التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: THE GUIDANCE OF RASULULLAH CONCERNING WORSHIP, DEALINGS & MANNERS  (Read 1240 times)

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The Guidance of Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
Ibn Qayyim, Zaad'ul Maad


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

The Prophet’s Guidance Pertaining to Purity and Purification

a. His Guidance in Relieving Oneself1

When entering the toilet he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْخُبُثِ وَالْخَبَائِثِ الرِّجْسِ النَّجِسِ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ “O Allah, I seek refuge with you from male and female demons; and from the cursed filthy Shaytan."2

And upon coming out he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


غُفْرَانَكَ “I seek Your forgiveness.”3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) usually urinated while squatting.4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes cleaned himself with water, sometimes with stones and sometimes used both.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used his left hand to clean himself.5

After cleaning with water, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would rub his hand against the ground.6

When traveling, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would go far away to relieve himself in order to conceal himself from his companions.7

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes screened himself behind bushes and sometimes behind palms.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) selected the soft parts of the ground for urination.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not raise his garment until he was down close to the ground.8

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not speak or answer greetings while relieving himself.9


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad'ul Maad, 1/163-184

2- Bukhari; Muslim; Ibn Ma'jah; Abu Dawud; Ahmad, Musnad

3- Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma'jah; Abu Dawud; Ahmad, Musnad; Hakim, Mustadrak

4- Ibn Ma'jah; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar

5- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasai; Ibn Ma'jah; Darimi

6- Abu Dawud; Nasai; Ibn Ma'jah; Tabarani

7- Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar

8- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Darimi

9- Muslim; Ibn Ma'jah; Abu Dawud; Nasai; Darimi; Bazzar, Musnad
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #1 on: January 23, 2016, 05:40:54 PM »
b. His Guidance in Wudhu (Ablution)1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) usually made ablution for every prayer, although he might at times perform many prayers with one ablution.2

For ablution, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used one measure Mudd (approximately a litre; 856gr) of water or two thirds of it or sometimes slightly more.3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used ablution water with utmost care, and warned his followers not to use water excessively.4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to wash his limbs sometimes once, sometimes twice or three times5, but never exceeded three times.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes used to Madmadah (rinse out his mouth) and Istinsha (rinse out his nose) with one handful of water6 and sometimes two7 or three8, and he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would wash his mouth and nose together.9

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used his right hand for taking in water and his left hand for Istinthar (expelling it).10

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) never made ablution without rinsing his mouth and nose.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to wipe over all of his head and often move his hands back and forth but it has not been authentically reported from him that he ever wiped over only a part of his head. 11

When he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) wiped over his forehead, he completed by including his turban.12

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) wiped the internal and external parts of his ears along with his head.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) washed his feet when he was not wearing slippers or socks.

His (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ablution was in sequence and uninterrupted, and he never did otherwise.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would begin his ablution with


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم "Bismillah"13 and conclude it by saying:

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ اللَّهُمَّ اجْعَلْنِي مِنَ التَّوَّابِينَ وَاجْعَلْنِي مِنَ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

“I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, alone, without any partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger. O Allah, make me of those who continually repent and of those who continually purify themselves."14

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also said:


سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَ بِحَمْدِكَ، أشْهَدُ أنْ لا إلهَ إلَّا أنْتَ، أسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَ أتُوبُ إلَيْكَ

“Glory be to You, O Allah, and all Praise, I testify that there is no deity but You, I seek Your Forgiveness and to You do I repent.”15

Neither he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) nor any of his companions ever said at the beginning: "I intend to remove impurity to perform prayer."16

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) never washed above the elbows and the ankles.

It was not his (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) custom to dry his limbs.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes rubbed the water into his beard, but not always.17

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) often washed between his toes, but not always.18

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not expect someone to pour water for him while making ablution; he usually poured it himself, but sometimes another would help him when needed.19

As for moving the ring during ablution a weak Hadith has been reported in this regard.


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad'ul Ma'ad, 1/184-192

2- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad

3- Bukhari

4- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma'jah; Tirmidhi; Ahmad, Musnad

5- Bukhari; Ibn Ma'jah; Abu Dawud

6- Bukhari; Ibn Ma'jah

7- Bukhari

8- Bukhari

9- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud

10- Bukhari; Nasai; Darimi

11- Muslim

12- Abu Dawud

13- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma'jah; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar

14- Muslim; Tirmidhi

15- Nasai, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Hakim, Mustadrak; Tabarani, Mu'jam

16- i.e., he did not pronounce Niyyat (i.e., the intention) out loud.

17- Tirmidhi; Ibn Abi Shaybah, Musannaf

18- Abu Dawud; Tirmdihi; Ibn Ma'jah; Ahmad, Musnad; Daraqutni; Tabarani; Shafii; Hakim, Mustadrak; Dhahabi, al-Talkhis al-Mustadrak ala's Sahihayn

19- Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma'jah; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #2 on: January 25, 2016, 03:46:37 PM »
c. His Guidance in Mash (Wiping Over Leather Socks, Footwear and Turban)1

Authentic narrations state that he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) wiped over his leather footwear while at home and traveling.2

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) specified a limit of one day and night for residents to wipe over them, and three days and nights for travelers.3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to wipe over the upper part of the shoes or stockings.4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also wiped over the turban alone or along with the forehead.5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) acted according to the condition of his feet: if he was wearing shoes or stockings he wiped over them, and if his feet were bare he washed them. This was stated by our Shaykh, Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah).


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad'ul Ma'ad, 1/192

2- Bukhari and others

3- Muslim; Abu Dawud

4- Ibn Ma'jah; Abu Dawud

5- Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasai; Ibn Ma'jah; Ahmad, Musnad
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #3 on: January 28, 2016, 06:34:06 PM »
d. His Guidance in Tayammum1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to perform Tayammum2 by striking the ground once for wiping over both the face and hands.3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed Tayammum from the type of ground on which he was praying, be it dust, soil or sand, and said:


وَجُعِلَتْ لِيَ الأَرْضُ طَيِّبَةً طَهُورًا وَمَسْجِدًا فَأَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ أَدْرَكَتْهُ الصَّلاَةُ صَلَّى حَيْثُ

"The earth has been made sacred and pure and mosque for me, so whenever the time of prayer comes for any one of you he should pray whenever he is"4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) neither carried sand with him on long journeys nor did he order his companions to do so.

No authentic narration showed that he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did Tayammum for every prayer or ordered that it be done. He simply considered Tayammum as a substitute for ablution.5



Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad'ul Ma'ad, 1/192

2- Tayammum is a substitute for Wudhu (ablution), using dry earth for ritual purification when unable to use water and it is limited to the face and hands and does not include the parts of the body washed in Wudhu.

