التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF AHL'US SUNNAH WA'L JAM'AH  (Read 696 times)

Fahm'us Salaf

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بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
The Fundamental Principles of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamah

Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh, Majmul Fatw, 3/278-287

Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh said:

ومن أصول أهل السنة والجماعة أنهم يصلون الجمع والأعياد والجماعات لا يدعون الجمعة والجماعة كما فعل أهل البدع من الرافضة وغيرهم فإن كان الإمام مستورا لم يظهر منه بدعة ولا فجور صلى خلفه الجمعة والجماعة باتفاق الأئمة الأربعة وغيرهم من أئمة المسلمين ولم يقل أحد من الأئمة إنه لا تجوز الصلاة إلا خلف من علم باطن أمره بل ما زال المسلمون من بعد نبيهم يصلون خلف المسلم المستور ولكن إذا ظهر من المصلي بدعة أو فجور وأمكن الصلاة خلف من يعلم أنه مبتدع أو فاسق مع إمكان الصلاة خلف غيره فأكثر أهل العلم يصححون صلاة المأموم وهذا مذهب الشافعي وأبي حنيفة وهو أحد القولين في مذهب مالك وأحمد
وأما إذا لم يمكن الصلاة إلا خلف المبتدع أو الفاجر كالجمعة التي إمامها مبتدع أو فاجر وليس هناك جمعة أخرى فهذه تصلى خلف المبتدع والفاجر عند عامة أهل السنة والجماعة
وهذا مذهب الشافعي وأبي حنيفة وأحمد بن حنبل وغيرهم من أئمة أهل السنة بلا خلاف عندهم

And from the fundamental principles of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jam'ah is that they pray the Jumuah (Friday) prayers and the two yd prayers and the (five daily) Jamah (congregational) prayers. They do not abandon the Jumuah prayers and the congregational prayers like Ahlul Bidah (the People of Innovation) from the Rfidhah and other than them. So if there is an Imm whose condition is Mastr (unknown), there being no Dhhir (outward/apparent) Bidah (innovations) or Fujr (sinfulness) manifest from him, (he is to be) prayed behind in the Jumuah prayers and the Jamah (congregational) prayers by the Ittifq (agreement) of the four Imms and other than them from the Imms of the Muslims. Not a single Imm from the Imms said that it is not permissible to pray behind a person whose condition is not known. Rather, after Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, the Muslims have continued to pray behind the Muslim whose condition is not known. However, when innovations and sinfulness becomes apparent from a person and it is possible to pray behind a person whom it is known that they are Mubtadi (an innovator) or Fsiq (a sinful person), and it is also possible to pray behind somebody other than him, the majority of Ahlul Ilm (the people of knowledge) say that prayer behind such a (sinful) person is Sahh (sound/correct). And this is the Madhhab of (Imm) ash-Shfi and (Imm) Ab Hanfah and one of two sayings in the Madhhab of (Imm) Mlik and (Imm) Ahmad.

And if it is not possible to pray, except behind a Mubtadi (person of innovation) or Fjir (a sinful person), as in the case of praying the Jumuah prayers behind an Imm who is Mubtadi (an innovator) or Fjir (a sinful person), and there is no other place to pray the Jumuah prayers, then (the permissibility and correctness) of praying behind the Mubtadi (innovator) or Fjir (sinful) person is agreed by the Imms of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamah. And this is the Madhhab of (Imm) ash-Shfi and (Imm) Ab Hanfah and Imm Ahmad and other than them from the Imms of Ahlus Sunnah, and there is no difference of opinion concerning this matter amongst them.


وكان بعض الناس إذا كثرت الأهواء يحب أن لا يصلي إلا خلف من يعرفه على سبيل الاستحباب كما نقل ذلك عن أحمد أنه ذكر ذلك لمن سأله
ولم يقل أحمد إنه لا تصح إلا خلف من أعرف حاله
  ولما قدم  أبو عمرو عثمان بن مرزوق إلى ديار مصر وكان ملوكها في ذلك الزمان مظهرين للتشيع وكانوا باطنية ملاحدة وكان بسبب ذلك قد كثرت البدع وظهرت  بالديار المصرية - أمر أصحابه أن لا يصلوا إلا خلف من يعرفونه لأجل ذلك ثم بعد موته فتحها ملوك السنة مثل صلاح الدين وظهرت فيها كلمة السنة المخالفة  للرافضة ثم صار العلم والسنة يكثر بها ويظهر
فالصلاة خلف المستور جائزة باتفاق علماء المسلمين ومن قال إن الصلاة محرمة أو باطلة خلف من لا يعرف حاله فقد خالف إجماع أهل السنة والجماعة , وقد كان الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم يصلون خلف من يعرفون فجوره كما صلى عبد الله بن مسعود وغيره من الصحابة خلف الوليد بن عقبة بن أبي معيط وكان قد يشرب الخمر وصلى مرة الصبح أربعا وجلده عثمان بن عفان على ذلك
وكان عبد الله بن عمر وغيره من الصحابة يصلون خلف  الحجاج بن يوسف
وكان الصحابة والتا بعون يصلون خلف ابن أبي عبيد وكان متهما بالإلحاد وداعيا إلى الضلال

