التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: the Fundamental Principles of Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamaa'ah  (Read 425 times)

Fahm'us Salaf

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the Fundamental Principles of Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamaa'ah
« on: December 27, 2015, 11:20:19 PM »
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
the Fundamental Principles of Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamaa'ah

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah), Majma'ul Fatawa, 3/278-287

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said:

ومن أصول أهل السنة والجماعة أنهم يصلون الجمع والأعياد والجماعات لا يدعون الجمعة والجماعة كما فعل أهل البدع من الرافضة وغيرهم فإن كان الإمام مستورا لم يظهر منه بدعة ولا فجور صلى خلفه الجمعة والجماعة باتفاق الأئمة الأربعة وغيرهم من أئمة المسلمين ولم يقل أحد من الأئمة إنه لا تجوز الصلاة إلا خلف من علم باطن أمره بل ما زال المسلمون من بعد نبيهم يصلون خلف المسلم المستور ولكن إذا ظهر من المصلي بدعة أو فجور وأمكن الصلاة خلف من يعلم أنه مبتدع أو فاسق مع إمكان الصلاة خلف غيره فأكثر أهل العلم يصححون صلاة المأموم وهذا مذهب الشافعي وأبي حنيفة وهو أحد القولين في مذهب مالك وأحمد
وأما إذا لم يمكن الصلاة إلا خلف المبتدع أو الفاجر كالجمعة التي إمامها مبتدع أو فاجر وليس هناك جمعة أخرى فهذه تصلى خلف المبتدع والفاجر عند عامة أهل السنة والجماعة
وهذا مذهب الشافعي وأبي حنيفة وأحمد بن حنبل وغيرهم من أئمة أهل السنة بلا خلاف عندهم


And from the fundamental principles of Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamaa'ah is that they pray the Jumu'ah (Friday) prayers and the two Id prayers and the (five daily) Jamaah (congregational) prayers. They do not abandon the Jumu'ah prayers and the congregational prayers like Ahl'ul Bid'ah (the People of Innovation) from the Rafidhah and other than them. So if there is an Imam whose condition is Mastur (unknown), there being no Dhahir (outward/apparent) Bid'ah (innovations) or Fujur (sinfulness) manifest from him, (he is to be) prayed behind in the Jumu'ah prayers and the Jamaah (congregational) prayers by the Ittifaaq (agreement) of the four Imams and other than them from the Imams of the Muslims. Not a single Imam from the Imams said that it is not permissible to pray behind a person whose condition is not known. Rather, after Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), the Muslims have continued to pray behind the Muslim whose condition is not known. However, when innovations and sinfulness becomes apparent from a person and it is possible to pray behind a person whom it is known that they are Mubtadi (an innovator) or Faasiq (a sinful person), and it is also possible to pray behind somebody other than him, the majority of Ahl'ul Ilm (the people of knowledge) say that prayer behind such a (sinful) person is Sahih (sound/correct). And this is the Madhhab of (Imam) ash-Shaafi'i and (Imam) Abi Hanifah and one of two sayings in the Madhhab of (Imam) Malik and (Imam) Ahmad.

And if it is not possible to pray, except behind a Mubtadi (person of innovation) or Faajir (a sinful person), as in the case of praying the Jumu'ah prayers behind an Imam who is Mubtadi (an innovator) or Faajir (a sinful person), and there is no other place to pray the Jumu'ah prayers, then (the permissibility and correctness) of praying behind the Mubtadi (innovator) or Faajir (sinfu)l person is agreed by the Imams of Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamaa'ah. And this is the Madhhab of (Imam) ash-Shaafi'i and (Imam) Abi Hanifah and Imam Ahmad and other than them from the Imams of Ahl'us Sunnah, and there is no difference of opinion concerning this matter amongst them.