3- Bukhari; Muslim

4- Ahmad, Musnad

5- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #4 on: February 07, 2016, 12:33:02 PM »
The Prophet’s Guidance Concerning the Adhaan and Its Words1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would call out the Adhaan2 with or without repetition.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also pronounced the words of the Iqaamah3 once or twice, except that he always repeated the words:


قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلاةُ "Prayer has begun", twice.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ruled for his people that one who hears the Adhaan should repeat the words after him, except for the words:


حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ (Come to the prayer) and حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلاحِ (Come to prosperity), where one should say the Hawqala:

لاَ حَوْلَ ولا قُوَّةَ إِلاَّ بالله "There is no might and no power except through Allah."4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also said: "Whoever hears the Adhaan and then says:


أشهدُ أنْ لا إلهَ إلاَّ الله وأشهدُ أنَّ محمّدًا رسولُ الله رضيت بالله ربا وبالاسلام دينا وبمحمد صلى الله عليه وسلم نبيا ورسولا

"I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is His Messenger. I am pleased with Allah as Lord, Islam as religion and Muhammad as messenger." will have his sins forgiven."5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ruled that after repeating the words of the Adhaan, one should invoke blessings upon the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) with the Salawat'ul Ibrahimiyyah6 and saying:


اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّ هَذِهِ الدَّعْوَةِ التَّامَّةِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْقَائِمَةِ، آتِ مُحَمَّدًا الْوَسِيلَةَ وَالْفَضِيلَةَ، وَابْعَثْهُ مَقَامًا مَحْمُودًا الَّذِي وَعَدْتَهُ

"O Allah, Lord of this perfect call and present prayer, grant Muhammad the Wasilah (a position of intercession in Paradise) and excellence and elevate him (on the Day of Judgment) to the praised position, which You have promised him."7

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated that supplication between the Adhaan and Iqaamah would never be refused (by Allah).8

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say when the Muaddhin says
قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلاةُ during Iqaamah:

أَقَامَهَا اللَّهُ وَأَدَامَهَا "Allah keep (Salaat) perpetual."9

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad'ul Ma'ad, 2/355

2- Adhaan is the call announcing that it is time for prayer. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullah) preferd the Adhaan of Bilal (radiyallahu anh) which is comprised of fifteen sentences:


اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ،

Allahu Akbar (Allah is the greatest)! Allahu Akbar! (four times)

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ،

I bear witness that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah! (twice)

أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ،

I bear witness that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger! (twice)

حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ

Come to the prayer, Come to the prayer. (twice)

حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلاحِ، حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلاحِ

Come to prosperity, Come to prosperity. (twice)

الصَّلاةُ خَيْرٌ مِنَ النَّوْمِ ، الصَّلاةُ خَيْرٌ مِنَ النَّوْم

Prayer is better than sleep. Prayer is better than sleep. (once, it is only stated during the Adhaan of Fajr prayer)

اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ،

Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! (twice)

لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ

La-ilaha Illallah (There is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah). (once)

3- Iqaamah is a second call after the Adhaan, when the prayer is to begin. Iqamaah is similar to Adhaan however there is an addition and it is comprised of eleven sentences:


اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اَللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ،

Allahu Akbar (Allah is the greatest)! Allahu Akbar! (twice)

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ

I bear witness that there is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah! (once)

أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ

I bear witness that Muhammad is Allah's Messenger! (once)

حَيَّ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ

Come to the prayer. (once)

حَيَّ عَلَى الْفَلاحِ

Come to prosperity. (once)

قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلاةُ ، قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلاةُ

Prayer is to begin, prayer is to begin. (twice)

اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ،

Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! (once)

لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ

La-ilaha Illallah (There is no deity (worthy of worship) but Allah). (once)

4- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasai; Ibn Ma'jah; Ahmad, Musnad; Malik, Muwatta; Shafii, Musnad; Abd'ur Razzaq; Bayhaqi; Nasai, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Bukhari; Tarikh; Abu Nu'aym, Hilay; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Tabarani; Hakim; Ibn Abi Shaybah

5- Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasai; Ibn Ma'jah; Ahmad, Musnad; Hakim, Mustadrak; Ibn Hudhaymah; Tahawi; Nasai, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl

6- Its wording is as follows:


اللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا صَلَّيْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلَى آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمَا بَارَكْتَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَعَلَى آلِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِنَّكَ حَمِيدٌ مَجِيدٌ

"O Allah, exalt Muhammad and the people of Muhammad, as You did exalt Ibrahim and the people Ibrahim, verily You are Praiseworthy, and Glorious. O Allah, bless Muhammad and the people of Muhammad, as You did bless Ibrahim and the people Ibrahim, verily You are Praiseworthy, and Glorious." (Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasai; Ibn Hudhaymah; Ibn Abi Shaybah; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl)

7- Bukhari; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad; Bayhaqi; Tabarani; as-Saghir; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Tahawi

8- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Ahmad, Musnad; Bayhaqi; Abd'ur Razzaq; Hakim; Nasai, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Ibn Hibban; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar; Abu Nu'aym; Tabarani, Dua; Abu Ya'la, Musnad; Tayalisi

9- Abu Dawud; Bayhaqi; Abu Nu'aym, Hilya; Tabarani, Dua; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #5 on: February 16, 2016, 04:58:15 AM »
3. The Prophet’s Guidance in Prayer1

a. His Guidance in Beginning and Recitation2

When he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) began prayer, he would say:


اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ "Allahu Akbar" (Allah is most great).

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not say anything before that and never pronounced Niyyah (the intention).3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would raise his hands to the earlobes or shoulders with his fingers straight, facing the Qiblah (the direction of Makkah),4 and then place his right hand over the back of his left.5

Sometimes he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


اللّهُـمَّ باعِـدْ بَيـني وَبَيْنَ خَطـايايَ كَما باعَدْتَ بَيْنَ المَشْرِقِ وَالمَغْرِبْ ، اللّهُـمَّ نَقِّنـي مِنْ خَطايايَ كَمـا يُـنَقَّى الثَّـوْبُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الدَّنَسْ ، اللّهُـمَّ اغْسِلْنـي مِنْ خَطايـايَ بِالثَّلـجِ وَالمـاءِ وَالْبَرَدْ

"O Allah, distance me from my sins as you have distance the east from the west. O Allah, cleanse me of my sins as a white garment is cleansed of dirt. O Allah, wash away my sins with water, ice and hail."6

Sometimes he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

وَجَّهـتُ وَجْهِـيَ لِلَّذي فَطَرَ السَّمـواتِ وَالأَرْضَ حَنـيفَاً وَمـا أَنا مِنَ المشْرِكين ، إِنَّ صَلاتـي ، وَنُسُكي ، وَمَحْـيايَ ، وَمَماتـي للهِ رَبِّ العالَمين ، لا شَريـكَ لَهُ وَبِذلكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنا مِنَ المسْلِـمين

"I have turned my face to Him who created the heavens and earth, inclined to truth, in submission, and I am not of those who associate (others with Allah). Indeed my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are for Allah, Lord of the worlds, no partner has He; this I am commanded and I am the first of the Muslims."7

After the opening words, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


أَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ "I seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the rejected."

and then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say Basmala silently more than openly:


بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِِ "Bismillahirrahmanirrahim (In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful)."8

Then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would recite Surah (Chapter) al-Fatihah.9

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would pause slightly between "Allahu Akbar" and the recitation of al-Fatihah and it is reported that he also did so after the recitation or before bowing.10

After completing al-Fatihah, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)

Once he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had completed the recitation of Surah al-Fatihah, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say: 'Ameen" (Amen) and if he was reciting aloud, he would raise his voice when pronouncing it and those behind him would repeat.11

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to observe two short silences in the prayer, one between the "Takbirah"12 and the recitation, while as for the second, there is a difference of opinion regarding it: It has been narrated that it is after Surah al-Fatihah and it has been narrated that it is before Ruku (the bowing). And it has been said that in fact there are two periods of silence aside from the first, but it appears most likely that there are only two. As for the third, it is very short, in order to recover one's breath, so those who did not mention it failed to do so because of its brevity.

Then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would begin another Surah, prolonging it or shortening it according to circumstances such as travel, but usually he would recite medium length passages.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not fail to recite his regular a Hizb13, and his recitation was slow and pleasant, letter by letter; and he would cut of his recitation at the end of each Ayah (verse) and he would prolong it when he recited Madd letters14 so he would prolong the recitation of the words: ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would recite it in a clear, pleasant tone and sometimes, he would cause his voice to reverberate.15

In the Fajr (dawn) prayer, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to recite around sixty to hundred Ayaat (verses). Sometimes he recited Surah "Qaf" or Surah "ar-Rum". Or he recited "at-Takwir", "ar-Rum" or "al-Zalzalah" in both Rak'ahs (unit of prayer). He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) recited al-Mu'awwidhatan (Surahs "al-Falaq" and "an-Nas") during a journey. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) once began to recite Surah "al-Mu'minun" in the first Rak'ah until he reached the mention of Musa (alayhi salam) and Harun (alayhi salam) when he started coughing, so he ended the recitation and bowed.