When desires (innovations) became widespread, some of the people preferred not to pray, except behind a person that they know about (holding that to be a) recommended course. And this view has been reported from (Imm) Ahmad when he was asked about it, however, (Imm) Ahmad never said that praying behind a person is not Sahh (correct) unless it is behind a person whose condition is known about.

When Ab Amr Uthmn bin Mazrq1 came to Diyr (the lands) of Egypt, and at that time, the kings (of Egypt) were openly deviant Shah from the Btiniyyah. So because of that, Bidah (innovations) were numerous and widespread in the lands of Egypt, he (i.e., Ibnu Marzq) ordered his companions not to pray, except behind someone that they knew about. After he died, Egypt was conquered by the kings of Sunnah, for example Salhud Dn (al-Ayyb). And the words of the Sunnah then became uppermost, as did opposition to the Rfidhah also. Then Ilm'us Sunnah (the Knowledge of the Sunnah) became widespread and manifest. So prayer behind Mastr (a person whose condition in unknown), is Jiz (permissible) by Ittifq (agreement) of the Imms of the Muslims.

Whoever says that prayer behind a person whose condition is unknown, is Harm (forbidden) or Btil (invalid), has opposed Ijm (the consensus) of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamah. And the noble Companions, Radiyallhu Alayhim (May Allh be Pleased with Them All), prayed behind people who were known with their Fujr (sins). Like when Abdullh bin Masd Radiyallhu Anh and others from the Companions May Allh be Pleased with Them All, prayed behind al-Wald bin Uqbah bin Ab Mut2 and he used to drink Khamr (intoxicants). Once he (led the pray and) prayed four (Rakt i.e., units) for Fajr (morning) prayer instead of two and he was whipped by Uthmn bin Affn Radiyallhu Anh due to that.3

And also Abdullh bin Umar Radiyallhu Anhum Ajman and other than him from the Companions, May Allh be Pleased with Them All, prayed behind al-Hajj bin Ysuf (ath-Thaqaf).4

Also, the Companions and the Tbin prayed behind Ibnu Ab Ubayd5 and he was D (a caller) to his Ilhd (heretical innovations) and Dallah (misguidance).


ولا يجوز  تكفير المسلم بذنب فعله ولا بخطأ أخطأ فيه  كالمسائل التي تنازع فيها أهل القبلة فإن الله تعالى قال {آمن الرسول بما أنزل إليه من ربه والمؤمنون كل آمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله لا نفرق بين أحد من رسله وقالوا سمعنا وأطعنا غفرانك ربنا وإليك المصير} وقد ثبت في الصحيح أن الله تعالى أجاب هذا الدعاء وغفر للمؤمنين خطأهم
والخوارج المارقون الذين أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بقتالهم قاتلهم أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب أحد الخلفاء الراشدين
واتفق على قتالهم أئمة الدين من الصحابة والتابعين ومن بعدهم
ولم يكفرهم علي بن أبي طالب وسعد بن أبي وقاص وغيرهما من الصحابة بل جعلوهم مسلمين مع قتالهم ولم يقاتلهم علي حتى سفكوا الدم الحرام وأغاروا على أموال المسلمين فقاتلهم لدفع ظلمهم وبغيهم لا لأنهم كفار
ولهذا لم يسب حريمهم ولم يغنم أموالهم
وإذا كان هؤلاء الذين ثبت ضلالهم بالنص والإجماع لم يكفروا مع أمر الله ورسوله بقتالهم فكيف بالطوائف المختلفين الذين اشتبه عليهم الحق في مسائل غلط فيها من هو أعلم منهم ؟ فلا يحل لأحد من هذه الطوائف أن تكفر الأخرى ولا تستحل دمها ومالها وإن كانت فيها بدعة محققة فكيف إذا كانت المكفرة لها مبتدعة أيضا ؟ وقد تكون بدعة هؤلاء أغلظ والغالب أنهم جميعا جهال بحقائق ما يختلفون فيه

