التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: BID'AH THAT ARE RELATED WITH THE DAY OF ASHURA & SOME OF THE FABRICATED REPORTS  (Read 727 times)

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Bid’ah (Reprehensible Innovations) that are Related with the Day of Ashura and some of the Fabricated Reports
بِسْمِ اللهِ، اَلْحَمْدُ ِللهِ وَالصَّلاَةُ وَالسَّلاَمُ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللهِ وَبَعْدُ

We are presenting the following article –while hoping it to benefit the reader- with regards to the Bid’ah that are related with the Day of Ashura and fabricated reports that are Mashhur (famous) amongst the laypeople by compiling it from the works of the Ulama (pl., Alim; scholars).

Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah), mentioned there are two types of Bid’ah regarding the Day of Ashura and said:


وصار الشيطان بسبب قتل الحسين رضي الله عنه ، يُحدث للناس بدعتين : بدعة الحزن والنوح يوم عاشوراء من اللطم والصراخ والبكاء وإنشاد المراثى . . . وبدعة السرور والفرح . . . فأحدث أولئك الحزن ، وأحدث هؤلاء السرور ، فصاروا يستحبون يوم عاشوراء الاكتحال والاغتسال والتوسعة على العيال وإحداث أطعمة غير معتادة . . . وكل بدعة ضلالة ، ولم يستحبَّ أحدٌ من أئمة المسلمين الأربعة وغيرهم لا هذا ولا هذا

"Because of the killing of Husayn (ibn Ali) radiyallahu anh, the Shaytan (Satan) started to spread two kinds of Bid’ah (innovation) amongst the people:

the Bid’ah of grieving and wailing on the Day of Ashura (10th of Muharram), striking the cheeks, screaming, weeping and reciting eulogies (...);

and the Bid’ah of expressing happiness and joy. (...) So some express grief and others express joy, so they started to like the idea of wearing kohl, taking a bath, spending on their families and preparing special kinds of food on the Day of Ashura (...)

and every Bid’ah is a going astray; none of the four imams of the Muslims or others approved of either of these things (either expressing grief or expressing joy)." (Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj'ul Sunnah, 4/554-556)

Ibn Kathir spoke regarding these two Bid’ah evaluating them historically and stated:


وقد أسرف الرافضة في دولة بني بويه في حدود الأربعمائة وما حولها فكانت الدبادب - أي الطبول - تضرب ببغداد ونحوها من البلاد في يوم عاشوراء، ويُذر الرماد والتبن في الطرقات والأسواق، وتعلق المسوح على الدكاكين، ويظهر الناس الحزن والبكاء، وكثيرٌ منهم لا يشرب الماء تلك الليلة موافقةً للحسين؛ لأنه قتل عطشان ثم تخرج النساء حاسراتٍ عن وجوههن ينحن ويلطمنَ وُجوههن وصدورهن حافيات في الأسواق إلى غير ذلك من البدع الشنيعة والأهواء الفظيعة، والهتائك المخترعة ، وإنما يريدون بهذا وأشباهه أن يشنعوا على دولة بني أمية، لأنه قتل في دولتهم.
وقد عاكس الرافضةَ والشيعة يوم عاشوراء النواصبُ من أهل الشام، فكانوا إلى يوم عاشوراء يطبخون الحبوب ويغتسلون ويتطيبون ويلبسون أفخر ثيابهم ويتخذون ذلك اليوم عيدا يصنعون فيه أنواع الأطعمة، ويظهرون السرور والفرح، يريدون بذلك عناد الروافض ومعاكستهم


"The Raafidis went to extremes in the state of Bani Buwayh in the year fourhundred and thereabouts. The drums were beaten in Baghdad and other cities on the Day of Ashura, and sand and straw was strewn in the streets and marketplaces, and sackcloth was hung on the shops, and the people expressed grief and wept. Many of them did not drink water that night, in sympathy with Husayn (radiyallahu anh), because he was killed when he was thirsty. Then the women went out barefaced, wailing and slapping their faces and chests, walking barefoot in the marketplaces, and other reprehensible innovations… What they intended by these and similar actions is to impugn the state of Banu Umayyah (the Umayyads), because he was killed during their era.

On the Day of Ashura, the Naasibis of Syria do the opposite of what the Raafidis and Shi’ah do. They used to cook grains on the Day of ‘Ashura and do ghusl and perfume themselves, and wear their finest garments, and they took that day as an Id for which they made all kinds of food, and expressed happiness and joy, intending thereby to annoy the Raafidis and be different from them." (Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaayah wa’l Nihaayah, 8/220)

The following explanations regarding the different types of Bid’ah which are performed on the Day of Ashura is summarized from the words of Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah from the fifth volume of his book "al-Fatawa al-Kubra". He was asked about; applying kohl on eyes, having Gusl (bath for purification), applying henna etc., on the Day of Ashura and whether these are prescribed in the Sahih (sound) Hadith (tradition) of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) or not, if not then whether they are Bid'ah or not and also whether or not acts of Rafidha such as mourning, not drinking water, wailing etc., has any base...