وكان بعض الناس إذا كثرت الأهواء يحب أن لا يصلي إلا خلف من يعرفه على سبيل الاستحباب كما نقل ذلك عن  أحمد   أنه ذكر ذلك لمن سأله
ولم يقل أحمد إنه لا تصح إلا خلف من أعرف حاله
  ولما قدم  أبو عمرو عثمان بن مرزوق   إلى ديار  مصر   وكان ملوكها في ذلك الزمان مظهرين للتشيع وكانوا باطنية ملاحدة وكان بسبب ذلك قد كثرت البدع وظهرت  بالديار المصرية   - أمر أصحابه أن لا يصلوا إلا خلف من يعرفونه لأجل ذلك ثم بعد موته فتحها ملوك السنة مثل  صلاح الدين   وظهرت فيها كلمة السنة المخالفة  للرافضة   ثم صار العلم والسنة يكثر بها ويظهر
فالصلاة خلف المستور جائزة باتفاق علماء المسلمين ومن قال إن الصلاة محرمة أو باطلة خلف من لا يعرف حاله فقد خالف إجماع أهل السنة والجماعة , وقد كان الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم يصلون خلف من يعرفون فجوره كما صلى عبد الله بن مسعود وغيره من الصحابة خلف الوليد بن عقبة بن أبي معيط وكان قد يشرب الخمر وصلى مرة الصبح أربعا وجلده عثمان بن عفان على ذلك
وكان   عبد الله بن عمر   وغيره من  الصحابة   يصلون خلف  الحجاج بن يوسف
وكان الصحابة والتا بعون يصلون خلف ابن أبي عبيد وكان متهما بالإلحاد وداعيا إلى الضلال


When desires (innovations) became widespread, some of the people preferred not to pray, except behind a person that they know about (holding that to be a) recommended course. And this view has been reported from (Imam) Ahmad when he was asked about it, however, (Imam) Ahmad never said that praying behind a person is not Sahih (correct) unless it is behind a person whose condition is known about.

When Abu Amru Uthman ibn Mazruq1 came to Diyaar (the lands) of Egypt, and at that time, the kings (of Egypt) were openly deviant Shi'ah from the Batiniyyah. So because of that, Bid'ah (innovations) were numerous and widespread in the lands of Egypt, he (i.e., ibn Marzuq) ordered his companions not to pray, except behind someone that they knew about. After he died, Egypt was conquered by the kings of Sunnah, for example Salah'ud Din (al-Ayyubi). And the words of the Sunnah then became uppermost, as did opposition to the Rafidah also. Then Ilm'us Sunnah (the Knowledge of the Sunnah) became widespread and manifest. So prayer behind Mastur (a person whose condition in unknown), is Ja'iz (permissible) by Ittifaaq (agreement) of the Imams of the Muslims.

Whoever says that prayer behind a person whose condition is unknown, is Haraam (forbidden) or Baatil (invalid), has opposed Ijmaa (the consensus) of Ahl'us Sunnah wa'l Jamaa'ah. And the noble Companions, radiyallahu alayhim (may Allah be pleased with them all), prayed behind people who were known with their Fujuur (sins). Like when Abdullah ibn Mas'ud (radiyallahu anh) and others from the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them all), prayed behind Walid ibn Aqibah ibn Abi Mu'it2 and he used to drink Khamr (intoxicants). Once he (led the pray and) prayed four (Rak'at i.e., units) for Fajr (morning) prayer instead of two and he was whipped by Uthman ibn Affaan (radiyallahu anh) due to that.3

And also Abdullah Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) and other than him from the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, prayed behind al-Hajaaj ibn Yusuf (ath-Thaqafi)4.

Also, the Companions and the Taabi'un prayed behind Ibn Abi Ubayd5 and he was Da'i (a caller) to his Ilhaad (heretical innovations) and Dalalah (misguidance).


ولا يجوز  تكفير المسلم بذنب فعله ولا بخطأ أخطأ فيه  كالمسائل التي تنازع فيها أهل القبلة فإن الله تعالى قال {آمن الرسول بما أنزل إليه من ربه والمؤمنون كل آمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله لا نفرق بين أحد من رسله وقالوا سمعنا وأطعنا غفرانك ربنا وإليك المصير} وقد ثبت في الصحيح أن الله تعالى أجاب هذا الدعاء وغفر للمؤمنين خطأهم
 والخوارج   المارقون الذين أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بقتالهم قاتلهم أمير المؤمنين  علي بن أبي طالب   أحد الخلفاء الراشدين
واتفق على قتالهم أئمة الدين من الصحابة والتابعين ومن بعدهم
ولم يكفرهم علي بن أبي طالب وسعد بن أبي وقاص وغيرهما من الصحابة بل جعلوهم مسلمين مع قتالهم ولم يقاتلهم علي حتى سفكوا الدم الحرام وأغاروا على أموال المسلمين فقاتلهم لدفع ظلمهم وبغيهم لا لأنهم كفار
ولهذا لم يسب حريمهم ولم يغنم أموالهم
وإذا كان هؤلاء الذين ثبت ضلالهم بالنص والإجماع لم يكفروا مع أمر الله ورسوله بقتالهم فكيف بالطوائف المختلفين الذين اشتبه عليهم الحق في مسائل غلط فيها من هو أعلم منهم ؟ فلا يحل لأحد من هذه الطوائف أن تكفر الأخرى ولا تستحل دمها ومالها وإن كانت فيها بدعة محققة فكيف إذا كانت المكفرة لها مبتدعة أيضا ؟ وقد تكون بدعة هؤلاء أغلظ والغالب أنهم جميعا جهال بحقائق ما يختلفون فيه