And it is not Jiz (permissible) to make Takfr upon a Muslim due to sins which he is performing, or mistakes which he makes, like in the issues in which Ahlul Qiblah (the People of the Qiblah) differ about. Indeed, Allh Tal said:

آمن الرسول بما أنزل إليه من ربه والمؤمنون كل آمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله لا نفرق بين أحد من رسله وقالوا سمعنا وأطعنا غفرانك ربنا وإليك المصير
"The Messenger believes in that which has been revealed to him from his Lord, and the believers all believe in Allh, His Angels, His Books, and they do not make distinctions between any one of the Messengers, and they say we hear and we obey, forgive us our Lord, and to You we is our (final) destination."(al-Baqarah 2/285)

It is authentically established in the Sahh (of Muslim) that Allh Tal, answered that supplication, and has forgiven the mistakes of the believers. (Muslim, mn, Hadth no: 199)

The rebellious Khawrij, those whom Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam commanded (the Muslims) to fight, were fought against by Amrul Muminn (the Commander of the Believers), Al bin Ab Tlib Radiyallhu Anh and he was one of al-Khulafir Rshidn (the Rightly Guided Caliphs). Fighting against them, is agreed upon by the Imms of the Religion from the Companions, their successors and other than them. Al bin Ab Tlib Radiyallhu Anh and Sad bin Ab Waqqs Radiyallhu Anh and others among the Companions did not make Takfr of them, rather they considered them Muslims, even though they (i.e., the Sahbah; companions) were fighting them. Al Radiyallhu Anh, did not fight against them until after they had spilled blood unlawfully, and illegal seized the wealth of the Muslims. So he fought them in order to stop their Dhulm (oppression) and Baghy (rebellion), not because they were disbelievers. Due to this reason he did not take them as captives nor take their wealth as war-booty.

And if this is (the case of) these people, whose Dallah (misguidance) is established in Nass (the texts) and by Ijm (the consensus of the first three generations i.e., the Salaf), and (yet despite this) they are (still) not declared as disbelievers, along with, the command of Allh and His Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, to fight against them, so how about the case of those different groups who are confused about the truth (i.e., the correct position) in those issues they are mistaken in, if they (only) had (sound) knowledge of them?

It is not Hall (allowed) for anyone from these groups to make Takfr of another nor to make his blood Hall (permissible) to spill nor his wealth, even if their Bidah (innovation) is something very clear. So how about (the case where) the person making Takfr upon another is, himself, Mubtadi (an innovator) also? So they are erroneous innovators (both groups), and they are overcome with Jahl (ignorance) about the reality of the issues they are differing over.


" والأصل أن دماء المسلمين وأموالهم وأعراضهم محرمة من بعضهم على بعض  لا تحل إلا بإذن الله ورسوله
قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما خطبهم في حجة الوداع " {إن دماءكم وأموالكم وأعراضكم عليكم حرام كحرمة يومكم هذا في بلدكم هذا في شهركم هذا} " وقال  "{ كل المسلم على المسلم حرام : دمه وماله وعرضه }"
وقال " { من صلى صلاتنا واستقبل قبلتنا وأكل ذبيحتنا فهو المسلم له ذمة الله ورسوله } " وقال " { إذا التقى المسلمان بسيفيهما فالقاتل والمقتول في النار قيل يا رسول الله هذا القاتل فما بال المقتول ؟ قال : إنه أراد قتل صاحبه } " وقال : " { لا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض } " وقال " { إذا قال المسلم لأخيه يا كافر فقد باء بها أحدهما " وهذه الأحاديث كلها في الصحاح
وإذا كان المسلم متأولا في القتال أو التكفير لم يكفر بذلك كما { قال عمر بن الخطاب لحاطب بن أبي بلتعة : يا رسول الله دعني أضرب عنق هذا المنافق فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إنه قد شهد بدرا وما يدريك أن الله قد اطلع على أهل بدر فقال اعملوا ما شئتم فقد غفرت لكم ؟ } وهذا في الصحيحين
وفيهما أيضا : من حديث الإفك : { أن أسيد بن الحضير
قال لسعد بن عبادة : إنك منافق تجادل عن المنافقين واختصم الفريقان فأصلح النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بينهم }
فهؤلاء البدريون فيهم من قال لآخر منهم : إنك منافق ولم يكفر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا هذا ولا هذا بل شهد للجميع بالجنة
وكذلك ثبت في الصحيحين عن { أسامة بن زيد أنه قتل رجلا بعد ما قال لا إله إلا الله وعظم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ذلك لما أخبره وقال يا أسامة أقتلته بعد ما قال لا إله إلا الله ؟
وكرر ذلك عليه حتى قال أسامة : تمنيت أني لم أكن أسلمت إلا يومئذ}
ومع هذا لم يوجب عليه قودا ولا دية ولا كفارة لأنه كان متأولا ظن جواز قتل ذلك القائل لظنه أنه قالها تعوذا

