التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: The Creed of Imam ash-Shaafii (204H)  (Read 828 times)

Fahm'us Salaf

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The Creed of Imam ash-Shaafii (204H)
« on: August 31, 2015, 06:42:40 PM »
The Last Testament of Imam ash-Shaafii (204H)1
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Quote from: comment
This testament that is attributed to Imam ash-Shafii (rahimahullah) in various sources clearly shows that those who attribute themselves to Imam ash-Shafii and claim the views of the Ashariyyah and even the Jahmiyyah under the banner of Ahl'us Sunnah have nothing to do with Imam ash-Shafii (rahimahullah). Especially in the bolded and underlined parts of this testament Imam ash-Shafii (rahimahullah) stated that Allah is above His Arsh (throne) and also stated that Iman (faith) is statement and action, it increases and decreases. These statements are the evidences for what we have said.

Chain 1

We were informed by ash-Shaykh az-Zaki Abu Ali al-Hasan ibn Salaamah ibn Muhammad al-Harraani who said: we were informed by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Nahbaan al-Qanawi ar-Riqqi who said: we were informed by Shaykh'ul Islam Abu'l Hasan Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Qurashi al-Hakkaari who said: we were informed by az-Zaahid Ahmad ibn Aasim al-Musili who said we were informed by Abu'l Fath Ali ibn'ul Qaasim al-Muqri, in Musil that he said: I recorded from the book of ibn Haashim al-Baladi:

This is what Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shaafii (rahimahullah) left as a final testament:

Chain 2

Shaykh'ul Islam said: and we were informed by Abu Mansur Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Muhammad ibn'ul Hasan ibn Sahl ibn Khalifah ibn'us Sabbaah al-Baladi who said: I was informed by my grandfather Muhammad ibn'ul Muhsin ibn Sahal ibn Khalifah who said: we were informed by Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Hishaam ibn Umar al-Baladi who said:

This is the last testament of Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shaafii (rahimahullaah), he left as his last testament:

the Text

That he (i.e., Imam ash-Shaafii) bears witness that there is no deity worthy of worship but Allah (Azza wa Jalla), without partners, and that Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) is His slave and messenger.

And that he believes in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers:


لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ

We do not differentiate between any of His messengers. (al-Baqarah 2/285)

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَاْ أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

And that my prayer, my slaughtering, my living, and my dying are for Allah the Lord of the Worlds, He has no partners and this is that with which I have been ordered. (al-Anam 6/162-163)

And that Allah will resurrect those who are in their graves.

And that the Jannah (Paradise) is a reality.

And that Naar (the fire i.e., Hell) is a reality.

And that Azab'ul Qabr (the punishment of the grave), the taking of account, Mizan (the scale), and Siraat (the bridge) are realities.

And that Allah will take His slaves to account in accordance with their actions.

By Him do I live and die, and by Him will I be resurrected if Allah Wills.

And I bear witness that Iman (belief) is made up of statements and actions, and knowledge in the heart, and it increases and decreases.

And that the Qur'an is Kalamullah (the Speech of Allah) and it is not Makhluq (created).

And that Allah shall be seen in the hereafter. The believers will see Him directly with the naked eye, and they will hear His Words.

And that He is above His Arsh (throne).

And that Qadr (pre-destination), its Khayr (good) and its Sharr (bad), is from Allah. Nothing will be except that which He Wished, Willed, and Ordained.

And that the best of mankind after Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) is Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anh), then Umar (radiyallahu anh), then Uthman (radiyallahu anh), then Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh). And I ally with them, I ask forgiveness for them, and for the people of the Battle of the Jamal and the Battle of Siffin, those who killed and those who were killed, as well as for all of Sahabah (the companions) of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam).

And that listening and obedience belongs to those in authority, as long as they pray, and those who are under their leadership should not revolt against them with the sword.

And that Khilafah (caliphate) is for the Quraysh.

And that everything that intoxicates in great amounts is prohibited in small amounts.

That Mut'ah (Nikah) is prohibited.

