التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: THAMM (DISPRAISE) OF SPEAKING ABOUT THE DIN WITH AL-RA'Y, AL-DHANN & AL-QIYAAS  (Read 721 times)

Fahm'us Salaf

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مَا جَاءَ فِي ذَمِّ الْقَوْلِ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى بِالرَّأْيِ وَالظَّنِّ وَالْقِيَاسِ عَلَى غَيْرِ أَصْلٍ
What Reached Us Regarding Thamm (Dispraise) of Speaking About the Din of Allah Ta’ala with al-Ra’y (the personal opinion), al-Dhann (the suspicion) and al-Qiyaas (the analogy) which has no Asl (basis)1

A- Ayaat (pl., Ayah; verses of Qur’an) Regarding This Matter in the Qur’an

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ قَالُواْ بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءنَا أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لاَ يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئاً وَلاَ يَهْتَدُونَ

"When it is said to them: Follow what Allah hath revealed: They say: Nay! we shall follow the ways of our fathers. What! even though their fathers were void of wisdom and guidance?" (al-Baqarah 2/170)

وَإِن تُطِعْ أَكْثَرَ مَن فِي الأَرْضِ يُضِلُّوكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَخْرُصُونَ

"Wert thou to follow the common run of those on earth, they will lead thee away from the way of Allah. They follow nothing but conjecture: they do nothing but lie." (al-An’am 6/116)

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَنْ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَنْ تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

"Say: the things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are: Indecent deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or reason; assigning of partners to Allah, for which He hath given no authority; and saying things about Allah of which ye have no knowledge." (al-A’raf 7/33)

أَلا إِنَّ لِلّهِ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَات وَمَن فِي الأَرْضِ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ شُرَكَاء إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَخْرُصُونَ

"Behold! verily to Allah belong all creatures, in the heavens and on earth. What do they follow who worship as His partners other than Allah? They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but lie." (Yunus 10/66)

وَلاَ تَقُولُواْ لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ الْكَذِبَ هَـذَا حَلاَلٌ وَهَـذَا حَرَامٌ لِّتَفْتَرُواْ عَلَى اللّهِ الْكَذِبَ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ الْكَذِبَ لاَ يُفْلِحُونَ

"But say not -for any false thing that your tongues may put forth- This is Halaal (lawful), and this is Haraam (forbidden), so as to ascribe false things to Allah. For those who ascribe false things to Allah, will never prosper." (an-Nahl 16/116)

وَلاَ تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولـئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْؤُولاً

"And pursue not that of which thou hast no knowledge; for surely the hearing, the sight, the heart, all of those shall be questioned of (on the Day of Reckoning)." (al-Isra 17/36)

أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى عِلْمٍ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى سَمْعِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَجَعَلَ عَلَى بَصَرِهِ غِشَاوَةً فَمَن يَهْدِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

"Then seest thou such a one as takes as his god his own vain desire? Allah has, knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his heart (and understanding), and put a cover on his sight. Who, then, will guide him after Allah (has withdrawn Guidance)? Will ye not then receive admonition?" (al-Jathyiah 45/23)

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيراً مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ

"O ye who believe! Avoid ad-Dhann (suspicion) as much (as possible): for suspicion in some cases is a sin..." (al-Hujurat 49/12)

إِنْ هِيَ إِلَّا أَسْمَاء سَمَّيْتُمُوهَا أَنتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُم مَّا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَانٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى الْأَنفُسُ وَلَقَدْ جَاءهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ الْهُدَى

"These are nothing but names which ye have devised,- ye and your fathers,- for which Allah has sent down no authority (whatever). They follow nothing but conjecture and what the souls desire!- Even though there has already come to them Guidance from their Lord!" (an-Najm 53/23)

وَمَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئاً

"But they have no knowledge therein. They follow nothing but conjecture; and conjecture avails nothing against Truth." (an-Najm 53/28)



Quote
1- [Title is quoted from the book Jami’ul Bayan’il Ilm wa Fadhlihi of Ibn Abd’il Barr, where he mentions this matter. (Ibn Abd’il Barr, Jami’ul Bayan’il Ilm wa Fadhlihi, 2/1037 Dar’u Ibn’il Jawzi, 1414/1994)]
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

Fahm'us Salaf

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B- EVIDENCES FROM THE SUNNAH

بَابُ مَا يُذْكَرُ مِنْ ذَمِّ الرَّأْيِ

Chapter on What Reached Us Regarding Thamm’ul Ra’y (the Dispraise of Judging made on the basis Opinion)

1- Judging made on the basis of Ra’y (opinion)


[Title is inspired from the seventh chapter of Sahih Bukhari in his 96th Kitaab;
باب مَا يُذْكَرُ مِنْ ذَمِّ الرَّأْىِ وَتَكَلُّفِ الْقِيَاسِ al-I’tisaam bi’l Kitaab wa Sunnah (Holding Fast to the Qur'an and Sunnah).]