And the fundamental principal is that the blood of the Muslims and their wealth and their honor are inviolable (and protected) between a Muslim and the other Muslims, it does not become violable except by the (specified) permission of Allh and His Rasl Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.

Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said in his Khutbatul Wad (final sermon) of the Hajj:


إن دماءكم وأموالكم وأعراضكم عليكم حرام كحرمة يومكم هذا في بلدكم هذا في شهركم هذا
Indeed, your blood and your wealth and your honor are inviolable, just as this day of yours, in this land of yours, in this month of yours. (al-Bukhr, Ilm, Hadth no: 9; Hajj, Hadth no: 132; Muslim, Qasam, Hadth no: 29-30)

And he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said:

كل المسلم على المسلم حرام : دمه وماله وعرضه
Every Muslim is inviolable to another Muslim; his blood, his wealth and his honor. (Muslim, Birr, Hadth no: 32; Ab Dwd, Adab, Hadth no: 35; at-Tirmidh, Birr, Hadth no: 18)

And he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said:

من صلى صلاتنا واستقبل قبلتنا وأكل ذبيحتنا فهو المسلم له ذمة الله ورسوله
Whoever prays our Prayers, and faces our Qiblah, and eats from our slaughtered animals, then he is a Muslim and he is under the Protection of Allh and His Rasl. (al-Bukhr, Salh, Hadth no: 28)

And he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said:

إذا التقى المسلمان بسيفيهما فالقاتل والمقتول في النار قيل يا رسول الله هذا القاتل فما بال المقتول ؟ قال : إنه أراد قتل صاحبه
When two Muslims meet with their two swords, the one who was killed and the one who killed him are in the fire. It was said: O Raslullh, this is (deserving for) the one who killed, so for what is the one who was killed (in the fire)? He Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam replied: Indeed, he (also) intended to kill his companion. (an-Nas, Tahrm, Hadth no: 29; Ibnu Mjah, Fitan, Hadth no: 11)

And he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said:

لا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض
Do not return back to beings disbelievers after me (by) striking the necks of each other. (al-Bukhr, Ilm, Hadth no: 43; Muslim, mn, Hadth no: 118-120)

And he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said:

إذا قال المسلم لأخيه يا كافر فقد باء بها أحدهما
If a Muslim say to his (Muslim) brother, 'O Kfir (disbeliever)!' then (his words) return back to one of them. (al-Bukhr, Adab, Hadth no: 73; Muslim, mn, Hadth no: 111; at-Tirmidh, mn, Hadth no: 16)

And all of these Ahdth (pl., Hadth; narrations) are Sahh (authentic).

If a Muslim is incorrect in his understanding about killing (a Muslim) or making Takfr (of a Muslim), then he does not become a (major) disbeliever because of that (mistaken understanding of his), this is like:


ال عمر بن الخطاب لحاطب بن أبي بلتعة : يا رسول الله دعني أضرب عنق هذا المنافق فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إنه قد شهد بدرا وما يدريك أن الله قد اطلع على أهل بدر فقال اعملوا ما شئتم فقد غفرت لكم ؟
When Umar Ibn'ul Khattb Radiyallhu Anh said about Htib bin Ab Baltah Radiyallhu Anh: O Messenger of Allh! Allow me to behead this Munfiq (hypocrite)! So Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam replied: Indeed, he is one who witnessed (participated in the battle of) Badr. And you do not know if Allh has looked towards Ahl Badr (the People of Badr) and said to them: Do as you like, for you have been forgiven! (al-Bukhr, Maghz, Hadth no: 46; Muslim, Fadilus Sahbah, Hadth no: 161)

And this (Hadth) is found in the Sahhayn (i.e., two Sahh Hadith collections; al-Bukhr and Muslim).