And it is not Ja'iz (permissible) to make Takfir upon a Muslim due to sins which he is performing, or mistakes which he makes, like in the issues in which Ahl'ul Qiblah (the People of the Qiblah) differ about. Indeed, Allah Ta'ala said:

آمن الرسول بما أنزل إليه من ربه والمؤمنون كل آمن بالله وملائكته وكتبه ورسله لا نفرق بين أحد من رسله وقالوا سمعنا وأطعنا غفرانك ربنا وإليك المصير

"The Messenger believes in that which has been revealed to him from his Lord, and the believers all believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and they do not make distinctions between any one of the Messengers, and they say we hear and we obey, forgive us our Lord, and to You we is our (final) destination." (al-Baqarah 2/285)

It is authentically established in the Sahih (of Muslim) that Allah Ta'ala, answered that supplication, and has forgiven the mistakes of the believers. (Muslim, Iman, #199)

The rebellious Khawarij, those whom Nabi, (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), commanded (the Muslims) to fight, were fought against by Amir'ul Mu'minin (the Commander of the Believers), Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh) and he was one of al-Khulafa'ir Rashhidun (the Rightly Guided Caliphs). Fighting against them, is agreed upon by the Imams of the Religion from the Companions, their successors and other than them. Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh) and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas (radiyallahu anh) and others among the Companions did not make Takfir of them, rather they considered them Muslims, even though they (i.e., the Sahaba; companions) were fighting them. Ali (radiyallahu anh), did not fight against them until after they had spilled blood unlawfully, and illegal seized the wealth of the Muslims. So he fought them in order to stop their Dhulm (oppression) and Bahy (rebellion), not because they were disbelievers. Due to this reason he did not take them as captives nor take their wealth as war-booty.

And if this is (the case of) these people, whose Dalalah (misguidance) is established in Naas (the texts) and by Ijmaa (the consensus of the first three generations i.e., the Salaf), and (yet despite this) they are (still) not declared as disbelievers, along with, the command of Allah and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), to fight against them, so how about the case of those different groups who are confused about the truth (i.e., the correct position) in those issues they are mistaken in, if they (only) had (sound) knowledge of them?

It is not Halaal (allowed) for anyone from these groups to make Takfir of another nor to make his blood Halaal (permissible) to spill nor his wealth, even if their Bid'ah (innovation) is something very clear. So how about (the case where) the person making Takfir upon another is, himself, Mubtadi (an innovator) also? So they are erroneous innovators (both groups), and they are overcome with Jahl (ignorance) about the reality of the issues they are differing over.


" والأصل أن  دماء المسلمين وأموالهم وأعراضهم محرمة من بعضهم على بعض  لا تحل إلا بإذن الله ورسوله
قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لما خطبهم في حجة الوداع " {إن دماءكم وأموالكم وأعراضكم عليكم حرام كحرمة يومكم هذا في بلدكم هذا في شهركم هذا} " وقال  "{ كل المسلم على المسلم حرام : دمه وماله وعرضه }"
وقال " { من صلى صلاتنا واستقبل قبلتنا وأكل ذبيحتنا فهو المسلم له ذمة الله ورسوله } " وقال " { إذا التقى المسلمان بسيفيهما فالقاتل والمقتول في النار قيل يا رسول الله هذا القاتل فما بال المقتول ؟ قال : إنه أراد قتل صاحبه } " وقال : " { لا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض } " وقال " { إذا قال المسلم لأخيه يا كافر فقد باء بها أحدهما " وهذه الأحاديث كلها في الصحاح
وإذا كان المسلم متأولا في القتال أو التكفير لم يكفر بذلك كما { قال عمر بن الخطاب لحاطب بن أبي بلتعة : يا رسول الله دعني أضرب عنق هذا المنافق فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إنه قد شهد بدرا وما يدريك أن الله قد اطلع على أهل بدر فقال اعملوا ما شئتم فقد غفرت لكم ؟ } وهذا في الصحيحين
وفيهما أيضا : من حديث الإفك : { أن أسيد بن الحضير
قال لسعد بن عبادة : إنك منافق تجادل عن المنافقين واختصم الفريقان فأصلح النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بينهم }
فهؤلاء البدريون فيهم من قال لآخر منهم : إنك منافق ولم يكفر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا هذا ولا هذا بل شهد للجميع بالجنة
وكذلك ثبت في الصحيحين عن { أسامة بن زيد أنه قتل رجلا بعد ما قال لا إله إلا الله وعظم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ذلك لما أخبره وقال يا أسامة أقتلته بعد ما قال لا إله إلا الله ؟
وكرر ذلك عليه حتى قال أسامة : تمنيت أني لم أكن أسلمت إلا يومئذ}
ومع هذا لم يوجب عليه قودا ولا دية ولا كفارة لأنه كان متأولا ظن جواز قتل ذلك القائل لظنه أنه قالها تعوذا