سُئِلَ شَيْخُ الإِسْلامِ هذا السؤال فأجاب بقوله

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah was asked this question and he replied as follows:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ . لَمْ يَرِدْ فِي شَيْءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحٌ  عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلا عَنْ أَصْحَابِهِ , وَلا اسْتَحَبَّ ذَلِكَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ لا الأَئِمَّةِ الأَرْبَعَةِ , وَلا غَيْرِهِمْ . وَلا رَوَى أَهْلُ الْكُتُبِ الْمُعْتَمَدَةِ فِي ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا , لا عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلا الصَّحَابَةِ , وَلا التَّابِعِينَ , لا صَحِيحًا وَلا ضَعِيفًا , لا فِي كُتُبِ الصَّحِيحِ , وَلا فِي السُّنَنِ , وَلا الْمَسَانِيدِ , وَلا يُعْرَفُ شَيْءٌ مِنْ هَذِهِ الأَحَادِيثِ عَلَى عَهْدِ الْقُرُونِ الْفَاضِلَةِ . وَلَكِنْ رَوَى بَعْضُ الْمُتَأَخِّرِينَ فِي ذَلِكَ أَحَادِيثَ مِثْلَ مَا رَوَوْا أَنَّ مَنْ اكْتَحَلَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ لَمْ يَرْمَدْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْعَامِ , وَمَنْ اغْتَسَلَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ لَمْ يَمْرَضْ ذَلِكَ الْعَامِ , وَأَمْثَالِ ذَلِكَ . وَرَوَوْا فَضَائِلَ فِي صَلاةِ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ , وَرَوَوْا أَنَّ فِي يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ تَوْبَةَ آدَمَ , وَاسْتِوَاءَ السَّفِينَةِ عَلَى الْجُودِيِّ , وَرَدَّ يُوسُفَ عَلَى يَعْقُوبَ , وَإِنْجَاءَ إبْرَاهِيمَ مِنْ النَّارِ , وَفِدَاءَ الذَّبِيحِ بِالْكَبْشِ وَنَحْوَ ذَلِكَ . وَرَوَوْا فِي حَدِيثٍ مَوْضُوعٍ مَكْذُوبٍ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم : { أَنَّهُ مَنْ وَسَّعَ عَلَى أَهْلِهِ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَسَّعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ سَائِرَ السَّنَةِ } .
... طَائِفَة رَافِضَة يُظْهِرُونَ مُوَالاةَ أَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ , وَهُمْ فِي الْبَاطِنِ إمَّا مَلاحِدَةٌ زَنَادِقَةٌ , وَإِمَّا جُهَّالٌ , وَأَصْحَابُ هَوًى . وَطَائِفَةٌ نَاصِبَةٌ تَبْغُضُ عَلِيًّا , وَأَصْحَابَهُ , لِمَا جَرَى مِنْ الْقِتَالِ فِي الْفِتْنَةِ مَا جَرَى . وَقَدْ ثَبَتَ فِي صَحِيحِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ : { سَيَكُونُ فِي ثَقِيفٍ كَذَّابٌ وَمُبِيرٌ } . فَكَانَ الْكَذَّابُ هُوَ الْمُخْتَارَ بْنَ أَبِي عُبَيْدٍ الثَّقَفِيَّ , وَكَانَ يُظْهِرُ مُوَالاةَ أَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ , وَالانْتِصَارَ لَهُمْ , وَقَتَلَ عُبَيْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ زِيَادٍ أَمِيرَ الْعِرَاقِ الَّذِي جَهَّزَ السَّرِيَّةَ الَّتِي قَتَلَتْ الْحُسَيْنَ بْنَ عَلِيٍّ رضي الله عنهما ثُمَّ إنَّهُ أَظْهَرَ الْكَذِبَ , وَادَّعَى النُّبُوَّةَ , وَأَنَّ جِبْرِيلَ  عليه السلام يَنْزِلُ عَلَيْهِ , حَتَّى قَالُوا لابْنِ عُمَرَ وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ . قَالُوا لأَحَدِهِمَا : إنَّ الْمُخْتَارَ بْنَ أَبِي عُبَيْدٍ يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ يَنْزِلُ عَلَيْهِ , فَقَالَ صَدَقَ , قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى : { هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ عَلَى مَنْ تَنَزَّلُ الشَّيَاطِينُ تَنَزَّلُ عَلَى كُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍ } . وَقَالُوا لِلآخَرِ : إنَّ الْمُخْتَارَ يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ يُوحَى إلَيْهِ فَقَالَ صَدَقَ : { وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إلَى أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ } . وَأَمَّا الْمُبِيرُ فَهُوَ الْحَجَّاجُ بْنُ يُوسُفَ الثَّقَفِيُّ , وَكَانَ : مُنْحَرِفًا عَنْ عَلِيٍّ وَأَصْحَابِهِ , فَكَانَ هَذَا مِنْ النَّوَاصِبِ , وَالأَوَّلُ مِنْ الرَّوَافِضِ , وَهَذَا الرَّافِضِيُّ كَانَ : أَعْظَمَ كَذِبًا وَافْتِرَاءً , وَإِلْحَادًا فِي الدِّينِ , فَإِنَّهُ ادَّعَى النُّبُوَّةَ ..
وَكَانَ فِي الْكُوفَةِ بَيْنَ هَؤُلاءِ وَهَؤُلاءِ فِتَنٌ وَقِتَالٌ فَلَمَّا قُتِلَ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ رضي الله عنهما يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ قَتَلَتْهُ الطَّائِفَةُ الظَّالِمَةُ الْبَاغِيَةُ , وَأَكْرَمَ اللَّهُ الْحُسَيْنَ بِالشَّهَادَةِ , كَمَا أَكْرَمَ بِهَا مَنْ أَكْرَمَ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ . أَكْرَمَ بِهَا حَمْزَةَ وَجَعْفَرَ , وَأَبَاهُ عَلِيًّا , وَغَيْرَهُمْ , وَكَانَتْ شَهَادَتُهُ مِمَّا رَفَعَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مَنْزِلَتَهُ , وَأَعْلَى دَرَجَتَهُ , فَإِنَّهُ هُوَ وَأَخُوهُ الْحَسَنُ سَيِّدَا شَبَابِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ , وَالْمَنَازِلُ الْعَالِيَةُ لا تُنَالُ إلاّ بِالْبَلاءِ , كَمَا قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم { لَمَّا سُئِلَ : أَيُّ النَّاسِ أَشَدُّ بَلاءً فَقَالَ : الأَنْبِيَاءُ ثُمَّ الصَّالِحُونَ ثُمَّ الأَمْثَلُ فَالأَمْثَلُ يُبْتَلَى الرَّجُلُ عَلَى حَسَبِ دِينِهِ , فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي دِينِهِ صَلابَةٌ زِيدَ فِي بَلائِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ فِي دِينِهِ رِقَّةٌ خُفِّفَ عَنْهُ , وَلا يَزَالُ الْبَلاءُ بِالْمُؤْمِنِ حَتَّى يَمْشِيَ عَلَى الأَرْضِ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ خَطِيئَةٌ } . رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ . فَكَانَ الْحَسَنُ وَالْحُسَيْنُ قَدْ سَبَقَ لَهُمَا مِنْ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى مَا سَبَقَ , مِنْ الْمَنْزِلَةِ الْعَالِيَةِ , وَلَمْ يَكُنْ قَدْ حَصَلَ لَهُمَا مِنْ الْبَلاءِ مَا حَصَلَ لِسَلَفِهِمَا الطَّيِّبِ , فَإِنَّهُمَا وُلِدَا فِي عِزِّ الإِسْلامِ , وَتَرَبَّيَا فِي عِزٍّ وَكَرَامَةٍ , وَالْمُسْلِمُونَ يُعَظِّمُونَهُمَا وَيُكْرِمُونَهُمَا , وَمَاتَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم  وَلَمْ يَسْتَكْمِلا مِنْ التَّمْيِيزِ , فَكَانَتْ نِعْمَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمَا أَنْ ابْتَلاهُمَا بِمَا يُلْحِقُهُمَا بِأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِمَا , كَمَا اُبْتُلِيَ مَنْ كَانَ أَفْضَلَ مِنْهُمَا , فَإِنَّ عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ أَفْضَلُ مِنْهُمَا , وَقَدْ قُتِلَ شَهِيدًا وَكَانَ مَقْتَلُ الْحُسَيْنِ مِمَّا ثَارَتْ بِهِ الْفِتَنُ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ . كَمَا كَانَ مَقْتَلُ عُثْمَانَ رضي الله عنه مِنْ أَعْظَمِ الأَسْبَابِ الَّتِي أَوْجَبَتْ الْفِتَنَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ , وَبِسَبَبِهِ تَفَرَّقَتْ الأُمَّةُ إلَيَّ الْيَوْمِ . وَلِهَذَا جَاءَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ { ثَلاثٌ مَنْ نَجَا مِنْهُنَّ فَقَدْ نَجَا : مَوْتِي , وَقَتْلُ خَلِيفَةٍ مُصْطَبِرٍ وَالدَّجَّالُ }