On Fridays, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would often recite in the Fajr prayer "as-Sajdah" and "Dahr (al-Insan)".

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) often prolonged recitation in Dhuhr (noon) prayer. When it was long he reduced it to half that length in Asr (late afternoon) prayer, but when shorter, then accordingly.

While performing Maghrib (sunset) prayer, he was heard to recite "at-Tur", and once, "al-Mursalaat".

As for Isha (night) prayer, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was heard to recite Surah "at-Tin", and limited his
companion, Mu'adh (radiyallahu anh) , to Surah "ash-Shams", "al-A'la", "al-Layl" and similar Surahs and disapproved of reciting "al-Baqarah" in it.

As for Ju'muah (Friday) prayer, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was heard to recite Surah "al-Jumu'ah", "Munafiqun", "al-A'la" and "al-Ghashiya".

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was used to recite Surah "Qaf", "al-Qamar", "al-A'la" and "al-Qashiya".

His guidance included reciting the entire Surah. Sometimes he would divide it between two Rak'ahs. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) might recite the beginning verses of a Surah, but it has not been reported
that he recited only the end or the middle portion of a Surah.

However, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to recite two Surahs in one Rak'ah during Naafilah (additional voluntary) prayers, but seldom recited the same Surah in both Rak'ahs.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not specify a certain Surah for any particular prayer except for Friday and the two Id prayers.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) supplicated with Qunut16 in the Fajr prayer after Ruku (bowing at the waist) for one month and then discontinued it. This was due to a particular situation, so when it ceased his Qunut ended. His guidance was to supplicate with Qunut during calamities17, but without confining it to the Fajr prayer. Indeed, most of his Qunut was performed during it due to its being prescribed to make it long and due to its being close to Sahar18 and the time when supplication is answered and the time of Allah's Descent.19
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad'ul Ma'ad, 1/194-208

2- Zaad'ul Ma'ad, 1/194-479

3- Niyyah (intention) is obligatory in the Salaat according to the Hadith:

إنَّمَا الْأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّيَّاتِ "Amal (actions/deeds) are (judged) by Niyyah (intention)." however it shall not be uttered by the mouth but the heart.

4- Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar

5- Bukhari; Ibn Ma'jah

6- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad

7- Ahmad, Musnad

There are many more Dua that were narrated in this regard by Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma'jah; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Hibban, Sahih; Hakim, al-Mustadrak and others. The most common Dua is as follow:


سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ ، وَتَبَارَكَ اسْمُكَ ، وَتَعَالَى جَدُّكَ ، وَلا إِلَهَ غَيْرُكَ

"Glory be to you, O Allah, and all praises are due unto you, and blessed is your name and high is your majesty (glorified is your praise) and none is worthy of worship but you." (Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma'jah; Nasai; Daraqutni; Ahmad, Musnad; Hakim, Mustadrak; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar)

8- Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan'il Athar; Zaylai, Nasb'ur Ra'aya; Ayni, Sharhu'l Hidayah

9- الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ الرَّحْمـنِ الرَّحِيمِ مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّينَ

"Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds; Most Gracious, Most Merciful; Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek. Show us the straight way, The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray."

10- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma'jah; Tirmidhi; Ahmad, Musnad

11- Bukhari; Abu Dawud; Ahmad, Musnad

12- Takbirah is saying: "Allahu Akbar (Allah is most great)".

13- Hizb is one sixtieth part of the Qur'an.

14- Madd letters (Long vowels) are the alphabets Alif, Waw and Ya whose pronunciation is drawn out when recited in the Qur'an.

15- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma'jah; Darimi; Nasai; Ahmad, Musnad; Abu Ya'la; al-Haythami, al-Majma'uz Zawaid

16- Qunut is a supplication recited while standing in prayer. It is raising the hands and supplicating for the Muslims or against their enemies in the final Rak'ah of the prayer.

17- The Dua of Qunut is as follows:


اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنِي فِي مَنْ هَدَيْتَ، وَعَافِنِي فِي مَنْ عَافَيْتَ وَتَوَلَّنِي فِي مَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ، وَبَارِكْ لِي فِيمَا أَعْطَيْتَ، وَقِنِي شَرَّ مَا قَضَيْتَ، إنَّكَ تَقْضِي وَلَا يُقْضَى عَلَيْكَ، وَإِنَّهُ لَا يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ، وَلَا يَعِزُّ مَنْ عَادَيْتَ، تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَتَعَالَيْتَ

"O Allah, guide me with those whom You have guided, and strengthen me with those whom You have given strength. Take me to Your care with those whom You have taken to Your care. Bless me in what You have given me. Protect me from the evil You have ordained. Surely, You command and are not commanded, and none whom You have committed to Your care shall be humiliated (and none whom You have taken as an enemy shall taste glory). You are Blessed, Our Lord, and Exalted."

18- Sahur; early dawn is a light meal taken before fasting commences.

19-According to the Hadith narrated by Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


ينزل رَبُّنَا تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا حِينَ يَبْقَى ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ الآخِرُ يَقُولُ : مَنْ يَدْعُونِي فَأَسْتَجِيبَ لَهُ مَنْ يَسْأَلُنِي فَأُعْطِيَهُ مَنْ يَسْتَغْفِرُنِي فَأَغْفِرَ لَهُ

"Allah descends (in a manner befitting His Majesty) to the lowest heaven every night when half of the night or two-third of it is over and says: Is there anyone asking who may be given? Is there anyone supplicating who may be answered?" (Bukhari; Muslim)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #6 on: February 23, 2016, 02:52:47 AM »
b. His Guidance in How to Perform Prayer1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to make the first Rak'ah (unit) longer than the second in every prayer.

Upon completing recitation of the Qur'an he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would pause long enough to regain his breath, then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would raise his hands, saying
اللهُ أَكْبَـرُ "Allahu Akbar; Allah is Most Great" and bow in Ruku. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would place his hands on his knees as if grasping them. Distancing his arms from his body, he straightened his back horizontally, keeping his head level with his back, without raising or lowering it.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to repeat
سُبْـحانَ رَبِّـيَ الْعَظـيم "Glory to my great Lord!.."2 or say: سُبْـحانَكَ اللّهُـمَّ رَبَّـنا وَبِحَـمْدِك ، اللّهُـمَّ اغْفِـرْ لي "Glory be to You, O Allah, our Lord, and praise. O Allah, forgive me!.."3 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also used to say: سُبـّوحٌ قُـدّْوس ، رَبُّ الملائِكَـةِ وَالـرُّوح "Most glorious and most pure is the Lord of the angels and spirit (i.e., Jibril)!.."4

His (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) usual Ruku was long enough to repeat
سُبْـحانَ رَبِّـيَ الْعَظـيم ten times and his Sujud (i.e., prostration) was the same length. Sometimes he made the Ruku and Sujud equal to the time he stood in recitation, but he did that predominantly while alone during night prayer. His usual guidance was to make the positions of his prayer balanced in length.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) then lifted his head, saying:
سَمِـعَ اللهُ لِمَـنْ حَمِـدَه "Allah hears whoever praises Him!.."5 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would raise his hands and straighten his back. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did the same when raising his head from prostration, and said:

لاَ تُجْزِئُ صَلاَةُ الرَّجُلِ حَتَّى يُقِيمَ ظَهْرَهُ فِي الرُّكُوعِ وَالسُّجُودِ

“Prayer is unacceptable when a man does not straighten his back in Ruku and Sujud."6

When he stood upright, he would say:


رَبَّنـا وَلَكَ الحَمْـدُ "Our Lord, and to You is due all praise!.."