And the fundamental principal is that the blood of the Muslims and their wealth and their honor are inviolable (and protected) between a Muslim and the other Muslims, it does not become violable except by the (specified) permission of Allah and His Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said in his Khutbat'ul Wada (final sermon) of the Hajj:


إن دماءكم وأموالكم وأعراضكم عليكم حرام كحرمة يومكم هذا في بلدكم هذا في شهركم هذا

"Indeed, your blood and your wealth and your honor are inviolable, just as this day of yours, in this land of yours, in this month of yours." (Bukhari, Ilm, #9; Hajj, #132; Muslim, Qasam, #29-30)

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


كل المسلم على المسلم حرام : دمه وماله وعرضه

"Every Muslim is inviolable to another Muslim; his blood, his wealth and his honor." (Muslim, Birr, #32; Abu Dawud, Adab, #35; Tirmidhi, Birr, #18)

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


من صلى صلاتنا واستقبل قبلتنا وأكل ذبيحتنا فهو المسلم له ذمة الله ورسوله

"Whoever prays our Prayers, and faces our Qiblah, and eats from our slaughtered animals, then he is a Muslim and he is under the Protection of Allah and His Rasul." (Bukhari, Salat, #28)

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


إذا التقى المسلمان بسيفيهما فالقاتل والمقتول في النار قيل يا رسول الله هذا القاتل فما بال المقتول ؟ قال : إنه أراد قتل صاحبه

"When two Muslims meet with their two swords, the one who was killed and the one who killed him are in the fire. It was said: O Rasulullah, this is (deserving for) the one who killed, so for what is the one who was killed (in the fire)? He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) replied: Indeed, he (also) intended to kill his companion." (Nasa, Tahrim, #29; Ibn Ma'ja, Fitan, #11)

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


لا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض

"Do not return back to beings disbelievers after me (by) striking the necks of each other." (Bukhari, Ilm, #43; Muslim, Iman, #118-120)

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


إذا قال المسلم لأخيه يا كافر فقد باء بها أحدهما

"If a Muslim say to his (Muslim) brother, 'O Kafir (disbeliever)!' then (his words) return back to one of them." (Bukhari, Adab, #73; Muslim, Iman, #111; Tirmidhi, Iman, #16)

And all of these Ahadith (pl., Hadith; narrations) are Sahih (authentic).

If a Muslim is incorrect in his understanding about killing (a Muslim) or making Takfir (of a Muslim), then he does not become a (major) disbeliever because of that (mistaken understanding of his), this is like:


ال عمر بن الخطاب لحاطب بن أبي بلتعة : يا رسول الله دعني أضرب عنق هذا المنافق فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم إنه قد شهد بدرا وما يدريك أن الله قد اطلع على أهل بدر فقال اعملوا ما شئتم فقد غفرت لكم ؟

"When Umar Ibn'ul Khattab (radiyallahu anh) said about Haatib ibn Abi Balta (radiyallahu anh): O Messenger of Allah! Allow me to behead this Munafiq (hypocrite)! So Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) replied: Indeed, he is one who witnessed (participated in the battle of) Badr. And you do not know if Allah has looked towards Ahl Badr (the People of Badr) and said to them: Do as you like, for you have been forgiven!" (Bukhari, Maghazi, #46; Muslim, Fadail'us Sahaba, #161)

And this (Hadith) is found in the Sahihayn (i.e., two Sahih Hadith collections; Bukhari and Muslim).

And in them is also found the narrations of al-Ifk: Usayd ibn Hudayr (radiyallahu anh) said about Sa'd ibn Ubaadah (radiyallahu anh);


إنك منافق تجادل عن المنافقين واختصم الفريقان فأصلح النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بينهم

"Indeed, he is a Munafiq (hypocrite), arguing (on behalf of) Munafiqin (pl., Munafiq; the hypocrites). So the two parties began to argue, so Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) make peace between them." (Bukhari, Shahadah, #15; Maghazi, #34; Muslim, Tawbah, #56)

These (the Companions mentioned in this Hadith) were all participants in (the Battle of) Badr and from them was the one who said:
إنك منافق "He is a hypocrite!" (and yet) Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not call him a disbeliever, nor the other, but rather he bore witness that all of them will be in Jannah (paradise).

And similarly to this is what is authentically established in Sahihayn (the two Sahih collections i.e., Bukhari and Muslim) regarding Usamah ibn Zayd (radiyallahu anh). He killed a man after he (i.e., the person he killed) said:
لا إله إلا الله "Lailahaillallah, there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah!" and Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) severely reprimanded him when he heard about it and said to him:

يا أسامة أقتلته بعد ما قال لا إله إلا الله؟

"O Usamah! Did you kill him after he said there is nothing worthy of worship except Allah? and he kept on repeating this question to Usaamah until Usaamah (radiyallahu anh) said:

تمنيت أني لم أكن أسلمت إلا يومئذ I wished that I had not accepted Islam until that day!"6 (Bukhari, Diyat, #2; Muslim, Iman, #158-159)

And along with this, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not seek any retribution (from Usamah] nor blood, nor Kaffarah (expiation) from him, because he was mistaken (in his belief about killing that man), thinking that that man only said those words (of Tawhid) to protect himself (from Usamah's sword).


فهكذا السلف قاتل بعضهم بعضا من أهل الجمل وصفين ونحوهم وكلهم مسلمون مؤمنون كما قال تعالى : {وإن طائفتان من المؤمنين اقتتلوا فأصلحوا بينهما فإن بغت إحداهما على الأخرى فقاتلوا التي تبغي حتى تفيء إلى أمر الله فإن فاءت فأصلحوا بينهما بالعدل وأقسطوا إن الله يحب المقسطين} فقد بين الله تعالى أنهم مع اقتتالهم وبغي بعضهم على بعض إخوة مؤمنون وأمر بالإصلاح بينهم بالعدل
 ولهذا كان السلف مع الاقتتال يوالي بعضهم بعضا موالاة الدين , لا يعادون كمعاداة الكفار فيقبل بعضهم شهادة بعض ويأخذ بعضهم العلم عن بعض ويتوارثون ويتناكحون ويتعاملون بمعاملة المسلمين بعضهم مع بعض , مع ما كان بينهم من القتال والتلاعن وغير ذلك
وقد ثبت في الصحيح أن { النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سأل ربه أن لا يهلك أمته بسنة عامة فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يسلط عليهم عدوا من غيرهم فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يجعل بأسهم بينهم فلم يعط ذلك} " وأخبر أن الله لا يسلط عليهم عدوا من غيرهم يغلبهم كلهم حتى يكون بعضهم يقتل بعضا وبعضهم يسبي بعضا
وثبت في الصحيحين {لما نزل قوله تعالى {قل هو القادر على أن يبعث عليكم عذابا من فوقكم } قال أعوذ بوجهك {أو من تحت أرجلكم} قال أعوذ بوجهك  أو يلبسكم شيعا ويذيق بعضكم بأس بعض} قال هاتان أهون}"


Similarly the Salaf (the companions) fought against in each other in the battles of the Camel and Siffin and others, (whilst) all of them were brothers (in Islam) and in Iman just as (Allah) Ta'ala says:

وإن طائفتان من المؤمنين اقتتلوا فأصلحوا بينهما فإن بغت إحداهما على الأخرى فقاتلوا التي تبغي حتى تفيء إلى أمر الله فإن فاءت فأصلحوا بينهما بالعدل وأقسطوا إن الله يحب المقسطين

"And when two groups from the believers fight one another, make peace between them, and if one group rebels against the other then fight the rebellious group, up until they surrender to the command of Allah, and if they surrender, make peace between them with justice and  fairness, indeed Allah loves those who are just." (al-Hujuraat 49/9)

So, (in this Ayah) Allah Ta'ala states that, (despite) these two groups fighting each other and rebelling against one another, they are brothers and believers, and (Allah) orders (the Muslims) to make Sulh (peace) between them (based) upon Adl (justice).