]It was narrated from Urwah that Abdullah ibn Amr passed by and said: I heard Nabi sallallahu alayhi wa sallam saying:


إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَنْزِعُ الْعِلْمَ بَعْدَ أَنْ أَعْطَاهُمُوهُ انْتِزَاعًا، وَلَكِنْ يَنْتَزِعُهُ مِنْهُمْ مَعَ قَبْضِ الْعُلَمَاءِ بِعِلْمِهِمْ، فَيَبْقَى نَاسٌ جُهَّالٌ يُسْتَفْتَوْنَ فَيُفْتُونَ بِرَأْيِهِمْ، فَيُضِلُّونَ وَيَضِلُّونَ

"Allah will not deprive you of knowledge after he has given it to you, but it will be taken away through the death of the religious learned men with their knowledge. Then there will remain ignorant people who, when consulted, will give verdicts according to their opinions whereby they will mislead others and go astray." (Bukhari, # 7307)

In another version of the Hadith the wording is as follows:


نَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَقْبِضُ الْعِلْمَ انْتِزَاعًا، يَنْتَزِعُهُ مِنَ الْعِبَادِ، وَلَكِنْ يَقْبِضُ الْعِلْمَ بِقَبْضِ الْعُلَمَاءِ، حَتَّى إِذَا لَمْ يُبْقِ عَالِمًا، اتَّخَذَ النَّاسُ رُءُوسًا جُهَّالاً فَسُئِلُوا، فَأَفْتَوْا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ، فَضَلُّوا وَأَضَلُّوا

"Allah does not take away the knowledge, by taking it away from (the hearts of) the people, but takes it away by the death of the religious learned men till when none of the (religious learned men) remains, people will take as their leaders ignorant persons who when consulted will give their verdict without knowledge. So they will go astray and will lead the people astray." (Bukhari, # 100)

Sahl ibn Hunayf said:


قَالَ سَهْلُ بْنُ حُنَيْفٍ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّهِمُوا رَأْيَكُمْ عَلَى دِينِكُمْ، لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنِي يَوْمَ أَبِي جَنْدَلٍ وَلَوْ أَسْتَطِيعُ أَنَّ أَرُدَّ أَمْرَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم لَرَدَدْتُهُ، وَمَا وَضَعْنَا سُيُوفَنَا عَلَى عَوَاتِقِنَا إِلَى أَمْرٍ يُفْظِعُنَا إِلاَّ أَسْهَلْنَ بِنَا إِلَى أَمْرٍ نَعْرِفُهُ غَيْرَ هَذَا الأَمْرِ‏.

"O people! Blame your personal opinions in your religion. No doubt, I remember myself on the day of Abi Jandal (of Hudaybiya); if I had the power to refuse the order of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, I would have refused it. We have never put our swords on our shoulders to get involved in a situation that might have been horrible for us, but those swords brought us to victory and peace, except this present situation." (Bukhari, # 7308)

Imam Bukhari narreted these under the heading:


الْقِيَاسِ باب مَا يُذْكَرُ مِنْ ذَمِّ الرَّأْىِ وَتَكَلُّفِ

"Chapter: Dispraise of Judging made on the basis of Ra’y (opinion) or performing Qiyas (analogy)."

It was narrated from Abdullah in Amr ibn’ul As (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) that he said: I heard Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam say:


لَمْ يَزَلْ أَمْرُ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مُعْتَدِلاً حَتَّى نَشَأَ فِيهِمُ الْمُوَلَّدُونَ أَبْنَاءُ سَبَايَا الأُمَمِ فَقَالُوا بِالرَّأْىِ فَضَلُّوا وَأَضَلُّوا

"The affairs of Ban-i Isra’il (the Children of Israel) remained fair until Muwalladun; the children of female slaves from other nations emerged among them. They spoke of their Ra’ay (own opinions in religious matters) and so they went astray and led others astray." (Ibn Maja’ah, #56)

According to Busiri due to Sa’id the Shaykh of Ibn Maja’ah this Hadith is Dhayif (weak). However it was also recorded by Bazzar and according to Haythami due to Qays ibn ar-Rabi which there is Ikhtialaf (disagrement) regarding his status on Hadith is Hasan (good) by the satement of Ibn’ul Qattan. (Majma, 1/180) also Rudani, Jam’ul Fawaid, Ilm, #285 and Darimi, Muqaddima #17 from Urwah as a Mawkuf; chain of narration is reached up to a Sahaba.)