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would remain in this position the length of his Ruku and recite:

 
رَبَّنـا وَلَكَ الحَمْـدُ
مِلْءَ السَّمـواتِ وَمِلْءَ الأَرْض ، وَما بَيْـنَهُمـا ، وَمِلْءَ ما شِئْـتَ مِنْ شَيءٍ بَعْـدْ . أَهـلَ الثَّـناءِ وَالمَجـدْ ، أََحَـقُّ ما قالَ العَبْـد ، وَكُلُّـنا لَكَ عَـبدْ . اللّهُـمَّ لا مانِعَ لِما أَعْطَـيْت ، وَلا مُعْطِـيَ لِما مَنَـعْت ، وَلا يَنْفَـعُ ذا الجَـدِّ مِنْـكَ الجَـد


"Our Lord, to You is due all praise as much as to fill the heavens, the earth, whatever is between them and whatever else You should will, beyond that. That You are worthy of all praise and glory is most worthy to be said by a servant, and all of us are Your servants. O Allah, there is no preventer of what You grant and no granter of what You prevent, and no means will benefit a man of means against You."7

Then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:
اللهُ أَكْبَـرُ "Allahu Akbar; Allah is Most Great" and prostrate without raising his hands.8 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) placed his knees first followed by his hands,9 then his forehead and nose. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prostrated on his forehead and nose without including the turban. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) frequently prostrated on the bare ground, even with water and mud, or on a palm leaf mat or a tanned animal skin.10

When prostrating he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would firmly place his forehead and nose on the ground, distancing his arms from his body so widely that the whiteness of his armpits could be seen.11

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would place his hands beside his shoulders and ears, and hold his body in prostration with the tips of his toes pointed towards the Qiblah. His hands were stretched towards it with the fingers together.

In this position, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:
سُبْـحانَكَ اللّهُـمَّ رَبَّـنا وَبِحَـمْدِك ، اللّهُـمَّ اغْفِـرْ لي "Glory be to You, O Allah, our Lord, and praise. O Allah, forgive me!.."12 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also repeated:سُبـّوحٌ قُـدّْوس ، رَبُّ الملائِكَـةِ وَالـرُّوح "Most glorious and most pure is the Lord of the angels and spirit (i.e., Jibril)!.."13

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would lift his head, saying:
اللهُ أَكْبَـرُ "Allahu Akbar; Allah is Most Great" without raising his hands. Then he would sit, spreading his left foot under him and straighten his right foot, placing his hands on his thighs with his elbows resting on the thighs and fingertips on his knees. He would make a circle with his thumb and middle finger, raising the index finger and moving it in supplication while saying:

اللهم اغفير لي وارحمني وهدني وارزقني

“O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, correct my faults, guide me and grant me sustenance.”14

It was his practice to make his sitting as long as his prostration.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) then stood up with his weight on the balls of his feet and hands on his thighs. He would start reciting the Qur'an without pausing as when he began the prayer. The second Rak'ah is performed like the first but without the initial
اللهُ أَكْبَـرُ "Allahu Akbar; Allah is Most Great", the pause, the opening supplication, and lengthening the Rak'ah. He made the first Rak'ah longer than the second, perhaps until approaching footsteps could no longer be heard.

When sitting for the Tashahhud (i.e., Witnessing that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad
is His servant and messenger), he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) placed his left hand on his left thigh and his right hand on his right thigh and pointed with his index finger. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not make it vertical or horizontal, but move it while slightly curved. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made a circle with the thumb and middle finger, raising the index finger in supplication with his eyes upon it.

In this sitting position he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) always recited the Tashahhud, teaching his companions to say:


التَّحِيّـاتُ للهِ وَالصَّلَـواتُ والطَّيِّـبات ، السَّلامُ عَلَيـكَ أَيُّهـا النَّبِـيُّ وَرَحْمَـةُ اللهِ وَبَرَكـاتُه ، السَّلامُ عَلَيْـنا وَعَلـى عِبـادِ للهِ الصَّـالِحـين . أَشْـهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلـهَ إِلاّ الله ، وَأَشْـهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمّـداً عَبْـدُهُ وَرَسـولُه

"All greetings are for Allah and all prayers and all good things. Peace be upon you O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the righteous servants of Allah. I testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger."15 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would make it very brief as if he was praying on hot stones. Then, saying: اللهُ أَكْبَـرُ "Allahu Akbar; Allah is Most Great" he would arise with his weight on the balls of his feet and hands on his thighs, then raise his hands and stand straight again. He would recite (Surah) al-Fatihah alone in the last two Rak'ahs, or he might recite other verses of the Qur'an in addition to al-Fatihah.

During the final Tashahhud, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would sit back on the ground with his foot protruding from the side.16 The left foot would be between his thigh and leg while the right foot was erect or extended to the right. He placed his right hand on his right thigh, closing three fingers and raising the index finger.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say the following supplication17 at the end of the prayer:


اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِـنْ عَذابِ القَـبْر ، وَأَعـوذُ بِكَ مِـنْ فِتْـنَةِ المَسيحِ الدَّجّـال ، وَأَعـوذُ بِكَ مِـنْ فِتْـنَةِ المَحْـيا وَالمَمـات . اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّـي أَعـوذُ بِكَ مِنَ المَأْثَـمِ وَالمَغْـرَم

"O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the torment of the grave, I seek refuge with You from the sedition of the false messiah, and I seek refuge with You from the trials of life and death. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from sin and insurmountable debt."18

Finally, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would turn his head to the right side, saying:
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله "Assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah (May the peace and mercy of Allah be upon you)!.." and then to the left side, repeating it.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered the worshiper to pray behind a Sutrah19, even a stick or an arrow. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to place a spear before him while on a journey or praying outdoors. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also used his riding camel as a Sutrah while praying. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would also take a saddle and pray toward its back.

When he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prayed toward a wall, he would leave space enough to allow a goat to pass. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prayed close to it and ordered others to do so.
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad'ul Maad, 1/208-241

2- Muslim

3- Bukhari; Muslim

4- Bukhari; Muslim

5- Bukhari; Muslim

6- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasa'i; Ibn Ma'ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Hudhaymah; Ibn Hibban

7- Muslim; Nasa'i; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma'ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Tahawi, Sharhu Maani Athar

8- Bukhari

9- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ibn Hibban; Tahawi, Sharhu Maani’ul Athar

10- Bukhari; Muslim

11- Bukhari

12- Bukhari; Muslim

13- Muslim

14- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma'ajah; Ibn Sunni, Amal'ul Yawm wa'l Layl

15- Bukhari; Muslim

16- Abu Dawud

17- اللّهُـمَّ صَلِّ عَلـى مُحمَّـد، وَعَلـى آلِ مُحمَّد، كَمـا صَلَّيـتَ عَلـىإبْراهـيمَ وَعَلـى آلِ إبْراهـيم، إِنَّكَ حَمـيدٌ مَجـيد ، اللّهُـمَّ بارِكْ عَلـى مُحمَّـد، وَعَلـى آلِ مُحمَّـد، كَمـا بارِكْتَ عَلـىإبْراهـيمَ وَعَلـى آلِ إبْراهيم، إِنَّكَ حَمـيدٌ مَجـيد

"O Allah, send prayers upon Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad, just as You sent prayers upon Ibrahim and upon the followers of Ibrahim. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty. O Allah, send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon Ibrahim and upon the family of Ibrahim. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty."

اللّهُـمَّ صَلِّ عَلـى مُحمَّـدٍ وَعَلـىأَزْواجِـهِ وَذُرِّيَّـتِه، كَمـا صَلَّيْـتَ عَلـى آلِ إبْراهـيم . وَبارِكْ عَلـى مُحمَّـدٍ وَعَلـىأَزْواجِـهِ وَذُرِّيَّـتِه، كَمـا بارِكْتَ عَلـى آلِ إبْراهـيم . إِنَّكَ حَمـيدٌ مَجـيد

"O Allah, send prayers upon Muhammad and upon the wives and descendants of Muhammad, just as You sent prayers upon the family of Ibrahim, and send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the wives and descendants of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon the family of Ibrahim. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty."