Likewise, (even though) the Salaf fought each other, they showed Muwalat (friendship) to each other and they mutually co-operated in the affairs of the Din. They did not show enmity to each other as they would have to the disbelievers, and they would accept each others Shahadah (testimonies). They would seek knowledge from each other, and they would inherit from each other, and marry from each other, and they co-operated with each other in communal affairs. And this all was whilst they were fighting and opposing each other, and other similar factors.   

It is authentically established in the Sahih Hadith (recorded by Muslim) that:


النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم سأل ربه أن لا يهلك أمته بسنة عامة فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يسلط عليهم عدوا من غيرهم فأعطاه ذلك وسأله أن لا يجعل بأسهم بينهم فلم يعط ذلك

"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked his Lord not to destroy his Ummah (all at once) by way of a universal drought, and it was granted to him, and (then) he asked that they not be completely overpowered by their enemies and it was granted to him, and he (then) asked that they would not harm each other, but that was not granted." (Ahmad, Musnad, 5/278)

(So) Allah informed us (in this Sahih Hadith) that Allah would not let their enemies overpower them completely, but they would fight each other and take each other as captives. 7

It is authentically established in the Sahihayn that:

"When Allah revealed His saying:


قل هو القادر على أن يبعث عليكم عذابا من فوقكم

"Say! Allah is the one who has the ability to send upon you a punishment from above you." (al-An'am 8/65)

(Rasulullah) said:
قال أعوذ بوجهك "I seek protection in Your Face." (Then, when Allah said): أو من تحت أرجلكم "Or from under your feet." (Rasulullah) said: أعوذ بوجهك "I seek protection in Your Face." (Then, when Allah said): أو يلبسكم شيعا ويذيق بعضكم بأس بعض "Or envelope you in sectarianism, each of you harming the other." (Rasulullah) said: هاتان أهون "The other two are lighter." (Bukhari, Tafsiru Surat'il An'am, #2; Tirmidhi, Tafsiru Surat'il An'am, #2)

هذا مع أن  الله أمر بالجماعة والائتلاف ونهى عن البدعة والاختلاف  وقال : {إن الذين فرقوا دينهم وكانوا شيعا لست منهم في شيء} وقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم " {عليكم بالجماعة فإن يد الله على الجماعة} " وقال : " {الشيطان مع الواحد وهو من الاثنين أبعد} " وقال : " {الشيطان ذئب الإنسان كذئب الغنم والذئب إنما يأخذ القاصية والنائية من الغنم}"
فالواجب على المسلم إذا صار في مدينة من مدائن المسلمين أن يصلي معهم الجمعة والجماعة ويوالي المؤمنين ولا يعاديهم وإن رأى بعضهم ضالا أو غاويا وأمكن أن يهديه ويرشده فعل ذلك وإلا فلا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها وإذا كان قادرا على أن يولي في إمامة المسلمين الأفضل ولاه وإن قدر أن يمنع من يظهر البدع والفجور منعه
وإن لم يقدر على ذلك فالصلاة خلف الأعلم بكتاب الله وسنة نبيه الأسبق إلى طاعة الله ورسوله أفضل كما قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في الحديث الصحيح : "{يؤم القوم أقرؤهم لكتاب الله , فإن كانوا في القراءة سواء فأعلمهم بالسنة فإن كانوا في السنة سواء فأقدمهم هجرة
فإن كانوا في الهجرة سواء فأقدمهم سنا}


So along with this, Allah has commanded us to be a single Jamaa'ah (group) and to be unified (upon the Sunnah), and to prohibit Bid'ah (innovations) and not to Ikhtilaaf (differ) with each other. And Allah says:

إن الذين فرقوا دينهم وكانوا شيعا لست منهم في شيء

"Indeed, those whose differed in their religion and became sects, you have nothing to do with them whatsoever." (al-An'am 6/65)

And Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


عليكم بالجماعة فإن يد الله على الجماعة

"It is obligatory upon you to be a Jama'ah (united group), for indeed, Yad (the hand) of Allah is over the Ja'maah." (Tirmidhi, Fitan, #7; Nasai, Tahrim, #6)

