعه لم تُقبل، ومن صلى وراءه خوفا أعاد الظهر أربعا، ثم لا يقيم إذا أمكنه الخروج، ولا عذر له بكثرة عيال ولا غيره ).

Qadi al-Imam Iyad ibn Musa bin Iyad al-Sabti, who died in 544H, in the 7th volume of his mentioned book page 274, mentioned what follows:

“When Abu Bakr Ismail ibn Ishaq bin Uzrat al-Anwi, -Ibn Abi Yazid commended him in his youth and his book along with him,- asked about the Khutaba (preachers) of the Banu Ubayd he was told: They are Sunni!.. al-Anwi continued and said: Don’t they say: “Allahumma salli ala Abduka al-Hakim wa Warith'ul Ard! (Oh Allah bless your servant al-Hakim -the governor- whom is the heirs of the earth!)?” They replied: Yes! He stated: If you see, if a Khatib gave Khutba (discourse; religious lecture) praised Allah (Azza wa Jall) and His Rasul (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) then said Abu Jahl is in Paradise, will he then become a Kafir? They said: Yes! Then after al-Anwi stated: al-Hakim is worse (in Kufr) than Abu Jahl!..”

(Qadi) Iyad stated:

al-Dawudi was asked about the matter and he said: “Their Khatib who delivers a Khutba to them and makes Du'a for them on Friday; is a Kafir who shall be killed. He will not be asked to repent, his wife becomes Haraam to him, he will not inherit nor leave inheritance, and his wealth belongs to the Muslimin. His Ummhat'ul Awlad (the Jariyah/s, who bore him a children) will be freed, His slaves which would be freed after his death would belong to the Muslimin, because he has no wealth left, one third of his slaves would be freed, the Muslimin would pay the amount of Mukataba (an agreement made between the slave and owner; which necessitates the freedom of the slave upon the death of the owner) if not (they are not able to pay) then their slavery would continue. His provisions are provisions of disbelief. If he (the Khatib) makes Tawbah (repents) prior to his dismissal (from his job), exhibits his regret and he did not follow the call of the people (if he did not accept their Din) then his Tawbah is accepted. If it (his repentance) is after he is dismissed (from his duty) or something which prevents him from it (doing his duty), then it (his Tawbah) is not accepted. Whoever prayed (Jumu’ah) behind him out of fear would repeat the four (Rakah) of Dhuhr (prayer). Having a numerous family or other reasons, does not excuse him from not departing (moving from that location) if, he was able to.


أبو محمد الكبراني:

من القيروان، سُئل عمن أكرهه بنو عبيد على الدخول في دعوتهم أو يُقتل؟ قال: (يختار القتل، ولا يعذر أحد بهذا إلا من كان أول دخولهم البلد قبل أن يعرف أمرهم، وأما بعد؛ فقد وجب الفرار، ولا يُعذر أحد بالخوف بعد إقامته، لأن المقام في موضع يُطلب من أهله تعطيل الشرائع لا يجوز، وإنما أقام فيها من العلماء والمتعبدين على المباينة لهم، يخلو بالمسلمين عدوهم فيفتنونهم عن دينهم).

قال عياض: وعلى هذا كان جبلة بن حمود ونظرائه؛ ربيع القطان، وأبو الفضل الحمصي، ومروان ابن نصرون، والسبّائي، والجبيناني، يقولون ويفتون

Abu Muhammad al-Kabrani from Qayrawan was asked about the one whom is coerced by Bani Ubayd to accept the entrance to their calling (accepting to enter their religion) or be killed and he said:

He would choose death. There is no excuse for this one, unless it is their first entry into the country prior to knowing their command, and after (learning) it is Wajib to escape, fear would not be an excuse after his residency. It is because; it is not permissible to live in a place in which its people are requested to alter the Sharia’h. However those from among the Scholars and Abid (worshipers) only stayed there provided that they kept distant from them and free the Muslimin from their enemy and straying from their Din (becoming Kafir).