18- Bukhari

19- Sutrah is an object placed in front of a person to prevent people from crossing in front of him while he is praying.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #7 on: March 05, 2016, 12:50:42 PM »
c. His Guidance in Actions During Prayer1

Allah made him find joy and peace in prayer and he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say:


يَا بِلاَلُ أَقِمْ فَأَرِحْنَا بِالصَّلاَةِ

"Oh, Bilal! Gladden us with the prayer."2

It was not his practice to look around during prayer. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to bow his head during prayer, according to Imam Ahmad and when making the Tashahhud, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not extend his gaze beyond his pointing finger.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not close his eyes while praying and this was disliked by Ahmad and others, for they said: "It is one of the actions of the Jews." A number of scholars permitted it, but the correct view is that keeping them open is better if it does not detract from the required humility of prayer; but if it prevents one from achieving humility, due to the presence of ornaments and other thing (which distract the worshiper), then it is not disliked.

Sometimes he started the prayer with the intention to make it long but upon hearing the crying of a child, he shortened it to avoid hardship on his mother.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes performed the obligatory prayer carrying his granddaughter Umamah on his shoulders. When standing he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) held her and during Ruku and Sujud put her down.

When praying, his grandson, Hasan (radiyallahu anh) or Hussayn (radiyallahu anh) would climb on his back. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prolonged the prostration to prevent him from falling.

When he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was praying, (his wife) Aisha (radiyallahu anha) arrived and he stepped forward to open the door for her and returned to his place.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would respond to a greeting during prayer by a sign of the hand.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would sigh, weep or clear his throat when necessary.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to pray barefoot at times or with his shoes on, and ordered prayer-wearing shoes in order to be different from the Jews.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes used to pray in one garment, but more often in two garments.
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/241-285

2- Abu Dawud, #4985-4986; Ahmad, Musnad, 5/ 364, 371
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #8 on: March 09, 2016, 08:14:47 PM »
d. His Guidance in Recitation After Prayer1

Upon finishing prayer he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would ask Allah for forgiveness by saying:


أستغفر الله "I seek forgiveness of Allah." three times and then say:

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ السَّلاَمُ وَمِنْكَ السَّلاَمُ تَبَارَكْتَ ذَا الْجَلاَلِ وَالإِكْرَامِ

"O Allah, You are peace and from You comes peace. Blessed are You, O Owner of Majesty and Honour."2

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) remained facing the Qiblah only long enough to complete this supplication. Then he would immediately turn to face the worshipers, either to the left3 or to the right.4

After concluding the Fajr prayer, he stayed in his place of prayer until sunrise.5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also used to say after every obligatory prayer:


لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ اللَّهُمَّ لاَ مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلاَ مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ وَلاَ يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَدُّ

"There is no god but Allah, alone, having no partner. His is sovereignty and to Him is all praise and He is over all things competent. O Allah, there is no preventer of what You grant and no granter of what You prevent, and no means will benefit a man of means against You."6

لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ لاَ حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّةَ إِلاَّ بِاللَّهِ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَلاَ نَعْبُدُ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ لَهُ النِّعْمَةُ وَلَهُ الْفَضْلُ وَلَهُ الثَّنَاءُ الْحَسَنُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُونَ

"There is no might or power except through Allah. There is no god but Allah and we worship none but Him. All blessing is His and all favour, and to Him is due the best praise. There is no god but Allah. We are sincere in religion to Him alone, even if the disbelievers dislike it."7

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) urged his followers to say after the obligatory prayer:


سبحان الله "Subhanallah (Glory be to Allah)" thirty three times, الحمد لله "al-Hamdulillah (Praise be to Allah)" thirty three times,  الله أكبر "Allahu Akbar (Allah is most great)", thirty three times and complete one hundred by saying:

لا إِلَهَ إِلاّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

"There is no god but Allah, alone, having no partner. His is sovereignty and to Him is all praise and He is over all things competent."8

It was reported from Rasulullah (salalllahu alayhi wa sallam) that he said: "If you offer the Fajr prayer, before speaking, say:


اللَّهُمَّ أَجِرْنِي مِنَ النَّارِ "Oh, Allah! Protect me from the Fire", seven times (...) and if you offer the Maghrib prayer, before speaking, say: اللَّهُمَّ أَجِرْنِي مِنَ النَّارِ "Oh, Allah! Protect me from the Fire" seven times."9

There are narrations that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered to recite Ayat’ul Kursi after prayers.10 It reached me from our Shaykh Abu’l Abbas Ibn Taymiyyah that he said: "I never seized reciting Ayat’ul Kursi after any prayer."

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered to recite Mu'awwidhatan (the last two Surah of the Qur'an i.e., Falaq and Naas) after every prayer.11

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also ordered to say:
اللَّهُمَّ أَعِنِّي عَلَى ذِكْرِكَ وَشُكْرِكَ وَحُسْنِ عِبَادَتِكَ "O Allah, help me in remembering You, in giving You thanks, and worshiping You well."12
 

Footnotes:



Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/285-311

2- Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasa'i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad

3- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa’i

4- Muslim; Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad

5- Muslim; Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad

6- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa'i; Ahmad, Musnad

7- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa'i

8- Muslim

9- Abu Dawud; Ibn Hibban, Sahih

10- Nasa’i; Ibn Hibban, Sahih; Tabarani; Haythami, Majma’uz Zawaid

Ayat'al Kursi is the 255th Ayah (verse) of the Surat'ul Baqarah and it is as follows:


اللّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لاَ تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلاَ نَوْمٌ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأَرْضِ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلاَ يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلاَّ بِمَا شَاء وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَلاَ يَؤُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ

"Allah. There is no god but He,-the Living, the Self-subsisting, Supporter of all. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on earth. Who is thee can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His creatures as) before or after or behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. For He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory)." (al-Baearah 2/255)

11- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Hibban, Sahih; Mustadrak

Mu'awwidhatan is consists of the last two Surah of the Qur'an i.e., Falaq and Naas and they are as follows:


قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ مِن شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ وَمِن شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إِذَا وَقَبَ وَمِن شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ فِي الْعُقَدِ وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ

"Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of Falaq (i.e., the Dawn), from the mischief of created things; from the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads; from the mischief of those who blow on knots; and from the mischief of the envious one as he practices Hasaad (envy)." (al-Falaq 113/1-5)

قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ مَلِكِ النَّاسِ إِلَهِ النَّاسِ مِن شَرِّ الْوَسْوَاسِ الْخَنَّاسِ الَّذِي يُوَسْوِسُ فِي صُدُورِ النَّاسِ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَ النَّاسِ

"Say: I seek refuge with the Lord and Cherisher of Mankind, Malik (the King/Ruler) of mankind, Ilaah (the God/Judge) of mankind, from the mischief of the whisperer (of evil), who withdraws (after his whisper), who whispers into the hearts of mankind, among Jinns and among men." (an-Naas 114/1-6)

12- Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Ibn Hibban, Sahih
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #9 on: March 21, 2016, 01:25:46 PM »
e. His Guidance in Voluntary and Night Prayers1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) generally performed Sunnah prayers (i.e., voluntary prayers that were performed by the Prophet on a regular basis) and other voluntary prayers at home, particularly the Sunnah of Maghrib.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) regularly performed ten Rak’ah (units) when not travelling: Two (units) before Dhuhr and two after it, two after Maghrib and two after Isha in his house, and two before Fajr prayer.2

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) adhered more strictly to the Sunnah of Fajr than any other voluntary prayer to the extent that he never missed it and the Witr prayer (i.e., the last voluntary prayer of the night), whether he was travelling or at home. It is not reported that he performed any voluntary prayers during his travels except the Sunnah of Fajr prayer and the Witr prayer.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to lie down on his right side after the Sunnah before Fajr prayer.