 ... ثم إنَّهُ مَاتَ وَصَارَ إلَى كَرَامَةِ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانِهِ , وَقَامَتْ طَوَائِفُ كَاتَبُوا الْحُسَيْنَ وَوَعَدُوهُ بِالنَّصْرِ وَالْمُعَاوَنَةِ إذَا قَامَ بِالأَمْرِ , وَلَمْ يَكُونُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ ذَلِكَ , بَلْ لَمَّا أَرْسَلَ إلَيْهِمْ ابْنَ عَمِّهِ أَخْلَفُوا وَعْدَهُ , وَنَقَضُوا عَهْدَهُ , وَأَعَانُوا عَلَيْهِ مَنْ وَعَدُوهُ أَنْ يَدْفَعُوهُ عَنْهُ , وَيُقَاتِلُوهُ مَعَهُ . وَكَانَ أَهْلُ الرَّأْيِ وَالْمَحَبَّةِ لِلْحُسَيْنِ كَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ وَغَيْرِهِمَا أَشَارُوا عَلَيْهِ بِأَنْ لا يَذْهَبَ إلَيْهِمْ , وَلا يَقْبَلَ مِنْهُمْ , وَرَأَوْا أَنَّ خُرُوجَهُ إلَيْهِمْ لَيْسَ بِمَصْلَحَةٍ , وَلا يَتَرَتَّبُ عَلَيْهِ مَا يَسُرُّ , وَكَانَ الأَمْرُ كَمَا قَالُوا , وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قَدَرًا مَقْدُورًا .  فَلَمَّا خَرَجَ الْحُسَيْنُ - رضي الله عنه - وَرَأَى أَنَّ الأُمُورَ قَدْ تَغَيَّرَتْ , طَلَبَ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يَدْعُوهُ يَرْجِعُ , أَوْ يَلْحَقَ بِبَعْضِ الثُّغُورِ , أَوْ يَلْحَقَ بِابْنِ عَمِّهِ يَزِيدَ , فَمَنَعُوهُ هَذَا وَهَذَا . حَتَّى يَسْتَأْسِرَ , وَقَاتَلُوهُ فَقَاتَلَهُمْ فَقَتَلُوهُ . وَطَائِفَةٌ مِمَّنْ مَعَهُ , مَظْلُومًا شَهِيدًا شَهَادَةً أَكْرَمُهُ اللَّهُ بِهَا وَأَلْحَقَهُ بِأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ الطَّيِّبِينَ الطَّاهِرِينَ . وَأَهَانَ بِهَا مَنْ ظَلَمَهُ وَاعْتَدَى عَلَيْهِ , وَأَوْجَبَ ذَلِكَ شَرًّا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ . فَصَارَتْ طَائِفَةٌ جَاهِلَةٌ ظَالِمَةٌ : إمَّا مُلْحِدَةٌ مُنَافِقَةٌ , وَإِمَّا ضَالَّةٌ غَاوِيَةٌ , تُظْهِرُ مُوَالاتَهُ , وَمُوَالاةَ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ تَتَّخِذُ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ يَوْمَ مَأْتَمٍ وَحُزْنٍ وَنِيَاحَةٍ , وَتُظْهِرُ فِيهِ شِعَارَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ مِنْ لَطْمِ الْخُدُودِ , وَشَقِّ الْجُيُوبِ , وَالتَّعَزِّي بِعَزَاءِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ . وَاَلَّذِي أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ وَرَسُولُهُ فِي الْمُصِيبَةِ - إذَا كَانَتْ جَدِيدَةً - إنَّمَا هُوَ الصَّبْرُ وَالاحْتِسَابُ وَالاسْتِرْجَاعُ . كَمَا قَالَ تَعَالَى : { وَبَشِّرْ الصَّابِرِينَ الَّذِينَ إذَا أَصَابَتْهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُهْتَدُونَ } . وَفِي الصَّحِيحِ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ : { لَيْسَ مِنَّا مِنْ لَطَمَ الْخُدُودَ , وَشَقَّ الْجُيُوبَ , وَدَعَا بِدَعْوَى الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ } . وَقَالَ : { أَنَا بَرِيءٌ مِنْ الصَّالِقَةِ , وَالْحَالِقَةِ , وَالشَّاقَّةِ } . وَقَالَ : { النَّائِحَةُ إذَا لَمْ تَتُبْ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهَا تُقَامُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَعَلَيْهَا سِرْبَالٌ مِنْ قَطِرَانٍ وَدِرْعٌ مِنْ جَرَبٍ } . وَفِي الْمُسْنَدِ عَنْ فَاطِمَةَ بِنْتِ الْحُسَيْنِ , عَنْ أَبِيهَا الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ : { مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ يُصَابُ بِمُصِيبَةٍ , فَيَذْكُرُ مُصِيبَتَهُ وَإِنْ قَدِمَتْ , فَيُحْدِثُ لَهَا اسْتِرْجَاعًا إلاّ أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ الأَجْرِ مِثْلَ أَجْرِهِ يَوْمَ أُصِيبَ بِهَا } .  وَهَذَا مِنْ كَرَامَةِ اللَّهِ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ , فَإِنَّ مُصِيبَةَ الْحُسَيْنِ وَغَيْرِهِ إذَا ذُكِرَتْ بَعْدَ طُولِ الْعَهْدِ , فَيَنْبَغِي لِلْمُؤْمِنِ أَنْ يَسْتَرْجِعَ فِيهَا كَمَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ لِيُعْطَى مِنْ الأَجْرِ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ الْمُصَابِ يَوْمَ أُصِيبَ بِهَا . وَإِذَا كَانَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى قَدْ أَمَرَ بِالصَّبْرِ وَالاحْتِسَابِ عِنْدَ حَدَثَانِ الْعَهْدِ بِالْمُصِيبَةِ , فَكَيْفَ مَعَ طُولِ الزَّمَانِ , فَكَانَ مَا زَيَّنَهُ الشَّيْطَانُ لأَهْلِ الضَّلالِ وَالْغَيِّ مِنْ اتِّخَاذِ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ مَأْتَمًا , وَمَا يَصْنَعُونَ فِيهِ مِنْ النَّدْبِ وَالنِّيَاحَةِ , وَإِنْشَادِ قَصَائِدِ الْحُزْنِ , وَرِوَايَةِ الأَخْبَارِ الَّتِي فِيهَا كَذِبٌ كَثِيرٌ وَالصِّدْقُ فِيهَا لَيْسَ فِيهِ إلا تَجْدِيدُ الْحُزْنِ , وَالتَّعَصُّبُ , وَإِثَارَةُ الشَّحْنَاءِ وَالْحَرْبِ , وَإِلْقَاءُ الْفِتَنِ بَيْنَ أَهْلِ الإِسْلامِ , وَالتَّوَسُّلُ بِذَلِكَ إلَى سَبِّ السَّابِقِينَ الأَوَّلِينَ , وَكَثْرَةُ الْكَذِبِ وَالْفِتَنِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَلَمْ يَعْرِفْ طَوَائِفُ الإِسْلامِ أَكْثَرَ كَذِبًا وَفِتَنًا وَمُعَاوَنَةً لِلْكُفَّارِ عَلَى أَهْلِ الإِسْلامِ , مِنْ هَذِهِ الطَّائِفَةِ الضَّالَّةِ الْغَاوِيَةِ , فَإِنَّهُمْ شَرٌّ مِنْ الْخَوَارِجِ الْمَارِقِينَ . وَأُولَئِكَ قَالَ فِيهِمْ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم : { يَقْتُلُونَ أَهْلَ الإِسْلامِ , وَيَدَعُونَ أَهْلَ الأَوْثَانِ } . وَهَؤُلاءِ يُعَاوِنُونَ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ عَلَى أَهْلِ بَيْتِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأُمَّتِهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كَمَا أَعَانُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ مِنْ التُّرْكِ وَالتَّتَارِ عَلَى مَا فَعَلُوهُ بِبَغْدَادَ , وَغَيْرِهَا , بِأَهْلِ بَيْتِ النُّبُوَّةِ , وَمَعْدِنِ الرِّسَالَةِ وَلَدِ الْعَبَّاسِ , وَغَيْرِهِمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْبَيْتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ , مِنْ الْقَتْلِ وَالسَّبْيِ وَخَرَابِ الدِّيَارِ . وَشَرُّ هَؤُلاءِ وَضَرَرُهُمْ عَلَى أَهْلِ الإِسْلامِ , لا يُحْصِيهِ الرَّجُلُ الْفَصِيحُ فِي الْكَلامِ . فَعَارَضَ هَؤُلاءِ قَوْمٌ إمَّا مِنْ النَّوَاصِبِ الْمُتَعَصِّبِينَ عَلَى الْحُسَيْنِ وَأَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ , وَإِمَّا مِنْ الْجُهَّالِ الَّذِينَ قَابَلُوا الْفَاسِدَ بِالْفَاسِدِ , وَالْكَذِبَ بِالْكَذِبِ , وَالشَّرَّ بِالشَّرِّ , وَالْبِدْعَةَ بِالْبِدْعَةِ , فَوَضَعُوا الآثَارَ فِي شَعَائِرِ الْفَرَحِ وَالسُّرُورِ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ كَالاكْتِحَالِ وَالاخْتِضَابِ , وَتَوْسِيعِ النَّفَقَاتِ عَلَى الْعِيَالِ , وَطَبْخِ الأَطْعِمَةِ الْخَارِجَةِ عَنْ الْعَادَةِ , وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ مِمَّا يُفْعَلُ فِي الأَعْيَادِ وَالْمَوَاسِمِ , فَصَارَ هَؤُلاءِ يَتَّخِذُونَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ مَوْسِمًا كَمَوَاسِمِ الأَعْيَادِ وَالأَفْرَاحِ . وَأُولَئِكَ يَتَّخِذُونَهُ مَأْتَمًا يُقِيمُونَ فِيهِ الأَحْزَانَ وَالأَتْرَاحَ وَكِلا الطَّائِفَتَيْنِ مُخْطِئَةٌ خَارِجَةٌ عَنْ السُّنَّةِ , وَإِنْ كَانَ أُولَئِكَ ( أي الرافضة ) أَسْوَأَ قَصْدًا وَأَعْظَمَ جَهْلا , وَأَظْهَرَ ظُلْمًا , لَكِنَّ اللَّهَ أَمَرَ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالإِحْسَانِ . وَقَدْ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم : { إنَّهُ مَنْ يَعِشْ مِنْكُمْ بَعْدِي فَسَيَرَى اخْتِلافًا كَثِيرًا , فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ مِنْ بَعْدِي , تَمَسَّكُوا بِهَا وَعَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ , وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَمُحَدِّثَاتِ الأُمُورِ فَإِنَّ كُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلالَةٌ } . وَلَمْ يَسُنَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلا خُلَفَاؤُهُ الرَّاشِدُونَ فِي يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ شَيْئًا مِنْ هَذِهِ الأُمُورِ , لا شَعَائِرَ الْحُزْنِ وَالتَّرَحِ , وَلا شَعَائِرَ السُّرُورِ وَالْفَرَحِ , { وَلَكِنَّهُ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمَّا قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ وَجَدَ الْيَهُودَ تَصُومُ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ , فَقَالَ : مَا هَذَا ؟ فَقَالُوا , هَذَا يَوْمٌ نَجَّى اللَّهُ فِيهِ مُوسَى مِنْ الْغَرَقِ فَنَحْنُ نَصُومُهُ , فَقَالَ : نَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِمُوسَى مِنْكُمْ . فَصَامَهُ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ } وَكَانَتْ قُرَيْشٌ أَيْضًا تُعَظِّمُهُ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ . وَالْيَوْمُ الَّذِي أَمَرَ النَّاسَ بِصِيَامِهِ كَانَ يَوْمًا وَاحِدًا , فَإِنَّهُ قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ فِي شَهْرِ رَبِيعٍ الأَوَّلِ , فَلَمَّا كَانَ فِي الْعَامِ الْقَابِلِ صَامَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ ثُمَّ فُرِضَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ ذَلِكَ الْعَامِ , فَنَسَخَ صَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ . وَقَدْ تَنَازَعَ الْعُلَمَاءُ : هَلْ كَانَ صَوْمُ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَاجِبًا ؟ أَوْ مُسْتَحَبًّا ؟ عَلَى قَوْلَيْنِ مَشْهُورَيْنِ أَصَحُّهُمَا أَنَّهُ كَانَ وَاجِبًا , ثُمَّ إنَّهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ كَانَ يَصُومُهُ مَنْ يَصُومُهُ اسْتِحْبَابًا , وَلَمْ يَأْمُرْ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْعَامَّةَ بِصِيَامِهِ , بَلْ كَانَ يَقُولُ : { هَذَا يَوْمُ عَاشُورَاءَ , وَأَنَا صَائِمٌ فِيهِ فَمَنْ شَاءَ صَامَ } . وَقَالَ : { صَوْمُ عَاشُورَاءَ يُكَفِّرُ سَنَةً , وَصَوْمُ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ يُكَفِّرُ سَنَتَيْنِ } . { وَلَمَّا كَانَ آخِرُ عُمْرِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَبَلَغَهُ أَنَّ الْيَهُودَ يَتَّخِذُونَهُ عِيدًا , قَالَ : لَئِنْ عِشْتُ إلَى قَابِلٍ لأَصُومَنَّ التَّاسِعَ } .  لِيُخَالِفَ الْيَهُودَ , وَلا يُشَابِهَهُمْ فِي اتِّخَاذِهِ عِيدًا , وَكَانَ مِنْ الصَّحَابَةِ وَالْعُلَمَاءِ مَنْ لا يَصُومُهُ , وَلا يَسْتَحِبُّ صَوْمَهُ , بَلْ يَكْرَهُ إفْرَادَهُ بِالصَّوْمِ , كَمَا نُقِلَ ذَلِكَ عَنْ طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ الْكُوفِيِّينَ , وَمِنْ الْعُلَمَاءِ مَنْ يَسْتَحِبُّ صَوْمَهُ . وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ يُسْتَحَبُّ لِمَنْ صَامَهُ أَنْ يَصُومَ مَعَهُ التَّاسِعَ ; لأَنَّ هَذَا آخِرُ أَمْرِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم لِقَوْلِهِ : { لَئِنْ عِشْتُ إلَى قَابِلٍ , لأَصُومَنَّ التَّاسِعَ مَعَ الْعَاشِرِ } كَمَا جَاءَ ذَلِكَ مُفَسَّرًا فِي بَعْضِ طُرُقِ الْحَدِيثِ , فَهَذَا الَّذِي سَنَّهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم . وَأَمَّا سَائِرُ الأُمُورِ : مِثْلُ اتِّخَاذِ طَعَامٍ خَارِجٍ عَنْ الْعَادَةِ , إمَّا حُبُوبٌ وَإِمَّا غَيْرُ حُبُوبٍ , أَوْ تَجْدِيدُ لِبَاسٍ وَتَوْسِيعُ نَفَقَةٍ , أَوْ اشْتِرَاءُ حَوَائِجِ الْعَامِ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ , أَوْ فِعْلُ عِبَادَةٍ مُخْتَصَّةٍ . كَصَلاةٍ مُخْتَصَّةٍ بِهِ , أَوْ قَصْدُ الذَّبْحِ , أَوْ ادِّخَارُ لُحُومِ الأَضَاحِيّ لِيَطْبُخَ بِهَا الْحُبُوبَ , أَوْ الاكْتِحَالُ وَالاخْتِضَابُ , أَوْ الاغْتِسَالُ أَوْ التَّصَافُحُ , أَوْ التَّزَاوُرُ أَوْ زِيَارَةُ الْمَسَاجِدِ وَالْمَشَاهِدِ , وَنَحْوُ ذَلِكَ , فَهَذَا مِنْ الْبِدَعِ الْمُنْكَرَةِ , الَّتِي لَمْ يَسُنَّهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَلا خُلَفَاؤُهُ الرَّاشِدُونَ , وَلا اسْتَحَبَّهَا أَحَدٌ مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ لا مَالِكٌ وَلا الثَّوْرِيُّ , وَلا اللَّيْثُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ , وَلا أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ , وَلا الأوْزَاعِيُّ , وَلا الشَّافِعِيُّ , وَلا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ , وَلا إسْحَاقُ بْنُ رَاهْوَيْهِ , وَلا أَمْثَالُ هَؤُلاءِ مِنْ أَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ , وَعُلَمَاءِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ .. وَدِينُ الإِسْلامِ مَبْنِيٌّ عَلَى أَصْلَيْنِ , عَلَى أَنْ لا نَعْبُدَ إلاّ اللَّهَ , وَأَنْ نَعْبُدَهُ بِمَا شَرَعَ , لا نَعْبُدُهُ بِالْبِدَعِ . قَالَ تَعَالَى : { فَمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلا صَالِحًا وَلا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا } . فَالْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ مَا أَحَبَّهُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ , وَهُوَ الْمَشْرُوعُ الْمَسْنُونُ , وَلِهَذَا كَانَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ - رضي الله عنه - يَقُولُ فِي دُعَائِهِ , اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ عَمَلِي كُلَّهُ صَالِحًا وَاجْعَلْهُ لِوَجْهِك خَالِصًا , وَلا تَجْعَلْ لأَحَدٍ فِيهِ شَيْئًا


"Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. Nothing to that effect has been reported in any Sahih Hadith from Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam or from his Companions. None of the imams of the Muslims encouraged or recommended such things, neither the four imams, nor any others. No reliable scholars have narrated anything like this, neither from Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, nor from the Sahabah, nor from the Tabi’in; neither in any Sahih report or in a weak report; neither in the books of Sahih, nor in Sunnan, nor in the Musnads. No Hadith of this nature was known during the best centuries, but some of the later narrators reported Ahadith like the one which says:

مَا رَوَوْا أَنَّ مَنْ اكْتَحَلَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ لَمْ يَرْمَدْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الْعَامِ

"Whoever puts kohl in his eyes on the Day of Ashura will not suffer from eye disease in that year."

and:


وَمَنْ اغْتَسَلَ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ لَمْ يَمْرَضْ ذَلِكَ الْعَامِ

"Whoever does Ghusl (takes a bath) on the Day of Ashura will not get sick in that year, etc."

They also narrated reports concerning the supposed virtues of praying on the Day of Ashura, and other reports saying that on the Day of Ashura Adam (alayhi salam) repented, the Ark (of Nuh) settled on Mount Judi, Yusuf (alayhi salam) returned to Yaqub (alayhi salam), Ibrahim (alayhi salam) was saved from the fire, the ram was provided for sacrifice instead of Ismail (alayhi salam), and so on. They also reported a fabricated Hadith that is falsely attributed to Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), which says:


أَنَّهُ مَنْ وَسَّعَ عَلَى أَهْلِهِ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ وَسَّعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ سَائِرَ السَّنَةِ

"Whoever is generous to his family on the Day of Ashura, Allah will be generous to him for the rest of the year."

(...)

The Rafidi group made an outward show of allegiance to the Ahl’ul Bayt although inwardly they were either heretics and disbelievers or ignorant and bound by whims and desires. The Nasibi group hated Ali (radiyallahu anh) and his companions, because of the troubles and killings that had occurred. It is reported in Sahih Muslim that Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:


سَيَكُونُ فِي ثَقِيفٍ كَذَّابٌ وَمُبِيرٌ

"In (the tribe of) Thaqif there will be a liar and an oppressor."

The liar was al-Mukhtaar ibn Abi Ubayd al-Thaqafi, who made an outward show of allegiance to and support of the Ahl’ul Bayt, and killed Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor of Iraq, who had equipped the party that killed Husayn ibn Ali radiyallahu anhuma; then he (al-Mukhtaar) made it clear that he was a liar, by claiming to be a prophet and that Jibril alayhi salam brought revelation to him. People told Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) and Ibn Abbas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) about this, and said to one of them:


إنَّ الْمُخْتَارَ بْنَ أَبِي عُبَيْدٍ يَزْعُمُ أَنَّهُ يَنْزِلُ عَلَيْهِ , فَقَالَ صَدَقَ , قَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى

"al-Mukhtaar ibn Abi Ubayd is claiming to receive revelation." He said: "He is telling the truth, for Allah says:

هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ عَلَى مَنْ تَنَزَّلُ الشَّيَاطِينُ تَنَزَّلُ عَلَى كُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍ

"Shall I inform you (O people) upon whom the Shayatin (devils) descend? They descend upon every lying, sinful person." (ash-Shuara 26/221)

They said to the other: "al-Mukhtaar is claiming that he receives inspiration." He said:


صَدَقَ

"He is telling the truth. (Allah) says:

وَإِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ لَيُوحُونَ إلَى أَوْلِيَائِهِمْ لِيُجَادِلُوكُمْ

"… And certainly, the Shayatin (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you…" (al-An'am 6/121)

As for the oppressor , this was al-Hajjaaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi, who was opposed to Ali (radiyallahu anh) and his companions. al-Hajjaaj was a Naasibi and al-Mukhtaar was a Raafidi, and this Raafidi was a greater liar and more guilty of fabrication and heresy, because he claimed to be a prophet.

(...)

There was much trouble and fighting between these two groups in Kufa. When Husayn ibn Ali radiyallahu anhuma was killed on the Day of Ashura, he was killed by the sinful, wrongdoing group. Allah honored Husayn (radiyallahu anh) with martyrdom, as He (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) honored other members of his family, and raised his status, as He (Subhanahu wa Ta'ala) honored Hamza (radiyallahu anh), Ja’far (radiyallahu anh), his father Ali (radiyallahu anh) and others. He (i.e., Husayn) and his brother Hasan (radiyallahu anh) are the leaders of the youth of Jannah (Paradise). High status can only be attained through suffering, as Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:


لَمَّا سُئِلَ : أَيُّ النَّاسِ أَشَدُّ بَلاءً فَقَالَ : الأَنْبِيَاءُ ثُمَّ الصَّالِحُونَ ثُمَّ الأَمْثَلُ فَالأَمْثَلُ يُبْتَلَى الرَّجُلُ عَلَى حَسَبِ دِينِهِ , فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي دِينِهِ صَلابَةٌ زِيدَ فِي بَلائِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ فِي دِينِهِ رِقَّةٌ خُفِّفَ عَنْهُ , وَلا يَزَالُ الْبَلاءُ بِالْمُؤْمِنِ حَتَّى يَمْشِيَ عَلَى الأَرْضِ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ خَطِيئَةٌ

When he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) was asked which people suffer the most. He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

"Anbiya (The Prophets), then Salihun (righteous people), then the next best and the next best. A man will suffer according to his level of faith. If his faith is solid, he will suffer more, but if his faith is shaky, he will suffer less. The believer will keep on suffering until he walks on the earth with no sin." Tirmidhi and others recorded it.

Hasan (radiyallahu anh) and Husayn (radiyallahu anh) achieved what they achieved and reached the high status they reached by the help and decree of Allah. They did not suffer as much as their forefathers had, for they were born and raised during the glory days of Islam, and the Muslims respected and honored them. Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam died when they were still young, and Allah blessed them by testing them in such a manner that they would be able to catch up with the rest of their family members, as those who were of a higher status than them were also tested. Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh) was better than them, and he was killed as a Shahid (martyr). The killing of Husayn (radiyallahu anh) was one of the things that caused Fitnah (tribulation) among the people, as was the killing of Uthman radiyallahu anh, which was one of the greatest causes of Fitnah, because of which the Ummah (nation) is still split today. Thus (Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said in the Hadith:


ثَلاثٌ مَنْ نَجَا مِنْهُنَّ فَقَدْ نَجَا : مَوْتِي , وَقَتْلُ خَلِيفَةٍ مُصْطَبِرٍ وَالدَّجَّالُ

"There are three things, whoever is saved from them is truly saved: My death; the killing of a patient Khalifah (caliph); and the Dajjaal (Antichrist)."

(...)