بَابُ مَا جَاءَ فِي الَّذِي يُفَسِّرُ القُرْآنَ بِرَأْيِهِ

2- Narrations Regarding interpreting the Qur’an by Ra’y

[Title belongs to Tirmidhi. He recorded the mentioned Ahadith under this title.]

It was narrated from Ibn Abbas (radiyallahu anhuma jamain) that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:


مَنْ قَالَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ

"Whoever says (something) about the Qur'an without knowledge, then let him take his seat in the Fire." (Tirmidhi, #2950)

After narrating this Hadith, Abu Isa (Tirmidhi) said:


هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih."

It was narrated from Ibn Abbas (radiyallahu anhuma jamain) that Nabi sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:


اتَّقُوا الْحَدِيثَ عَنِّي إِلاَّ مَا عَلِمْتُمْ فَمَنْ كَذَبَ عَلَىَّ مُتَعَمِّدًا فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَمَنْ قَالَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ بِرَأْيِهِ فَلْيَتَبَوَّأْ مَقْعَدَهُ مِنَ النَّارِ

"Beware of narrating from me except what I taught you, for whoever lies about me on purpose, then let him take his seat in the Fire. And whoever says (something) about the Qur'an according to his (own) opinion, then let him take his seat in the Fire." (Tirmidhi, #2951)

After narrating this Hadith, Abu Isa (Tirmidhi) said:


هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ "This Hadith is Hasan."

It was narrated from Jundab ibn Abdullah (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

مَنْ قَالَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ بِرَأْيِهِ فَأَصَابَ فَقَدْ أَخْطَأَ

"Whoever says (something) about the Qur'an according to his own opinion and he is correct, yet he has committed a mistake." (Tirmidhi, #2952; Abu Dawud; #36522)

After narrating this Hadith, Abu Isa (Tirmidhi) said:


هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ تَكَلَّمَ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ فِي سُهَيْلِ بْنِ أَبِي حَزْمٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَكَذَا رُوِيَ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَغَيْرِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ شَدَّدُوا فِي هَذَا فِي أَنْ يُفَسَّرَ الْقُرْآنُ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ‏.‏ وَأَمَّا الَّذِي رُوِيَ عَنْ مُجَاهِدٍ وَقَتَادَةَ وَغَيْرِهِمَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ أَنَّهُمْ فَسَّرُوا الْقُرْآنَ فَلَيْسَ الظَّنُّ بِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا فِي الْقُرْآنِ أَوْ فَسَّرُوهُ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ أَوْ مِنْ قِبَلِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْهُمْ مَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى مَا قُلْنَا أَنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَقُولُوا مِنْ قِبَلِ أَنْفُسِهِمْ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ

This is a Gharib Hadith. Some of the Ahl’ul Ilm (People of Sacred Knowledge) spoke about Suhayl ibn Abi Hazm. Abu Isa said and likewise it was narrated from some of the Ahl’ul Ilm among the Ashab of Nabi sallallahu alayhi wa sallam and also from other than them. They were harsh on this, interpretation of the Qur’an without Ilm (knowledge). When it comes to the narrations from Mujahid, Qatadah and other than them among the Ahl’ul Ilm; they interpret the Qur’an and their interpretation was not based upon Dhann. It was done either by the statement from the Qur’an or they did not do it without Ilm, nor by their own selves. Narration from them proves what we say that they did not say anything by themselves without Ilm.

حَدَّثَنَا الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ الْبَصْرِيُّ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ، عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، قَالَ مَا فِي الْقُرْآنِ آيَةٌ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ سَمِعْتُ فِيهَا بِشَيْءٍ

Husayn ibn Mahdi al-Basri narrated to us that Abd’ur Razzaq informed us from Ma’mar, from Qatadah he said: There is no Ayah (verse) in the Qur’an except that I have heard something about it.

حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي عُمَرَ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ بْنُ عُيَيْنَةَ، عَنِ الأَعْمَشِ، قَالَ قَالَ مُجَاهِدٌ لَوْ كُنْتُ قَرَأْتُ قِرَاءَةَ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ لَمْ أَحْتَجْ إِلَى أَنْ أَسْأَلَ ابْنَ عَبَّاسٍ عَنْ كَثِيرٍ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مِمَّا سَأَلْتُ

Ibn Abi Umar narrated to us that Sufyan ibn Uyayna narrated to us from A’mash that he said, Mujahid said: If I had recited the Qiraah (recitation) of Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallahu anh) I would not need to ask Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) many of the things I asked from the Qur’an.