And in them is also found the narrations of al-Ifk: Usayd Ibnul Hudayr Radiyallhu Anh said about Sad bin Ubdah Radiyallhu Anh;


إنك منافق تجادل عن المنافقين واختصم الفريقان فأصلح النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بينهم
Indeed, he is a Munfiq (hypocrite), arguing (on behalf of) Munfiqn (pl., Munfiq; the hypocrites). So the two parties began to argue, so Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam make peace between them. (al-Bukhr, Shahdah, Hadth no: 15; Maghz, Hadth no: 34; Muslim, Tawbah, Hadth no: 56)

These (the Companions mentioned in this Hadth) were all participants in (the Battle of) Badr and from them was the one who said: إنك منافق "He is a hypocrite!" (and yet) Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam did not call him a disbeliever, nor the other, but rather he bore witness that all of them will be in Jannah (paradise).

And similarly to this is what is authentically established in Sahhayn (the two Sahh collections i.e., al-Bukhr and Muslim) regarding Usmah bin Zayd Radiyallhu Anh. He killed a man after he (i.e., the person he killed) said:
لا إله إلا الله "La Ilaha Illallh, there is nothing worthy of worship except Allh!" and Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam severely reprimanded him when he heard about it and said to him:

يا أسامة أقتلته بعد ما قال لا إله إلا الله؟
O Usmah! Did you kill him after he said there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah? and he kept on repeating this question to Usmah until Usmah Radiyallhu Anh said:

تمنيت أني لم أكن أسلمت إلا يومئذ I wished that I had not accepted Islm until that day!1 (al-Bukhr, Diyt, Hadth no: 2; Muslim, mn, Hadth no: 158-159)

And along with this, he Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam did not seek any retribution (from Usamah) nor blood, nor Kafrah (expiation) from him, because he was mistaken (in his belief about killing that man), thinking that that man only said those words (of Tawhd) to protect himself (from Usmahs sword).

فهكذا السلف قاتل بعضهم بعضا من أهل الجمل وصفين ونحوهم وكلهم مسلمون مؤمنون كما قال تعالى : {وإن طائفتان من المؤمنين اقتتلوا فأصلحوا بينهما فإن بغت إحداهما على الأخرى فقاتلوا التي تبغي حتى تفيء إلى أمر الله فإن فاءت فأصلحوا بينهما بالعدل وأقسطوا إن الله يحب المقسطين} فقد بين الله تعالى أنهم مع اقتتالهم وبغي بعضهم على بعض إخوة مؤمنون وأمر بالإصلاح بينهم بالعدل
 ولهذا كان السلف مع الاقتتال يوالي بعضهم بعضا موالاة الدين , لا يعادون كمعاداة الكفار فيقبل بعضهم شهادة بعض ويأخذ بعضهم العلم عن بعض ويتوارثون ويتناكحون ويتعاملون بمعاملة المسلمين بعضهم مع بعض , مع ما كان بينهم من القتال والتلاعن وغير ذلك
وقد ثبت في الصحيح أن { النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سأل ربه أن لا يهلك أمته بسنة عامة فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يسلط عليهم عدوا من غيرهم فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يجعل بأسهم بينهم فلم يعط ذلك} " وأخبر أن الله لا يسلط عليهم عدوا من غيرهم يغلبهم كلهم حتى يكون بعضهم يقتل بعضا وبعضهم يسبي بعضا
وثبت في الصحيحين {لما نزل قوله تعالى {قل هو القادر على أن يبعث عليكم عذابا من فوقكم } قال أعوذ بوجهك {أو من تحت أرجلكم} قال أعوذ بوجهك  أو يلبسكم شيعا ويذيق بعضكم بأس بعض} قال هاتان أهون}"

Similarly the Salaf (the companions) fought against in each other in the battles of the Camel and Siffn and others, (whilst) all of them were brothers (in Islm) and in mn just as (Allh) Tal says:

وإن طائفتان من المؤمنين اقتتلوا فأصلحوا بينهما فإن بغت إحداهما على الأخرى فقاتلوا التي تبغي حتى تفيء إلى أمر الله فإن فاءت فأصلحوا بينهما بالعدل وأقسطوا إن الله يحب المقسطين
And when two groups from the believers fight one another, make peace between them, and if one group rebels against the other then fight the rebellious group, up until they surrender to the command of Allh, and if they surrender, make peace between them with justice and  fairness, indeed Allh loves those who are just. (al-Hujurt 49/9)

So, (in this yah) Allh Tal states that, (despite) these two groups fighting each other and rebelling against one another, they are brothers and believers, and (Allh) orders (the Muslims) to make Sulh (peace) between them (based) upon Adl (justice).