Then he (i.e., Hasan) died, and Allah was pleased with him and honored him. Some groups wrote to Husayn (radiyallahu anh) and promised to support and help him if he went ahead and declared himself Khalifah, but they were not sincere. When Husayn (radiyallahu anh) sent his cousin (son of his paternal uncle) to them, they broke their word and gave help to the one they had promised to defend him against, and fought with him against (Husayn’s cousin). Those who were wise and who loved Husayn (radiyallahu anh), such as Ibn Abbas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) and Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) and others, advised him not to go to them, and not to accept any promises from them. They thought that his going to them served no useful interest and that the consequences would not be good. Things turned out just as they said, and this is how Allah decreed it would happen. When Husayn radiyallahu anh went out and saw that things were not as he had expected, he asked them to let him go back, or to let him join the army that was defending the borders of Islam, or join his cousin Yazid, but they would not let him do any of these things unless he gave himself up to them as a prisoner. So he fought with them, and they killed him and some of those who were with him, and he was wrongfully slain so he died as a Shahid whose martyrdom brought him honor from Allah, and so he was reunited with the good and pure members of his family. His murder brought shame on those who had wrongfully killed him, and caused much mischief among the people. An ignorant, wrongful group –who were either heretics and hypocrites, or misguided and misled– made a show of allegiance to him and the members of his household, so they took the Day of Ashura as a day of mourning and wailing, in which they openly displayed the rituals of Jaahiliyyah such as slapping their cheeks and rending their garments, grieving in the manner of the Jaahiliyyah. But what Allah has commanded us to do when disaster strikes –when the disaster is fresh– is to bear it with patience and fortitude, and to seek reward, and to remember that all things come from Allah and we must return to Him, as He (Ta'ala) says:


وَبَشِّرْ الصَّابِرِينَ الَّذِينَ إذَا أَصَابَتْهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ أُولَئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ وَأُولَئِكَ هُمْ الْمُهْتَدُونَ

"…but give glad tidings to al-Sabirun (the patient ones), who, when afflicted with calamity, say: Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return. They are those on whom are al-Salawaat (the blessings; i.e., who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones." (al-Baqarah 2/155-157)

It is reported in Sahih (i.e., Bukhari) that Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:


لَيْسَ مِنَّا مِنْ لَطَمَ الْخُدُودَ , وَشَقَّ الْجُيُوبَ , وَدَعَا بِدَعْوَى الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ

"He is not one of us who strikes his cheeks, rends his garments and prays with the prayer of Jaahiliyyah."

And he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


أَنَا بَرِيءٌ مِنْ الصَّالِقَةِ , وَالْحَالِقَةِ , وَالشَّاقَّةِ

"I have nothing to do with those who strike (their cheeks), shave (their heads) and rend (their garments)."

And he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


النَّائِحَةُ إذَا لَمْ تَتُبْ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهَا تُقَامُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَعَلَيْهَا سِرْبَالٌ مِنْ قَطِرَانٍ وَدِرْعٌ مِنْ جَرَبٍ

"If the woman who wails does not repent before she dies, she will be raised up on the Day of Resurrection wearing trousers made of tar and a shirt of scabs."

In Musnad (of Ahmad), it is reported from Fatimah bint Husayn (radiyallahu anha), from her father Husayn (radiyallahu anh), that Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:


مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ يُصَابُ بِمُصِيبَةٍ , فَيَذْكُرُ مُصِيبَتَهُ وَإِنْ قَدِمَتْ , فَيُحْدِثُ لَهَا اسْتِرْجَاعًا إلاّ أَعْطَاهُ اللَّهُ مِنْ الأَجْرِ مِثْلَ أَجْرِهِ يَوْمَ أُصِيبَ بِهَا

"There is no man who suffers a calamity, and when he remembers it, even if it is old, he says: ‘Inna Lillllahi wa Innaa Ilayhi Raji’un (Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return),’ but Allah will give a reward equal to the reward He gave him on the day he suffered the calamity."

This is how Allah honors the Believers. If the disaster suffered by Husayn (radiyallahu anh), and other disasters, are mentioned after all this time, we should say:


إنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ

"Inna Lillllahi wa Innaa Ilayhi Raji’un (Truly, to Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return)," as Allah and Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded, so as to be given the reward like that earned on the day of the disaster itself.

If Allah commanded us to be patient and steadfast and to seek reward at the time of the disaster, then how about after the passing of time? The Shaytan made this attractive to those who are misled, so they took the Day of Ashura as an occasion of mourning, when they grieve and wail, recite poems of grief and tell stories filled with lies. Whatever truth there may be in these stories serves no purpose other than the renewal of their grief and sectarian feeling, and the stirring up of hatred and hostility among the Muslims, which they do by cursing those who came before them, and telling many lies, and causing much trouble in the world. The various sects of Islam have never known any group tell more lies or cause more trouble or help the Kuffar against the Muslims more than this misguided and evil group. They are even worse than the Khawarij who went beyond the pale of Islam. They are the ones of whom Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:


يَقْتُلُونَ أَهْلَ الإِسْلامِ , وَيَدَعُونَ أَهْلَ الأَوْثَانِ

"They will kill the people of Islam and will leave alone the people who worship idols."

This group cooperated with the Jews, Christians and Mushrikin against the members of the Nabi sallallahu alayhi wa sallam’s household and his believing Ummah, and also helped the Mushrik Turks and Tatars to do what they did in Baghdad and elsewhere to the descendents of Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), i.e., the Abbasid rulers and others, and the believers; the Turks and Tatars killed them, enslaved their women and destroyed their homes. The evil and harm that they do to the Muslims cannot be enumerated by any man, no matter how eloquent he is. Some others –either Nasibis who oppose and have enmity towards Husayn (radiyallahu anh) and his family or ignorant people who try to fight evil with evil, corruption with corruption, lies with lies and Bid’ah with Bid’ah– opposed them by fabricating reports in favor of making the Day of Ashura a day of celebration, by wearing kohl and henna, spending money on one's children, cooking special dishes and other things that are done on Ids and special occasions. These people took the Day of Ashura as a festival like Id, whereas the others took it as a day of mourning. Both are wrong, and both go against the Sunnah, even though the other group (the Rafidis) are worse in intention and more ignorant and more plainly wrong…But Allah commands us to be just and to treat others well. Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam said:


إنَّهُ مَنْ يَعِشْ مِنْكُمْ بَعْدِي فَسَيَرَى اخْتِلافًا كَثِيرًا , فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ مِنْ بَعْدِي , تَمَسَّكُوا بِهَا وَعَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ , وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَمُحَدِّثَاتِ الأُمُورِ فَإِنَّ كُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلالَةٌ

"Those of you who live after my death will see many disputes. I urge you to adhere to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of my al-Khulafa'ul Rashidun (rightly-guided successors) who come after me. Hold onto it as if biting it with your eyeteeth. Beware of newly-innovated matters, for every innovation is a going astray."

Neither Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam nor al-Khulafa'ul Rashidun (his rightly-guided successors) did any of these things on the Day of Ashura, they neither made it a day of mourning nor a day of celebration. But:


وَلَكِنَّهُ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَمَّا قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ وَجَدَ الْيَهُودَ تَصُومُ يَوْمَ عَاشُورَاءَ , فَقَالَ : مَا هَذَا ؟ فَقَالُوا , هَذَا يَوْمٌ نَجَّى اللَّهُ فِيهِ مُوسَى مِنْ الْغَرَقِ فَنَحْنُ نَصُومُهُ , فَقَالَ : نَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِمُوسَى مِنْكُمْ . فَصَامَهُ وَأَمَرَ بِصِيَامِهِ

"When he sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam came to Madinah, saw the Jews fasting on the Day of Ashura. He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: What is this? They said: This is the day when Allah saved Musa (alayhi salam) from drowning, so we fast on this day. He (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said: We have more right to Musa (alayhi salam) than you! So he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) fasted on that day and commanded (the Muslims) to fast on that day."

Quraysh also used to venerate this day during the Jaahiliyyah. The day on which people were ordered to fast was just one day. When he sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam came to Madinah it was Rabi'ul Awwal, and the following year he fasted Ashura and commanded the people to fast. Then in that year fasting in Ramadan was made obligatory and fasting on Ashura was abrogated. The scholars disputed as to whether fasting on that day (Ashura) was Wajib (obligatory) or Mustahabb (encouraged). Of the two best known opinions, the more correct view is that it was Wajib, then after that whoever fasted it did it because it was Mustahabb. Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam did not tell ordinary Muslims to fast on Ashura, but he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say:


هَذَا يَوْمُ عَاشُورَاءَ , وَأَنَا صَائِمٌ فِيهِ فَمَنْ شَاءَ صَامَ

"This is the Day of Ashura; I am fasting on this day and whoever wishes to fast on this day may fast."