And (Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


الشيطان مع الواحد وهو من الاثنين أبعد

"The Shaytan (Satan) is with the lone person, and he is further away from two." (Tirmidhi, Fitan, #7; Ahmd, Musnad, 1/18, 26)

And (Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


الشيطان ذئب الإنسان كذئب الغنم والذئب إنما يأخذ القاصية والنائية من الغنم

"The Shaytan preys on people like the wolf preys (on sheep), and he takes the lone sheep and the stragglers." (Ahmad, Musnad, 5/233, 243)

So it is Waajib (obligatory) upon a Muslim, when he enters a town from the towns of the Muslims, that he prays the Jumu'ah prayer and Jama'ah (the congregational) prayers in congregation and that he has Wala to the Mu'minun and does not have Baraa (enmity) towards them. If he sees deviations and misguidance amongst them, and if he is able, he should guide them and correct them regarding those matters in which they are misguided and if he is not able, then Allah does not place any burden upon a person that they cannot bear. If he has the ability to appoint a virtuous Imam for the Muslims (to pray behind) he should do so, and if he has the ability to prevent an Imam who is an innovator or sinful, then he should prevent him.

If he is not able to do that, then he should pray behind the most knowledgeable person of the Book and the Sunnah of His Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and the one who is most obedient towards Allah and His Rasul, due to the Hadith of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) found in Sahih:

يؤم القوم أقرؤهم لكتاب الله , فإن كانوا في القراءة سواء فأعلمهم بالسنة فإن كانوا    فإن كانوا في الهجرة سواء فأقدمهم سنا في السنة سواء فأقدمهم هجرة

"The person who is most knowledgeable in Kitaabullah (the Book of Allah i.e., the Qur'an) should lead the Prayer. If you are equal in Qiraah (recitation of the Qur'an), then the person with more knowledge of the Sunnah should lead. If you are equal in that, then the one who made Hijrah (migrated) first should lead. If you are equal in Hijrah, then the the eldest of you should lead." (Muslim, Masajid, #290; Tirmidhi, Mawakit, #60; Ahmad, Musnad, 5/272; Abu Dawud, Salat, #60)


وإن كان في هجره لمظهر البدعة والفجور مصلحة راجحة هجره كما هجر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الثلاثة الذين خلفوا حتى تاب الله عليهم
وأما إذا ولى غيره بغير إذنه وليس في ترك الصلاة خلفه مصلحة شرعية كان تفويت هذه الجمعة والجماعة جهلا وضلالا وكان قد رد بدعة ببدعة
حتى إن المصلي الجمعة خلف الفاجر اختلف الناس في إعادته الصلاة وكرهها أكثرهم حتى قال أحمد بن حنبل في رواية عبدوس : من أعادها فهو مبتدع
وهذا أظهر القولين لأن الصحابة لم يكونوا يعيدون الصلاة إذا صلوا خلف أهل الفجور والبدع ولم يأمر الله تعالى قط أحدا إذا صلى كما أمر بحسب استطاعته أن يعيد الصلاة
ولهذا كان أصح قولي العلماء أن من صلى بحسب استطاعته أن لا يعيد حتى المتيمم لخشية البرد ومن عدم الماء والتراب إذا صلى بحسب حاله والمحبوس وذووا الأعذار النادرة والمعتادة والمتصلة والمنقطعة لا يجب على أحد منهم أن يعيد الصلاة إذا صلى الأولى بحسب استطاعته.


If there is a Maslaha (benefit) in Shari'ah shunning the person of innovations or sinfulness, then this is preferred, just as Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) shunned the three who remained behind, until Allah forgave them.

As for appointing another Imam without the permission of the other Imam, whilst there is no benefit in abandoning the Jumu'ah prayer and the congregational prayers behind him, (then doing that is) Jahl (ignorance) and Dalalah (misguidance), it will be refuting one Bid'ah (innovation) by way of another Bid'ah.

(And these innovated practices occurred) up until the people have Ikhtilaaf (differed) over whether a person who prays the Jumu'ah prayer behind a Faajir (sinful) Imam, should repeat his prayer or not. And this repeating (of the prayer) was disliked by many of them, up until Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah) said in one narration authentically reported by Abdus:


من أعادها فهو مبتدع

"Whoever repeats his prayer is a Mubtadi (an innovator)."

This is apparent from what has been authentically reported from the Companions, who prayed behind the people who were (openly) sinful and (openly) upon innovations, and they did not repeat their prayers and neither did Allah Ta'ala order them to repeat their prayers (by way of revelation to the Prophet), after they had offered their prayers according to the best of their ability.