(Qadi) Iyad continued and said: Jabla ibn Hamud and his counterparts Rabi al-Qutan, Abu al-Fadl al-Hamisi, Marwan ibn Nasrun, as-Sibbai and al-Jibinani also issued Fatawa in this manner.” (Qadi Iyad, Tartib al-Madarik wa Takrib al-Masalik, 7/274)

Narrations from the Ulama of Najd

Shaykh'ul Islam Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhab (rahimahullaah) stated the following in a letter he had written to a Murtad named Ahmad bin Abd'il Karim:


وأنت - والعياذ بالله - تنْزل درجة درجة، أول مرة في الشك، وبلد الشرك وموالاتهم، والصلاة خلفهم، وبراءتك من المسلمين مداهنة لهم، ثم بعد ذلك طحت على ابن غنام وغيره، وتبرأت من ملة إبراهيم، وأشهدتهم على نفسك باتباع المشركين، من غير إكراه، لكن خوفا ومداراة

“You, -Wa iyadhu billah (We seek refuge to Allah)!- are gradually descending! The first in doubt, then the land of Shirk and Muwalat (be-friending i.e., to have close and intimate relationship and deep love and affection from one’s heart) to them, and the prayer behind them and you made Baraa (distanced) from the Muslimin by Mudahana to them, then by taking refuge to Ibn Ghanam and others you made Tabbari (distanced) from the Millah of Ibrahim. And witness them on yourself by following the Mushrikin. You did all of these without Ikrah (compulsion), but out of fear and Mudarat (managing i.e., to express friendship and love only outwardly without having love for them and their beliefs internally).” (Durar as-Saniyyah, 10/64)

Shaykh Abd'ul Latif ibn Abd'ir Rahman ibn Hasan alush-Shakyh (1293H), from the grandsons of Shaykh Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhab stated:


[ معاشرة أعداء الله ومداهنتهم والصلاة خلفهم ]

وله أيضاً، أسكنه الله الفردوس الأعلى:

بسم الله الرحمن الر حيم

من عبد اللطيف بن عبد الرحمن، إلى الأخ المحب: سهل بن عبد الله، سهل الله له الطريق الموصلة إليه، ووالى إفضاله وإنعامه عليه؛ سلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته.

وبعد، فأحمد إليك الله الذي لا إله إلا هو على إنعامه. وخطك لابن عجلان وجوابه لك وصلنا. والواجب على من عوفي في دينه، من هذه الورطات، أن يكثر من ذكر الله وشكره. وفي جوابه من الفهاهة والظلمة، ما لا يعرفه إلا أرباب البصائر، ولو سلم دينه وصح معتقده، لكانت له مندوحة عن معاشرة أعداء الله، ومداهنتهم، والصلاة خلفهم، ولو نوى الانفراد

Socializing with the Enemies of Allah (Azza wa Jall), Mudahana to them and Salah Behind them

Here it also is; May Allah place him in the uppermost Firdaws!..

In the name of Allah the most Beneficient, the most Merciful.

From Abd'ul Latif inn Abd'ir Rahman to beloved brother Sahl ibn Abdillah... Your letter to Ibn Ajlan and his response to you reached us… There is weakness and Dhulm in his reply, what is only known by the owners of Basirah. (This man) Even if he secured his Din and was firm in his I’tiqad, it would have been inevitable for his cohabitation with the enemies of Allah, Mudahana to them and prayer behind them, even if he intends (to pray) Munfarid (alone, by himself)...” (Durar as-Saniyyah, Babi Jihaad, 399)

Elsewhere after having narrated from scholars (regarding, Ulama making Takfir of Jahmiyyah against those who claim that Imam Ahmad and his Ashab did not make Takfir of Jahmiyyah and the ones that bring forth the claim that Imam Ahmad and other scholars prayed behind Jahmi Imam so that they did not make Takfir of them!) Shaykh Abd'il Latif stated:


والصلاة خلفهم لا سيما صلاة الجمعة، لا تنافي القول بتكفيرهم، لكن تجب الإعادة حيث لا تمكن الصلاة خلف غيرهم؛ والرواية المشهورة عن الإمام أحمد، هي المنع من الصلاة خلفهم، وقد يفرق بين من قامت عليه الحجة التي يكفر تاركها، وبين من لا شعور له بذلك؛ وهذا القول يميل إليه شيخ الإسلام، في المسائل التي قد يخفى دليلها على بعض الناس

The prayer behind them especially the Jumu’ah prayer do not contradict their making Takfir of them. However it (the prayer) must be repeated when the prayer behind others is not possible. The well-known view of Imam Ahmad is; the prohibition of the prayer behind them. Perhaps he made a distinction between the one whom the Hujjah -that makes one become a Kafir (infidel) when abandoned- has been established and the one who is not aware of it. Shaykh'ul Islam inclined to this view (i.e., not performing Takfir) in matters which its Dalil (evidence) may be obscure for some people.

After he mentioned that Takfir should be performed against them because the Hujjah had been established to the contemporary Jahmiyyah, he stated that scholars had made Ijmaa over making Takfir of them and prayers that are performed behind them are not valid:


وقد صرح الإمام أحمد فيما نقل عنه ابنه عبد الله وغيره، أنه كان يعيد صلاة الجمعة وغيرها، وقد يفعله المؤمن مع غيرهم من المرتدين، إذا كانت لهم شوكة ودولة؛ والنصوص في ذلك معروفة مشهورة

Imam Ahmad stated as quoted by his son Abdullah and others; that he would repeat the Jumu’ah Prayer and others. The Mu’min person would do the same with Murtadin other than them, if they had dominance and authority. The Nass regarding this are Ma'ruf and Mashhur.” (Durar as-Saniyyah, 4/408

صلاة الجماعة والأعياد خلف من لا يحكم بردته جائزة، وأنه رأي أهل السنة والجماعة؛ قال شيخ الإسلام: ويرون الجماعة وإقامة الجمعة والأعياد مع الأئمة، أبراراً أو فجاراً; وقال أيضاً: بل الجماعة واجبة على الأعيان في ظاهر مذهب أحمد وغيره من أئمة السنة. انتهى. هذا بخلاف من حكم بردته، فإنه لا يصلى خلفه جمعة ولا جماعة؛ وفيه خلاف ضعيف مردود، ذكره بعضهم

The Son of Hamd ibn Atiq, Sa’d ibn Hamd (Allah knows best of his religious state) while mentioning a similar issue without having mentioned the source, stated that there is Ikhtilaaf (dispute) concerning this matter. After stating Salah can be performed behind those other than who have been given the Hukm (judgment) of Murtad, he continued:

The Jama’ah (congregation) and the Eid prayer is permissible behind the one who has not been given the Hukm of his Riddah (apostate), this is the view of the Ahl'us Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah.

Shaykh’ul Islam stated: "And they recognize the Jama’ah (congregation) establish the Jumu’ah (prayer) and the Eid (prayer) with the righteous or Fajir (evildoer) Imams." He also said: "Yet the Jama’ah (congregation) is Wajib on individuals in the Dhahir Madhhab of Ahmad and others from the Sunni Imams." (End of quote)

This is contrary to the one who has been given the Hukm (ruling) of his Riddah (apostasy). Neither Jumu’ah (Friday) nor Jamaa'ah (congregation) prayer can be performed behind him (the Murtad). Some have mentioned, weak Mardud (rejected) Ikhtilaaf (dispute) about this.” (ad-Durar as-Saniyyah, 4/406)



* The views of scholars and Madhahib will be quoted in this work. Amongst those who are quoted there are some whom are in opposition with the Aqidah of Salaf. Moreover some might be affiliated with Ahl Kalam and Ahl Tasawwuf. The reason we have quoted them is not because we legitimize their Manhaj or Aqidah but merely bring to light the views of the Madhhab they are affiliated with.
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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