Quotation from Tirmidhi ends here.

The next Hadith that we are going to quote on this matter is as follows:


عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - كَانَ لَا يُفَسِّرُ شَيْئًا مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ بِرَأْيِهِ، إِلَّا آيَاتٍ بِعَدَدٍ، عَلَّمَهُ إِيَّاهُنَّ جِبْرِيلُ

It was narrated from Aisha (radiyallahu anha) that Nabi sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said: Other than  few Ayaat that Jibril (alayhi salam) taught him, he did not interpretate the Qur’an with his Ra’y. (Haythami after narrating this Hadith said: Abu Ya’la and Bazzar narrated similar of this Hadith. There is an unkown Rawi (narrator) in its Isnaad (chain of narration. Other narrators of this Hadith are amongst the Rijaal (reporters) of Sahih. Majma 6/303)

قَالَ عُمَرُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ:إِيَّاكُمْ وَأَصْحَابَ الرَّأْيِ؛ فَإِنَّهُمْ أَعْدَاءُ السُّنَنِ أَعْيَتْهُمُ الْأَحَادِيثُ أَنْ يَحْفَظُوهَا فَقَالُوا بِالرَّأْيِ فَضَلُّوا وَأَضَلُّوا

According to the narration of Ibn Abd’il Barr, Umar radiyallahu anh said: "Beware of Ashab’ul Ray (People of Ra’y; opinion). It is because they are the enemies of Sunnah. Memorizing the Ahadith became harsh upon them and they judged with Ra’y whereby they mislead others and went astray." (For this narrations and others refer back to Shatibi, al-I’tisaam)

3- Thamm (Dispraise) of Those Who Judge Between People Without Possessing Ilm (Knowledge)

It was narrated from Buraydah ibn’ul Hasib (radiyallahu ah) that Nabi sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:


الْقُضَاةُ ثَلاَثَةٌ وَاحِدٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَاثْنَانِ فِي النَّارِ فَأَمَّا الَّذِي فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَرَجُلٌ عَرَفَ الْحَقَّ فَقَضَى بِهِ وَرَجُلٌ عَرَفَ الْحَقَّ فَجَارَ فِي الْحُكْمِ فَهُوَ فِي النَّارِ وَرَجُلٌ قَضَى لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى جَهْلٍ فَهُوَ فِي النَّارِ

Judges are of three types, one of whom will go to Paradise and two to Hell. The one who will go to Paradise is a man who knows what is right and gives judgment accordingly; but a man who knows what is right and acts tyrannically in his judgment will go to Hell; and a man who gives judgment for people when he is ignorant will go to Hell. (Abu Dawud; #3573; Tirmidhi, #13223)

After narrating this Hadith, Abu Dawud said:


الْقُضَاةُ ثَلاَثَةٌوَهَذَا أَصَحُّ شَىْءٍ فِيهِ يَعْنِي حَدِيثَ ابْنِ بُرَيْدَةَ On this subject this is the soundest tradition, that is, the tradition of Ibn Buraydah: Judges are of three types.



Quote
2- It was narrated from (Abdullah ibn) Jundab (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

مَنْ قَالَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِرَأْيِهِ فَأَصَابَ فَقَدْ أَخْطَأَ

"If anyone interprets the Book of Allah Azza wa Jallah in the light of his Ra’y (opinion) even if he is right, he has erred." (Abu Dawud, #3652)

3- Ibn Buraydah narrated from his father that Nabi sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

الْقُضَاةُ ثَلاَثَةٌ قَاضِيَانِ فِي النَّارِ وَقَاضٍ فِي الْجَنَّةِ رَجُلٌ قَضَى بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ فَعَلِمَ ذَاكَ فَذَاكَ فِي النَّارِ وَقَاضٍ لاَ يَعْلَمُ فَأَهْلَكَ حُقُوقَ النَّاسِ فَهُوَ فِي النَّارِ وَقَاضٍ قَضَى بِالْحَقِّ فَذَلِكَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ

"The judges are three: Two judges that are in the Fire, and a judge that is in Paradise. A man who judges without the truth, and he knows that. This one is in the Fire. One who judges while not knowing, ruining the rights of the people. So he is in the Fire. A judge who judges with the truth, that is the one in Paradise." (Tirmidhi, #1322)
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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