And I leave, as my testament, the fear of Allah (subhanahu wa ta'ala) and holding fast to the Sunnah and the narrations from Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and his companions, and leaving off innovations and desires and staying far away from them.

And:


وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَحْتَسِبُ وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ

Fear Allah as the fear He deserves and do not die unless you are a Muslim. (Al-i Imran 3/102)

For this is the last testament of Salaf (the early ones) and Khalaf (the later ones).

And that:


وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَحْتَسِبُ وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ

Whoever fears Allah, He will make for him a way out. And He will provide for him from whence he would not expect. (at-Talaq 65/3)

And fear Allah to the best of your ability.

And hold fast to Jumu'ah (Friday Prayer) and the Jamaa'ah (Congregation Prayer), and hold firmly upon the Sunnah, and Iman (Belief), and seeking knowledge of Din (the religion i.e., Islam).

And whoever is with me (near my death bed) then let him prompt me with: There is no deity worthy of worship but Allah, alone, without partners, and Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) is His slave and messenger, and clip my nails and mustache before I die, if Allah Wills it so, and if I am approached by death and there are women around me, then let them leave, and let those who are with me apply oil and perfume upon my bed.

And Shaykh'ul Islam said: We were informed by Abu Ya'la al-Khalil ibn Abdullah al-Hafidh who said: We were informed by Abu'l Qaasim ibn A'lqamah al-Abhari who said: We were informed by Abd'ur Rahman ibn Abi Haatim ar-Razi, from Abi Shu'ayb, and Abi Thawr, from Abi Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah) that he said:

That which is said regarding the Sunnah, and that which I am upon and that which I found our companions upon from the people of Hadith upon, those whom I have seen and took from them, like Sufyan (ibn Uyaynah) and Malik, and others is:

The affirmation of the testimony that there is no deity worthy of worship but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and then he mentioned something, and then he said: And that Allah is upon His throne upon His heavens.

and He (i.e., Allah) comes close to His creation however He Wills.

And that Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) descends to the lower heaven however He Wills, (and then he mentioned the rest of the beliefs with this chain of narration.)

Abd'ur Rahman ibn Abi Hatim said: We were informed by Yunus ibn Abd'ul A'laa who said: I heard Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah) say -and he had been asked about the Attributes of Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) and what he believes- so he said:

That Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) has Names and Attributes, which were brought by His Book, and He informed His Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ummah about them. It is not allowed for anyone from the creation of Allah (Jalla Jalaluhu) can reject them after the proof has been established upon him, because the Qur'an was descended with them, and it has been reported authentically from Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) that he spoke with them, in that which a trustworthy person has narrated from him. And if he opposes this after proof has been established upon him then he is a disbeliever. As for (his situation) before the proof being established upon him then he is excused due to ignorance, because the knowledge of this cannot be perceived by the mind, nor by seeing or pondering, and none commit disbelief by not knowing them except after the authentication of a narration that contains them. And we affirm these Attributes, and we reject any likeness (with the creation) as He negated likeness (with the creation) from Himself as He said:


لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Seer, All-Hearer. (ash-Shura 42/11)

And ash-Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah) said: The leadership of Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anh) was ordained by Allah (Azza wa Jall) from above His heaven, and He united the hearts of the companions of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) in agreement upon it.



Quote from: Footnotes
1- The Last Testament of Imam ash-Shaafii can be found as a whole or partially- in the following books: Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmuul Fatawa, 4/181-183; Ibn Qayyim, Ijtimaul Juyush; Bayhaqi, al-Manakib, 1/300-301, 1/415, 1/433; adh-Dhahabi, al-Uluww lil Aliyyil Adhim; adh-Dhahabi Siyar Alamun Nubala; Abu Abdullah ibn Batta, al-Ibanah; Suyuti, al-Amr bil Ittiba; Ibn Ahdal, Kashful Ghita an Haqaiqul Tawhid wa Aqaidul Muwahhidin; Abul Hasan Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Yusuf al-Hakkari, Itiqadul Imam Abi Abdullah Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafii al-Muttalibi
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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