Sometimes he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed four Rak’ah before Dhuhr prayer, and if he missed the two Sunnah Rak’ahs after Dhuhr he performed them after Asr.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) usually performed Tahajjud (the night) prayer standing, although he might pray sitting, or recite the Qur'an while sitting until he was about to finish the recitation, when he would stand up and then bow for Ruku.

At night, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to perform eight Rak’ah, two at a time, followed by Witr of five consecutive Rak’ah sitting only after the fifth. Or he might perform a Witr of nine Rak’ah sitting after the eighth and then rising to perform the ninth, at the end of which he would sit for Tashahhud and conclude the prayer. After that he might perform another two Rak’ah prayer. Or else he might perform Witr as seven Rak’ah in the same manner, followed by two Rak’ah while sitting.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) might perform Witr prayer in the early, middle or later part of the night.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would clean his teeth with the Miswak3 when he woke up for the night prayer and he might recite ten verses from the end of  Surah Al-i lmran (i.e., Al-i Imran 190 to 200).4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “Make Witr your last voluntary prayer for the night."5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would sometimes perform two more Rak’ah sitting after Witr and might recite the Qur'an while sitting but when he was about to make Ruku would stand up.

If he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was overcome by sleep or pain, he would perform twelve Rak’ah during the following day.

Once he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed the night prayer reciting one single verse of the Qur'an, which he kept repeating until the morning.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes recited the Qur'an in a low voice during night prayer and other times aloud. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would sometimes stand a long time during prayer and sometimes would decrease it.

It was reported that he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would perform Qunut in Witr.6 He would recite the following Dua during Qunut:


اللَّهُمَّ اهْدِنِي فِيمَنْ هَدَيْتَ وَعَافِنِي فِيمَنْ عَافَيْتَ وَتَوَلَّنِي فِيمَنْ تَوَلَّيْتَ وَبَارِكْ لِي فِيمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَقِنِي شَرَّ مَا قَضَيْتَ إِنَّكَ تَقْضِي وَلاَ يُقْضَى عَلَيْكَ وَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَذِلُّ مَنْ وَالَيْتَ وَلاَ يَعِزُّ مَنْ عَادَيْتَ تَبَارَكْتَ رَبَّنَا وَتَعَالَيْتَ

"O Allah, guide me among those Thou hast guided, grant me security among those Thou hast granted security, take me into Thy charge among those Thou hast taken into Thy charge, bless me in what Thou hast given, guard me from the evil of what Thou hast decreed, for Thou dost decree, and nothing is decreed for Thee. He whom Thou befriendest is not humbled. Blessed and Exalted art Thou, our Lord."7

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would recite in the Witr prayer the Surah al-A’la, al-Kafirun and al-Ikhlaas because they (i.e., the latter two) combine Tawhid of knowledge and Tawhid of action, Tawhid  of knowledge of Allah) and Tawhid of (Allah's) Will, Tawhid of belief and (the slave's) intention.

After concluding the prayer, he would say:
سبحان الملك القدوس "Glorified be the King, the Most Holy" three times.8
 

Footnotes:



Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad 1/311-353

2- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad

3- Miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the root of the Arak tree.

4- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Ahmad, Musnad

5- Bukhari; Muslim

6- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Nasa’i; Daraqutni

7- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Nasa’i; Darimi; Daraqutni; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Hibban, Sahih; Bayhaqi, Sunan’ul Kubra; Hakim, Mustadrak; Tayalisi

8- Abu Dawud; Nasa'i; Ibn Ma’ajah
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #10 on: March 28, 2016, 06:00:47 AM »
4. The Prophet’s Guidance Concerning the Day of Ju’muah (Friday) and Salat’ul Ju’muah (Friday Prayer)1

From his guidance was to honour Ju’muah (Friday) and Salat’ul Ju’muah (the Friday prayer), designating to it particular practices such as taking a bath2, wearing one's best clothes3, the wearing of perfume4 and brushing the teeth with the Miswak, giving Sadaqa (charity)5 listening attentively to Khutbah (the sermon), Takbir (saying "Allahu Akbar"), occupying oneself with remembrance of Allah and prayer until the Imam comes out and frequently invoking blessings on the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) during the day and during the night, because every good thing which his community have received in Dunya (the life of this world) and in Akhirah (the Hereafter) came to them through his hands and the greatest favour bestowed on them was the day of al-Jumu'ah.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would recite in the Fajr  prayer on Friday Surah as-Sajdah and Surah ad-Dahr6 for in them is mention of what has been and what is to come on that day.

Every step which the walker takes towards Ju’muah Prayer is a Sunnah.7

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would come out once the worshipers were gathered and when he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) entered the mosque, he would greet them with salutations of peace. And when he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ascended the pulpit, he would face the worshipers8 and greet them with salutations of peace.9 Then Bilal (radiyallahu anh) would call for Adhan (call for prayer)10, and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would immediately begin his Khutbah without any interlude. While delivering Khutbah he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) leaned on a bow or a stick, but that was before adopting the pulpit.11 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would deliver Khutbah while standing, then he would sit briefly and then stand for a second Khutbah12 and once he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had completed it, Bilal (radiyallahu anh) would call the Iqamah.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) asked the worshipers to sit close to him and listen attentively. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said that a man should not even tell another to listen, as that would be considered as Laghw (foolish talk, nonsense i.e., of the speech that would detract from the reward of his Jumu’ah prayer).13

When he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) spoke his eyes would redden, his voice become loud and show increased anger as if he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was exhorting an army.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say in his Khutbah (after praising Allah): "Amma Ba'd (to proceed)"14 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would make his sermon short, lengthen the prayer and would choose Jawami'ul Kalim (concise speech) for the Khutbah.15

In his sermon, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would teach his companions the basics of Islam and its laws. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would give orders and prohibitions16 whenever necessary as he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded the man who entered while he was delivering the sermon to pray two Rak’ah.17

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would interrupt his sermon for any unexpected need or to answer a question, and then resume his speech. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) might also descend from the pulpit for some need and ascend it once again. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) dealt with current issues in his sermon and when he noticed poverty among some of the congregation, he would encourage charity.18

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would point with his index finger when mentioning Allah19, and if there was drought, he would invoke Allah for rain.20

During the Ju’muah Prayer, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would recite Surah al-Jumu'ah and Surah al-Munafiqun, or Surah al-A’la and Surah al-Ghashiyah.21
 
After the Jumu’ah prayer, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would enter his house and perform its Sunnah prayer of two Rak’ah (units of prayer). He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also told those who performed the Jumu’ah prayer to pray four Rak’ah after it.22 Our  Shaykh  (i.e. Ibn Taymiyyah) said: "If he prayed it in the mosque, he would perform four  Rak'ah and if he prayed it in his house, he would perform two Rak'ah."
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/353-425

2- Bukhari; Muslim

3- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Hudhaymah

4- Bukhari; Muslim

5- Ibn Ma’ajah; Malik, Muwatta; Abd’ur Razzaq, Musannaf; Bazzar; Haythami, Majma’uz Zawaid

6- Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasa'i

7- Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Abd’ur Razaaq, Musannaf; Ibn Hudhaymah

8- Bukhari

9- Ibn Ma’ajah

10- Abu Dawud

11- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad

12- Bukhari; Ibn Abi Shaybah

13- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Darimi; Ahmad, Musnad; Malik, Muwatta; Ibn Shaybah, Musannaf; Ibn Hudhaymah; Bayhaqi, Sunan’ul Kubra; Ibn Hibban; Haythami, Majma’uz Zawaid; Abd’ur Razzak, Musannaf

14- Bukhari

15- Abu Dawud

16- Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Hakim, Mustadrak; Ibn Abi Shaybah; Bayhaqi; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar

17- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar

18- Muslim; Ahmad, Musnad; Bayhaqi

19- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Bayhaqi; Ibn Abi Shaybah, Musannaf

20- Bukhari; Muslim

21- Shafii, al-Umm

22- Abu Dawud
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #11 on: April 04, 2016, 06:44:04 PM »
5. The Prophet’s Guidance for the Two Id Prayers1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to lead the Id prayer at the Musalla2, wearing his best clothes.