Likewise, (even though) the Salaf fought each other, they showed Muwlt (friendship) to each other and they mutually co-operated in the affairs of the Dn. They did not show enmity to each other as they would have to the disbelievers, and they would accept each others Shahdah (testimonies). They would seek knowledge from each other, and they would inherit from each other, and marry from each other, and they co-operated with each other in communal affairs. And this all was whilst they were fighting and opposing each other, and other similar factors.

It is authentically established in the Sahh Hadth (recorded by Muslim) that:


النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سأل ربه أن لا يهلك أمته بسنة عامة فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يسلط عليهم عدوا من غيرهم فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يجعل بأسهم بينهم فلم يعط ذلك
Nabi Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam asked his Lord not to destroy his Ummah (all at once) by way of a universal drought, and it was granted to him, and (then) he asked that they not be completely overpowered by their enemies and it was granted to him, and he (then) asked that they would not harm each other, but that was not granted. (Ahmad, Musnad, 5/278)

(So) Allh informed us (in this Sahh Hadth) that Allh would not let their enemies overpower them completely, but they would fight each other and take each other as captives.7

It is authentically established in the Sahhayn that:

When Allh revealed His saying:


قل هو القادر على أن يبعث عليكم عذابا من فوقكم
Say! Allh is the one who has the ability to send upon you a punishment from above you. (al-Anm 8/65)

(Raslullh) said: قال أعوذ بوجهك I seek protection in Your Face.(Then, when Allh said): أو من تحت أرجلكم "Or from under your feet."(Raslullh) said: أعوذ بوجهك "I seek protection in Your Face." (Then, when Allh said): أو يلبسكم شيعا ويذيق بعضكم بأس بعض "Or envelope you in sectarianism, each of you harming the other." (Raslullh) said: هاتان أهون "The other two are lighter." (al-Bukhr, Tafsru Sratil Anm, Hadth no: 2; at-Tirmidh, Tafsru Sratil Anm, Hadth no: 2)

هذا مع أن  الله أمر بالجماعة والائتلاف ونهى عن البدعة والاختلاف  وقال : {إن الذين فرقوا دينهم وكانوا شيعا لست منهم في شيء} وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم " {عليكم بالجماعة فإن يد الله على الجماعة} " وقال : " {الشيطان مع الواحد وهو من الاثنين أبعد} " وقال : " {الشيطان ذئب الإنسان كذئب الغنم والذئب إنما يأخذ القاصية والنائية من الغنم}"
فالواجب على المسلم إذا صار في مدينة من مدائن المسلمين أن يصلي معهم الجمعة والجماعة ويوالي المؤمنين ولا يعاديهم وإن رأى بعضهم ضالا أو غاويا وأمكن أن يهديه ويرشده فعل ذلك وإلا فلا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها وإذا كان قادرا على أن يولي في إمامة المسلمين الأفضل ولاه وإن قدر أن يمنع من يظهر البدع والفجور منعه
وإن لم يقدر على ذلك فالصلاة خلف الأعلم بكتاب الله وسنة نبيه الأسبق إلى طاعة الله ورسوله أفضل كما قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في الحديث الصحيح : "{يؤم القوم أقرؤهم لكتاب الله , فإن كانوا في القراءة سواء فأعلمهم بالسنة فإن كانوا في السنة سواء فأقدمهم هجرة
فإن كانوا في الهجرة سواء فأقدمهم سنا}

So along with this, Allh has commanded us to be a single Jamah (group) and to be unified (upon the Sunnah), and to prohibit Bidah (innovations) and not to Ikhtilf (differ) with each other. And Allh says:

إن الذين فرقوا دينهم وكانوا شيعا لست منهم في شيء
Indeed, those whose differed in their religion and became sects, you have nothing to do with them whatsoever. (al-Anm 6/65)

And Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam said:

عليكم بالجماعة فإن يد الله على الجماعة
It is obligatory upon you to be a Jamah (united group), for indeed, Yad (the hand) of Allh is over the Jamah. (at-Tirmidh, Fitan, Hadth no: 7; an-Nas, Tahrm, Hadth no: 6)

And (Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:

الشيطان مع الواحد وهو من الاثنين أبعد
The Shaytn (Satan) is with the lone person, and he is further away from two. (at-Tirmidh, Fitan, Hadth no: 7; Ahmad, Musnad, 1/18, 26)

And (Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam) said:

الشيطان ذئب الإنسان كذئب الغنم والذئب إنما يأخذ القاصية والنائية من الغنم
The Shaytn preys on people like the wolf preys (on sheep), and he takes the lone sheep and the stragglers. (Ahmad, Musnad, 5/233, 243)

So it is Wjib (obligatory) upon a Muslim, when he enters a town from the towns of the Muslims, that he prays the Jumuah prayer and Jamah (the congregational) prayers in congregation and that he has Wal to the Muminn and does not have Bar (enmity) towards them. If he sees deviations and misguidance amongst them, and if he is able, he should guide them and correct them regarding those matters in which they are misguided and if he is not able, then Allh does not place any burden upon a person that they cannot bear. If he has the ability to appoint a virtuous Imm for the Muslims (to pray behind) he should do so, and if he has the ability to prevent an Imm who is an innovator or sinful, then he should prevent him.

If he is not able to do that, then he should pray behind the most knowledgeable person of the Book and the Sunnah of His Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam and the one who is most obedient towards Allh and His Rasl, due to the Hadth of Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam found in Sahh:


يؤم القوم أقرؤهم لكتاب الله , فإن كانوا في القراءة سواء فأعلمهم بالسنة فإن كانوا فإن كانوا في الهجرة سواء فأقدمهم سنا في السنة سواء فأقدمهم هجرة
The person who is most knowledgeable in Kitbullh (the Book of Allh i.e., the Qurn) should lead the Prayer. If you are equal in Qirah (recitation of the Qurn), then the person with more knowledge of the Sunnah should lead. If you are equal in that, then the one who made Hijrah (migrated) first should lead. If you are equal in Hijrah, then the the eldest of you should lead. (Muslim, Masjid, Hadth no: 290; at-Tirmidh, Mawkit, Hadth no: 60; Ahmad, Musnad, 5/272; Ab Dwd, Salh, Hadth no: 60)

وإن كان في هجره لمظهر البدعة والفجور مصلحة راجحة هجره كما هجر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الثلاثة الذين خلفوا حتى تاب الله عليهم
وأما إذا ولى غيره بغير إذنه وليس في ترك الصلاة خلفه مصلحة شرعية كان تفويت هذه الجمعة والجماعة جهلا وضلالا وكان قد رد بدعة ببدعة
حتى إن المصلي الجمعة خلف الفاجر اختلف الناس في إعادته الصلاة وكرهها أكثرهم حتى قال أحمد بن حنبل في رواية عبدوس : من أعادها فهو مبتدع
وهذا أظهر القولين لأن الصحابة لم يكونوا يعيدون الصلاة إذا صلوا خلف أهل الفجور والبدع ولم يأمر الله تعالى قط أحدا إذا صلى كما أمر بحسب استطاعته أن يعيد الصلاة
ولهذا كان أصح قولي العلماء أن من صلى بحسب استطاعته أن لا يعيد حتى المتيمم لخشية البرد ومن عدم الماء والتراب إذا صلى بحسب حاله والمحبوس وذووا الأعذار النادرة والمعتادة والمتصلة والمنقطعة لا يجب على أحد منهم أن يعيد الصلاة إذا صلى الأولى بحسب استطاعته.

If there is a Maslahah (benefit) in Sharah shunning the person of innovations or sinfulness, then this is preferred, just as Nab Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam shunned the three who remained behind, until Allh forgave them.

As for appointing another Imm without the permission of the other Imm, whilst there is no benefit in abandoning the Jumuah prayer and the congregational prayers behind him, (then doing that is) Jahl (ignorance) and Dallah (misguidance), it will be refuting one Bidah (innovation) by way of another Bidah.

(And these innovated practices occurred) up until the people have Ikhtilf (differed) over whether a person who prays the Jumuah prayer behind a Fjir (sinful) Imm, should repeat his prayer or not. And this repeating (of the prayer) was disliked by many of them, up until Imm Ahmad bin Hanbal Rahimahullh said in one narration authentically reported by Abds:


من أعادها فهو مبتدع
Whoever repeats his prayer is a Mubtadi (an innovator).