And he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


صَوْمُ عَاشُورَاءَ يُكَفِّرُ سَنَةً , وَصَوْمُ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ يُكَفِّرُ سَنَتَيْنِ

"Fasting on Ashura expiates for the sins of one year and fasting on the Day of Arafah expiates for the sins of two years."

وَلَمَّا كَانَ آخِرُ عُمْرِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَبَلَغَهُ أَنَّ الْيَهُودَ يَتَّخِذُونَهُ عِيدًا , قَالَ : لَئِنْ عِشْتُ إلَى قَابِلٍ لأَصُومَنَّ التَّاسِعَ

When, towards the end of his life, Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) heard that the Jews took the Day of Ashura as a festival, he said:

"If I live until next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth." to be different from the Jews, and not to resemble them in taking the day as a festival.

There were some of the Sahabah and scholars who did not fast on this day and did not regard it as Mustahabb, but thought it Makruh (disliked) to single out this day for fasting. This was reported from a group of the Kufiyin (scholars of Kufa). Some other scholars said that it was mustahabb to fast on this day. The correct view is that it is mustahabb for the one who fasts on Ashura to fast on the ninth day (of Muharram) too, because this was the ultimate command of Nabi sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam, as he (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


لَئِنْ عِشْتُ إلَى قَابِلٍ , لأَصُومَنَّ التَّاسِعَ مَعَ الْعَاشِرِ

"If I live until next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth as well as the tenth."

This was reported with a variety of isnaads. This is what is prescribed in the Sunnah of Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam.
 
As for the other things, such as cooking special dishes with or without grains, or wearing new clothes, or spending money on one’s family, or buying the year’s supplies on that day, or doing special acts of worship such as special prayers or deliberately slaughtering an animal on that day, or saving some of the meat of the sacrifice to cook with grains, or wearing kohl and henna, or taking Ghusl (a bath), or shaking hands with one another, or visiting one another, or visiting the mosques and mashhads (shrines) and so on…all of this is reprehensible Bid’ah and is wrong. None of it has anything to do with the Sunnah of Rasulullah sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam or the way of the Khulafa'ul Rashidun. It was not approved of by any of the Aimmah (pl.ü Imam) of the Muslims, not Malik, not al-Thawri, not al-Layth ibn Sa’d, not Abu Hanifah, not al-Awza’i, not al-Shafi'i, not Ahmad ibn Hanbal, not Ishaq ibn Rahawah, not any of the Aimmah and Ulama (pl., Alim; scholars) of the Muslims.

(...)

The religion of Islam is based on two Asl (principles): That we should worship nothing besides Allah Alone; and that we should worship Him (azza wa jall) in the manner that He (azza wa jall) has prescribed in Shari'ah, not by means of Bid’ah (reprehensible innovations). (Allah) Ta'ala says:


فَمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلا صَالِحًا وَلا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

"So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord, let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Lord." (al-Kahf 18/110)

al-Amal'us Saliha (righteous deeds) are those which are loved by Allah and His Rasul (Messenger), those which are prescribed in Islam and in the Sunnah. Thus Umar ibn'ul Khattab radiyallahu anh used to say in his Du'a (prayer):


اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْ عَمَلِي كُلَّهُ صَالِحًا وَاجْعَلْهُ لِوَجْهِك خَالِصًا , وَلا تَجْعَلْ لأَحَدٍ فِيهِ شَيْئًا

"O Allah, make all of my deeds righteous and make them purely for Your sake, and do not let there be any share for anyone or anything else in them." (Fatawa al-Kubra)

Again, Shaykh’ul İslam said the following in one of his renowned books: Iqtida’ul Sirat’ul Mustaqim:


وأما اتخاذ أمثال أيام المصائب مأتماً : فليس هذا من دين المسلمين ، بل هو إلى دين الجاهلية أقرب ، ثم هم قد فوتوا بذلك ما في صوم هذا اليوم من الفضل ، وأحدث بعض الناس فيه أشياء مستندة إلى أحاديث موضوعة لا أصل لها ، مثل فضل الاغتسال فيه ، أو التكحل أو المصافحة وهذه الأشياء ونحوها من الأمور المبتدعة كلها مكروهة وإنما المستحب صومه ، وقد روي في التوسع فيه على العيال آثار معروفة أعلى ما فيها حديث إبراهيم بن محمد بن المنتشر عن أبيه ، قال : بلغنا أنه من وسع على أهله يوم عاشوراء وسع الله عليه سائر سنته رواه ابن عيينة وهذا بلاغ منقطع لا يعرف قائله ، والأشبه أن هذا وضع لما ظهرت للعصبية بين الناصبة والرافضة ؛ فإن هؤلاء أعدوا يوم عاشوراء مأتماً : فوضع أولئك فيه آثاراً تقتضي التوسع فيه ، واتخاذه عيداً ، وكلاهما باطل ...
لكن لا يجوز لأحد أن يغيِّر شيئا من الشريعة لأجل أحد ، وإظهار الفرح والسرور يوم عاشوراء ، وتوسيع النفقات فيه هو من البدع المحدثة ، المقابلة للرافضة


"As for taking the days of calamities as occasions for mourning, this is not part of the religion of the Muslims; rather it is closer to the religion of Jaahiliyyah. Thus they missed out on the virtue and reward of fasting on this day. Some other people introduced things on the basis of fabricated Ahadith for which there is no basis, such as the virtue of doing ghusl on this day, or applying kohl to the eyes, or shaking hands. These and similar things are innovations, all of which are Makruh (disliked). What is recommended is to fast on this day. There are also well known reports about spending generously on one's family on this day, such as the Hadith of Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn'ul Muntashir from his father, who said:

بلغنا أنه من وسع على أهله يوم عاشوراء وسع الله عليه سائر سنت

"We heard that the one who spends generously on his family on the Day of Ashura, Allah will give him in abundance for the rest of the year."

This was narrated by Ibn Uyaynah, but the fact that he said "we heard that…" and it is not known who said it indicates that the isnaad is munqati (interrupted). It is most likely that this was fabricated because of the hatred that appeared between the Naasibis and Raafidis. The Raafidis regarded the Day of Ashura as a day of mourning, so the Naasibis fabricated reports about it which indicated that one should spend generously on this day and take it as an Id (holiday, festival). Both views are false. It is not permissible for anyone to change anything in Islam for the sake of anyone. Expressing joy and happiness on the Day of Ashura and spending generously on this day are all innovations that were introduced as a reaction against the Raafidis." (Iqtida al-Siraat al-Mustaqim, 300-301)

Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) said the following regarding Mawdu (the fabricated) Ahadith (pl., Hadith) concerning the Day of Ashura and those that are much known amongst the lay people:

"One of the fabrications is, Ahadith regarding applying kohl (on the eyes) on the Day of Ashura, adorning, spending on the family, a prayer (special) for the day and performing other good deeds. None of these Ahadith are Sahih (sound). Moreover, there is not a single Sahih Hadith (on this issue). There isn’t any Hadith transmitted from Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) other than the fast (of Ashura). The related ones are all Baatil (false). Amongst those Ahadith that had been related (from Rasulullah), the following report is the most closer to be truth:


بلغنا أنه من وسع على أهله يوم عاشوراء وسع الله عليه سائر سنت

"Whoever is generous to his family on the Day of Ashura, Allah will be generous to him for the rest of the year."

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah) said: "This Hadith is not Sahih."