At Id al-Fitr, he ate an odd number of dates before heading for the Musalla. But for Id al- Adha he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) delayed eating until after the prayer, then he ate from his sacrifice. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would delay the Id al-Fitr prayer and hold the Id al-Adha prayer early.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to bathe for the Id prayers.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) walked to the Musalla carrying Anazah (a pointed stick) to be implanted in front of him as a Sutrah in prayer.3

When he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) reached the Musalla he would perform the Id prayer without any Adhaan or Iqaamah and without saying
الصَّلاَةَ جَامِعَةٌ "as-Salatu Jaami'ah" (The prayer is convened).4 Neither he nor his companions would perform any kind of prayer before or after the Id prayer upon reaching the Musalla.5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) held the prayer before delivering Khutbah (the sermon). He performed two Rak’ah, the first beginning with seven successive repetitions of "Allahu Akbar", making a brief pause between each two. It has not been reported that he said anything (i.e., Dhikr) between each Takbir. Then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) recited verses of the Qur'an, said "Allahu Akbar" and made Ruku. In the second Rak’ah he repeated "Allahu Akbar" five times before reciting the Qur'an. Once he had finished the prayer, he sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would deliver his Khutbah to the people sitting in rows. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would advise them, order them (to do good deeds) and forbid them (from evil). In Id prayer he would sometimes recite after al-Fatiha, the whole of Surah "Qaf" in the first Ra’kah and "al-Qamar" in the second, or he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would  recite "al-A’la" in the first Ra’kah and "al-Ghaashiyah" in the second.6

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) delivered Khutbah sitting on the ground as there was no pulpit.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) allowed whoever could not to stay for Khutbah to leave, sufficing with the prayer. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also ruled that those who attended Id prayer were excused from Ju’muah (the Friday) prayer if they occurred on the same day.7

When he went to Id prayer, he would return by a different route.8

And it has been narrated that he used to make Takbir from the Fajr prayer on the Day of Arafah (during  Hajj) until Asr time on the last Day of Tashriq9 saying:


اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيرًا، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ كَثِيرًا، وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا، وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهُ وَسَلَّمَ

"Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great. None has the right to be worshipped except Allah and Allah is Most Great, Allah is Most Great and to Allah all praise and thanks are due."10
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/425-433

2- Musalla is a place of prayer other than a mosque, a large open area at the outskirts of the city where Id prayers are held.

3- Bukhari; Ibn Ma’ajah

4- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi

5- Bukhari; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah

6- Muslim; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah

7- Muslim; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah

8- Bukhari; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma’ajah; Abu Dawud

9- Tashriq is the name given to the three days following the Day of Sacrifice i.e., 11th, 12th and 13th of the month of Dhu’l Hijjah.

10- Ibn Abi Shaybah
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #12 on: April 15, 2016, 04:52:41 AM »
6. The Prophet’s Guidance for the Eclipse Prayer1

When there was a solar eclipse Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) rushed anxiously to the mosque and performed two Rak’ah. In the first he recited al-Fatihah aloud, followed by a lengthy recitation of the Qur'an. Then he made a long Ruku. Then he stood up from Ruku, saying:

سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ "Allah hears him who praises Him."

رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الحَمْدُ "And to You, our Lord, belongs all praise."
 
He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) continued standing and made another long recital, although shorter than the first. Then he made a second long Ruku, but shorter then the first. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) rose again from Ruku and made a long Sujud. He did the same for the second Rak’ah. Thus, he made two Rak’ah bowing four times in Ruku and making four Sajdah (prostrations).2

Following the prayer he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) delivered an eloquent Khutbah (sermon).

During an eclipse he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) urged remembrance of Allah, performance of prayer, supplication, seeking forgiveness, giving charity and freeing slaves.3
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad 1/433-439

2- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Darimi; Daraqutni; Ahmad, Musnad; Malik, Muwatta; Ibn Hudhaymah, Sahih; Hakim, Mustadrak; Bayhaqi; Ibn Hibban; Ibn Abi Shaybah; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar

3- Tirmidhi; Bayhaqi, Sunan’ul Kubra; Bayhaqi, Marifah
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #13 on: April 22, 2016, 04:14:02 AM »
7. The Prophet’s Guidance in the Prayer for Rain1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to supplicate Allah for rain on the pulpit while delivering the Friday Khutbah (sermon)2 and he also prayed for rain on other days. And he also prayed for rain while sitting in the mosque, raising his hands3 and supplicating Allah, the Mighty and Majestic.4

It was reported that he arranged with the people one day to go out to the Musalla and so he went out when the sun rose in a state of humility5 and when he reached the Musalla, he mounted the pulpit. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) praised and thanked Allah and extolled Him and made Takbir, after his Khutba and supplication; he raised his hands and began to humbly beseech Allah and supplicate Him and he raised his arms so high that the whites of his armpits could be seen, then he turned his back to the people and faced the Qiblah and inverted his Rida,6 while still facing the Qiblah and he placed the right side in place of the left and vice versa; and his Rida was a black Khamisah.7 He supplicated Allah facing towards the Qiblah and the people did likewise, then he descended and led them in a two Rak'ah prayer, like the Id  prayer, without an Adhan, reciting Surah al-A’la in the first Rak'ah after Surah al-Fatihah and Surah al-Ghashiyah in the second.8

His supplications for rain include:


الهم اسق عبادك وبهائمك انشر رحمتك واحي بلرك الميت

"O Allah, provide water for Your servants and your animals, spread Your mercy and revive your lifeless land."9

اللَّهُمَّ اسْقِنَا غَيْثًا مُغِيثًا مَرِيئًا مَرِيعاً نَافِعًا غَيْرَ ضَارٍّ عَاجِلاً غَيْرَ آجِلٍ

"O Allah, bless us with rain that is reviving, satisfying, fruitful, beneficial and not harmful, immediate and not delayed."10

Whenever he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) saw clouds and wind, anxiety showed on his face and he paced back and forth. When it rained he was relieved.

Upon seeing the rain he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say:


الهم صيبا نافعا

"O Allah, let it be a beneficial rain."11

Shafii said that he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would remove part of his garment to expose his body to the rain. When asked about it, he said it was the renewal of his Lord's covenant.12

When it rained too heavily, people requested that he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ask Allah to withhold the rain and he did so, saying:


اللَّهُمَّ حَوْلَنَا وَلاَ عَلَيْنَا اللَّهُمَّ عَلَى الآكَامِ وَالظِّرَابِ وَبُطُونِ الأَوْدِيَةِ وَمَنَابِتِ الشَّجَرِ

"O Allah, around us and not upon us. O Allah, on the woods, the mountains, the hills, the valleys and the trees."13

And when Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) saw clouds and wind, it could be seen in his face, and he would become anxious and when it rained, he would be relieved, and it was because he feared that there would be a punishment in it.14
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/439

2- Bukhari; Muslim

3- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Malik, Muwatta; Tabarani, Dua; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar; Shafii, al-Umm

4- Abu Dawud; Bayhaqi; Hakim; Dhahabi

5- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar

6- Rida is a loose garment wrapped around the upper body.

7- Khamisah is a square woollen blanket with marks on it.