This is apparent from what has been authentically reported from the Companions, who prayed behind the people who were (openly) sinful and (openly) upon innovations, and they did not repeat their prayers and neither did Allh Tal order them to repeat their prayers (by way of revelation to the Prophet), after they had offered their prayers according to the best of their ability.

Due to this, the most correct statements of the Ulam (pl., Imm; scholars) is that if one prays according to the best of his ability, one does not have to repeat ones prayers, even if a person makes Tayammum (dry ablution) due to fear of the cold, or he prays with neither water or earth/dust (due to not being available), or the prisoner, or a person with an unusual excuse, so he prays the best way he can, due to his condition. (Regardless) of whether that happens repeatedly or it is continuous or intermittently occurs, it is not Wjib (obligatory) upon a person from them to repeat his prayer as long as he prays to the best of his ability.




Quote
1- Ibnu Marzq was a Hanbal scholar who died 564H. The deviant Marziqah sect is named after them.

2- He was one of the companions and the maternal brother of Amrul Muminn Uthmn bin Affn Radiyallhu Anh.

3- It was narrated from Hudayn Ibnul Munthir that he said: I saw Uthmn bin Affn Radiyallhu Anh when Wald was brought in front of him, and he had prayed two (extra) Rakt (units) of Fajr prayer, so he was asked (by Uthmn): Have you added to the prayer?, so two men testified that he had been consuming intoxicants... (Muslim)

4- Ibnu Kathr, mentioned that al-Hajj bin Ysuf ath-Thaqaf, was born and raised in Tif. He moved to ash-Shm and became of the officers in the army of the then king Abdul Malik bin Marwn. He then became a governor of Makkah, Madnah, Tif and Irq. He killed the Noble Companion Abdullh bin Zubayr Radiyallhu Anhum Ajman and a group of his companions whilst they were seeking protective sanctuary from him in the Sacred Kabah in the Masjid al-Harm. (Ibnu Kathr, al-Bidyah wan Nihyah)

Umayr bin Hni Radiyallhu Anhum, said: I saw Abdullh bin Umar Radiyallhu Anhum Ajman during the time of the siege (of Makkah) on Ibnu Zubayr Radiyallhu Anhum Ajman. The house of Abdullh bin Umar Radiyallhu Anhum Ajman was between them, so sometimes he prayed with one group (al-Hajjj bin Ysuf) and sometimes he prayed with another group (i.e. Abdullh Ibnu Zubayr). (Ibnu Ab Shaybah, Musannaf)

It was also narrated that Zayd bin Aslam Rahimahullh, said: In the time of the Fitnah (i.e., trail of Hajjj), there was no (political) Amr (leader) but Abdullh bin Umar Radiyallhu Anhum Ajman would pray behind him and pay the Zakt (obligatory charity) of wealth to him. (Ibnu Sa'd)

5- He is al-Mukhtr bin Ab Ubayd ath-Thaqaf al-Kadhdhb (i.e., the liar). He accepted Islm in the lifetime of the Prophet Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam, but his companionship is not known! It is known that he was employed in the army of Umar Ibnul Khattb Radiyallhu Anh in the conquest of Irq. He also fought against Ban Umayyah after the death of Husayn Radiyallhu Anh, the Noble grandson of the Prophet, Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. He was then captured by Ziyd, the then ruler of Basrah, then he was banished to Tif. It was after this that his deviation became clear and he started calling people to the Immate of Ban Hanfah, after this he then claim prophet-hood for himself....!  He died in the year 67H. (an-Nawaw, Sharh Sahhul Muslim, Fadhil)

Muhaddith Abd'ur Rahmn bin Mahd narrated from Sufyn, from Amash that he said: The companions of Abdullh bin Masd Radiyallhu Anh used to pray the Jumuah prayer behind al-Mukhtr, and they viewed that (prayer) as Sahh (correct). (Ibnu Ab Shaybah, Musannaf)

6- i.e. that if he was a new Muslim that day, all his previous sins, such as killing that man, would be forgiven by Allh for converting to Islm and Tawhd

7- There is Ijm (consensus), that a free believing Muslim or Muslimah, can not be taken as a captive as a Ghanmah (i.e., war booty) and the Imms of Hadth have understood this Hadth to be one of signs of the Hour.
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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