When it comes to the Ahadith concerning; applying kohl, cream and parfume on the Day of Ashura, all of these are fabrications of the fabricators. Those who opposed them made it a day of sorrow and grief in return. Both of these two groups (namely the Rafidha Shiites and the Naasibis) are amongst the Ahl’ul Bid’ah (People of Innovation) who excedeed the Sunnah. Whereas the Ahl’us Sunnah (on the Day of Ashura), fast the fast which Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded and refrain from the command of the Shaytan (Satan) and the Ahl’ul Bid’ah." (Ibn Qayyim, al-Manar’ul Munif fi’s Sahih wa’d Da’if)

Hafidh Ibn Kathir said the following regarding the narrations concerning the Day of Ashura:

"Now lets come to the stories the ignorant tell about the Day of Ashura: Professedly Nuh (alayhi salam) and those Mu’minin (pl., Mu’min; believers) with him had to take whatever left over from their provisions and grains that they had with them to mill and mix then eat it. Due to being in the boat for a long time, they applied kohl to their eyes in order to strengthen their eye sights... All of these narrations are not Sahih and there is no truth in them." (Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa’n Nihayah, 1/161)

Shawkani, in his Fawaid, alocated a chapter for the fabrication Ahadith concerning the Day of Ashura.
 
Concerning the special prayer of the Day of Ashura he stated the following narration: "Whoever prays on the Day of Ashura between Dhuhr prayer and Asr prayer, four Ra’kat (pl., Ra’kah; units) and in it (every Rak’ah; each unit) recites (Surah) al-Fatiha once and ten Ayat al-Kursi (i.e., al-Baqarah 2/255), eleven (Surah) al-Ikhlaas and five Muawazatayn (i.e.i, Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Nas) and after the Taslim (saying: assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah, in order to complete the prayer) makes seventy Istighfaar (seeking forgiveness) to Allah, Allah will give him a white domed villa in the Jannah (Paradise) of Firdaws." After relating this, Shawkani said: "al-Jawzakani, narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) as a Marfu (elevated) report. It is a fabricated narration, its narrators are unknown."

Shawkani then recorded the following Mawdu (fabricated) Ahadith concerning the fast of the Day of Ashura: 

"Whoever fasts on the Day of Ashura, he will be given good deeds equal to the good deeds of ten thousand angels."; "Allah prescribed Bani Isra’il (sons of Isra’il) fast once a year which is the Day of Ashura, the tenth of Muharram. Fast on that day and be generous to your family. It is because; it is the day Allah accepted the Tawbah (repentance) of Adam (alayhi salam)." Nabi (the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "Surad (bird with a broad head with a peak half-black and half-white that hunts other birds) is the first bird that fasted on the Day of Ashura." In another version, narrated as: "Wild animals fast on the Day of Ashura."; "Whoever applies kohl on his eyes will never have any eye pain."; "Whoever is generous to his family on the Day of Ashura, Allah will be generous to him for the rest of the year."

In another chapter "Chapter of: Du'a (prayer) and Ibaadah (worship) during some of the Months and Times", Shawkani recorded the following Rafidhi fabricated Ahadith:

"There is no slave that cries on the Day (of Ashura) which Husayn (radiyallahu anh) was martyred that he is not with the Ulu’l Azm Prophets (those five prophets who possess great responsibility; Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa and Muhammad) of the Day of Qiyamah (doomsday)."; "Crying on the Day of Ashura is a Nur (light) on the Day of Qiyamah."

Another fabricated narration concerning the Day of Ashura is the following report:   
 
"According to the narration narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh): Whoever does Ihya (revival) of the night of Ashura, it is as if he worshiped Allah as much as the inhabitants of the skies. Whoever prays four Rak’at and in each Ra’kah recites (Surah) al-Fatiha and fifty (Surah) al-Ikhlaas, his past and future sins for fifty years will be forgiven and from Malai Ala thousand times a thousand (i.e., million) Minbar from Nur will be built for him."

After recording this narration, Shawkani commented by quoting what Ibn’ul Jawzi said regarding this report: "There is no possibility this was narrated from Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)." (Shawkani, Fawaid’ul Majmua)

Allah Ta’ala informs the way of loving Allah is submitting to His Rasul and that He loves and forgives those who submit to His Rasul:


قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ

"Say: If ye do love Allah, Follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins: For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Say: Obey Allah and His Messenger. But if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith." (Al-i Imran 3/31-32)

Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on him) said:


هذه الآية الكريمة حاكمة على كل مَن ادعى محبة الله ، وليس هو على الطريقة المحمدية : فإنه كاذب في دعواه في نفس الأمر ، حتى يتبع الشرع المحمدي ، والدين النبوي ، في جميع أقواله ، وأحواله ، كما ثبت في الصحيح عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنه قال : ( مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلا لَيْسَ عليه أمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ

"This verse states that everyone who claims to love Allah but is not following the path of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is lying in his claim unless he follows the path or religion of Prophet Muhammad in all his words and deeds, as it is proven in al-Sahih that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

مَنْ عَمِلَ عَمَلا لَيْسَ عليه أمْرُنَا فَهُوَ رَدٌّ

"Whoever introduces an action that is not part of this matter of ours will have it rejected." (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 2/32)

Allah Ta'ala said:


إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَى إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاء رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحاً وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَداً

"Say: I am but a man like yourselves, (but) the inspiration has come to me, that your God is One God. Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteousness, and, in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner." (al-Kahf 18/110)

Ibn Kathir, explains the conditions an Ibadaah is accepted by Allah:

( فمن كان يرجوا لقاء ربه ) أي : ثوابه وجزاءه الصالح .
( فليعمل عملا صالحا ) أي : ما كان موافقا لشرع الله .
( ولا يشرك بعبادة ربه أحداً ) وهو الذي يراد به وجه الله وحده لا شريك له ، وهذان ركنا العمل المتقبَّل ، لابد أن يكون خالصاً لله ، صواباً على شريعة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاء رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلاً صَالِحاً


"Whoever expects to meet his Lord" means His reward. "let him work righteousness" means, that is in accordance with the laws of Allah.

وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَداً

"and, in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner" means the deed by which is sought the Countenance of Allah alone, with no partner or associate.

These are the two features of the deed that is acceptable: It must be sincerely for the sake of Allah alone, and it must be in accordance with the Shari'ah of Rasulullah (the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)." (Tafsir Ibn Kathir, 4/108)

Imam Shatibi, declared whoever exceeds the limits of Shari’ah without a legitimate reason becomes Mubtadi (the doer of Bid’ah):


كُلُّ مَنْ مَنَعَ نَفْسَهُ مِنْ تَنَاوُلِ مَا أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ عُذْرٍ شَرْعِيٍّ ، فَهُوَ خَارِجٌ عَنْ سُنَّةِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، وَالْعَامِلُ بِغَيْرِ السُّنَّةِ تَدَيُّنًا، هُوَ الْمُبْتَدِعُ بِعَيْنِهِ

"Everyone who restricts himself from consuming that which Allah has permitted, without a legitimate Shar‘i reason for doing so, has diverged from the Sunnah of Nabi (the Prophet) sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, and the one who acts upon something other than the Sunnah by way of a religious practice is essentially Mubtadi (an innovator)." (Shatibi, al-I‘tisaam, 59)

In conclusion, salvation from every type of Dalalah (misguidance) and Bid’ah lies in Ittiba (following) of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), his Ashab (pl., Sahabah; companions) and the Salaf (predecessors; the first three generations of Islam). Any deed that has no Dalil (evidence) and example from the Salaf is Mardud (rejected and invalid) from the doer. For the Mu’min (believer), he shall stop wherever the Salaf stopped and he shall go as much as the Salaf went. As Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) stated: "The Din of Islam is upon two Asl: The worship of nothing besides Allah Alone; and that worship is done Him in the manner prescribed by the Shari'ah, not by means of Bid’ah (reprehensible innovations)." Only with this Ihsan (perfection of worship) which is a Martaba (level) of Islam can be attained, deeds will become Salih (righteous) and Khalis (sincere) and Ibadaah will be in Khushu (humility) and Khudu (subjection). Wassalaam!..
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Izhâr'ud Dîn

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Bismillâh,

Just a reminder!..
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmû'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)

 

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