Due to this, the most correct statements of the Ulama (pl., Imam; scholars) is that if one prays according to the best of his ability, one does not have to repeat ones prayers, even if a person makes Tayammum (dry ablution) due to fear of the cold, or he prays with neither water or earth/dust (due to not being available), or the prisoner, or a person with an unusual excuse, so he prays the best way he can, due to his condition. (Regardless) of whether that happens repeatedly or it is continuous or intermittently occurs, it is not Waajib (obligatory) upon a person from them to repeat his prayer as long as he prays to the best of his ability.




Quote
1- Ibn Marzuq was a Hanbali scholar who died 564H. The deviant 'Maraaziqah' sect is named after them.

2- He was one of the companions and the maternal brother of Amir'ul Mu'minin Uthman ibn Affan (radiyallahu anh).

3- It was narrated from Hudayn ibn'ul Munthir that he said: "I saw Uthman ibn Affan (radiyallahu anh) when Walid was brought in front of him, and he had prayed two (extra) Rak'at (units) of Fajr prayer, so he was asked (by Uthman): Have you added to the prayer?, so two men testified that he had been consuming intoxicants..." (Muslim)

4-Ibn Kathir, mentioned that al-Hajaaj ibn Yusuf ath-Thaqafi, was born and raised in Taif. He moved to ash-Shaam and became of the officers in the army of the then king Abd'ul Malik ibn Marwaan. He then became a governor of Makkah, Madinah, Taif and Iraq. He killed the Noble Companion Abdullah ibn Zubayr (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) and a group of his companions whilst they were seeking protective sanctuary from him in the Sacred Ka'bah in the Masjid al-Haraam. (Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa'n Nihaya)

Umayr ibn Haani, (radiyallahu anhuma), said: "I saw Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) during the time of the siege (of Makkah) on ibn Zubayr (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain). The house of Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) was between them, so sometimes he prayed with one group (al-Hajjaaj ibn Yusuf) and sometimes he prayed with another group (i.e., Abdullah Ibn Zubayr)." (Ibn Abi Shaybah, Musannaf)

It was also narrated that Zayd ibn Aslam, (rahimahullah), said: "In the time of the Fitnah (i.e., trail of Hajjaaj), there was no (political) Amir (leader) but Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) would pray behind him and pay the Zakaat (obligatory charity) of wealth to him." (Ibn Sa'd)

5- He is al-Mukhtaar ibn Abi Ubayd ath-Thaqafi al-Kaththaab (i.e., the liar). He accepted Islam in the lifetime of the Prophet, (sallallahu alayhi was sallam), but his companionship is not known! It is known that he was employed in the army of Umar ibn'ul Khattaab, (radiyallahu anh), in the conquest of Iraq. He also fought against Bani Umayyah after the death of Husayn (radiyallahu anh), the Noble grandson of the Prophet, (sallallahu alayhi was sallam). He was then captured by Ziyaad, the then ruler of Basrah, then he was banished to Taif. It was after this that his deviation became clear and he started calling people to the Imaamate of Bani Hanifah, after this he then claim prophet-hood for himself....!  He died in the year 67H. (Nawawi, Sharh Sahih'ul Muslim, Fadail)

Muhaddith Abd'ur Rahman ibn Mahdi narrated from Sufyan, from Amash that he said: "The companions of Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (radiyallahu anh) used to pray the Jum'ah prayer behind al-Mukhtaar, and they viewed that (prayer) as Sahih (correct)." (Ibn Shaybah, Musannaf)

6- i.e., that if he was a new Muslim that day, all his previous sins, such as killing that man, would be forgiven by Allah for converting to Islam and Tawhid...

7- There is Ijmaa (consensus), that a free believing Muslim or Muslimah, can not be taken as a captive as a Ganimah (i.e., war booty) and the Imams of Hadith have understood this Hadith to be one of signs of the Hour.
Whosoever desires الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah (honour, power and glory) then to Allah belong all الْعِزَّةَ al-Izzah [and one can get honour, power and glory only by obeying and worshiping Allah (Alone)]. To Him ascend (all) الْكَلِمُ الطَّيِّبُ al-Kalim al-Tayyib (the goodly words), and الْعَمَلُ الصَّالِحُ al-Amal al-Saalih (the righteous deeds) exalt it (the goodly words i.e., the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds). (Fatir 35/10)

 

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