8- Abu Dawud; Hakim, Mustadrak; Dhahabi; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar; Sufyan ibn Uyayna, Gharib’ul Hadith

9- Abu Dawud; Hakim; Bayhaqi, Sunan’ul Kubra

10- Abu Dawud

11- Bukhari; Muslim; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Hibban, Tartib; Bayhaqi

12- Muslim; Shafii, al-Umm

13- Bukhari; Muslim; Nasa’i; Malik, Muwatta

14- Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Bayhaqi
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #14 on: April 26, 2016, 02:27:26 AM »
8. The Prophet’s Guidance for Prayer During Fear1

If the enemy was in the direction of the Qiblah, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) arranged the worshipers in two rows behind him. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said "Allahu Akbar" and they repeated after him. Then they all made Ruku and rose up from it together. For Sajdah (prostration), the front row behind him prostrated while the back row remained standing facing the enemy. When the Prophet stood up for the second Rak’ah the back row would make two prostrations, get up and advance to take the place of the first row, which would move back to take their place. In this way, both groups would have the benefit of the first row, and the back row could make the prostrations of the second Rak’ah with him. In the second Rak’ah, the two rows acted in the same manner as in the first. When the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sat for Tashahhud the new back row would make the two prostrations and then join him in the Tashahhud and final Taslim (salutation).2

If the enemy was not in the direction of Qiblah, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes arranged them in two groups: one facing the enemy and the other praying with him. The group praying with him would perform one Rak’ah before moving to the place of the second group, which would simultaneously shift to perform the second Rak’ah with him. Once he finished the prayer, the members of each group would complete the remaining Rak’ah of the prayer on their own.3

Sometimes he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed one Rak’ah with one of the two groups and while standing for the second Rak’ah this first group would conclude the second Rak’ah and go to face the enemy. The other group would then join him and he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would lead them while performing his second Rak’ah. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would again wait for them to complete the other Rak’ah before leading them in the final Taslim.4

On other occasions, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would perform two Rak’ah with one group and complete the prayer with them. Then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would do the same with the second group.5

And sometimes he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would pray one Rak’ah with one group and they would leave without completing the second Rak’ah. Then he would do the same with the other group. Thus, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed two Rak’ah while both groups performed one Rak’ah each.6
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/510

2- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Bayhaqi; Daraqutni; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar; Ibn Hudhaymah; Hakim, Mustadrak

3- Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar

4- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Malik, Muwatta; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar

5- Bukhari; Muslim; Nasa’i; Daraqutni; Ahmad, Musnad; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar; Ibn Sa’d; Ibn Hibban; Abu Awana, Musnad; Ibn Hudhaymah; Bayhaqi

6- Abu Dawud; Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad; Tahawi, Sharhu Maan’il Athar; Hakim; Dhahabi
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #15 on: April 28, 2016, 01:43:17 PM »
9. Prophet’s Guidance as to the Deceased1

The guidance of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) in funerals was complete, unlike that of other nations. It included good treatment of the deceased, his family and relatives. Such care begins as early as visiting the dying person during his illness, reminding him of the Hereafter, advising him to write his will and repent, and asking those beside him at his death bed to encourage him to recite Shahadah (the testimony i.e., saying "La-ilaha illallah meaning There is no god but Allah"), so it will be the last words uttered by him.

Of all mankind, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was the most pleased with Allah concerning His decree, expressing utmost praise for Him. He wept on the death of his son, Ibrahim, out of mercy and compassion for him. But his heart was full of acceptance and gratitude to Allah and, his tongue was occupied with mention of Him and praise. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


إِنَّ الْعَيْنَ تَدْمَعُ، وَالْقَلْبَ يَحْزَنُ، وَلاَ نَقُولُ إِلاَّ مَا يَرْضَى رَبُّنَا

"The eyes shed tears and the heart is full of sorrow, but we say only that which the Lord accepts."2

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prescribed for his people to praise and thank Allah, to say the words of Istirja:


إِنَّا للهِ وَإِنَّـا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعونَ

"Verily, we are for Allah and to Him shall we return!.." (al-Baqarah 2/156) and to accept Allah's Qadar (Divine Predetermination).

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) forbade the slapping of cheeks and loud wailing over a death.

It was his (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) guidance to hasten the preparation of the dead person to meet his Creator, cleaning him and shrouding him in white garments.

It was his (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) guidance to cover the face and body of the deceased and to close his eyes.

At times he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) kissed the dead person.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered that the dead person be washed three or five times or more, using camphor in the final rinse.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not wash Shahid (a martyr) killed in a battle. He used to remove the leather and metal from the martyrs and bury them in their clothes without offering the funeral prayer for them. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered that a person in Ihraam3 be washed with water and Sidr (ground lotus leaves), shrouding him in his Ihraam garments. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited perfuming him or covering his head.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered the guardian of the deceased to provide a decent white shroud for him, warning against extravagance in choosing the shroud? If the shroud was not sufficient to cover the entire body, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would cover the head and place some grass, on the legs.
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/479-2/5

2- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud

3- Ihram is the state of consecration for Hajj or Umrah.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #16 on: May 01, 2016, 03:23:55 AM »
a. His Guidance in the Funeral Prayer1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to pray for the dead person outside the mosque, although he might pray for him in the mosque as well, but that was not his usual practice.

When a body was brought to him he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would ask, "Has he any debt?"2

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not perform funeral prayers for those who had died in debt but told his companions to offer the prayer for them. However, when Allah granted him wealth he offered funeral prayer for people who died in debt and settled their debts, leaving their property for the heirs.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) began the funeral prayer by saying, "Allahu Akbar", praising Allah, glorifying Him and supplicating. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say, "Allahu Akbar" four or five times.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) urged people to pray sincerely for the deceased. Some of his supplications were:


اللهم اغفر له، وارحهم، وعافه، وعاف عنه، واكرم نزله، ووسع مدخله، واغسله بالماء والثلخ والبرد، ونقه من الخطايا كما ينقى الابيض من الدنس، وابدله دارا من داره، واهلا خيرا من اهله، وذوجا خيرا من ذوجه، وادخله الجنة، واعذه من عذاب القبر و من عذاب  النار

"O Allah, forgive him, have mercy on him, cure him, pardon him, be generous to him, cause his entrance to be wide and comfortable, wash him with water, snow and hail. And purify him from sins as a white garment is washed clean of dirt. Compensate him with a home better than his (earthly) home, a family better than his family and a wife better than his wife, and protect him from the trial of the grave and the torment of Hellfire."3

Another of his (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) supplications is as follows:


اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِحَيِّنَا وَمَيِّتِنَا وَصَغِيرِنَا وَكَبِيرِنَا وَذَكَرِنَا وَأُنْثَانَا وَشَاهِدِنَا وَغَائِبِنَا اللَّهُمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَأَحْيِهِ عَلَى الإِيمَانِ وَمَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَتَوَفَّهُ عَلَى الإِسْلاَمِ اللَّهُمَّ لاَ تَحْرِمْنَا أَجْرَهُ وَلاَ تُضِلَّنَا بَعْدَهُ

"O Allah, forgive our living, our dead, our young, our old, our males, our females. O Allah, whoever among us You keep alive, let him live in Islam, and whoever You cause to die, let him die in the faith. O Allah, do not deprive us of reward for (losing) him, do not subject us to trial after him."4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to stand for the prayer opposite the head of a deceased man and opposite the waist of a deceased woman.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed the funeral prayer for a child, but he did not offer it for a person who committed suicide or one who cheated in taking spoils of war.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed prayer for the woman from Juhaynah whom he ordered to be stoned (as the legal penalty for Zina i.e., adultery).

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) offered prayer for Najashi (in absence) as he did for a dead person, but did not offer prayer for everyone who died far away.

If he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) missed a funeral prayer, he would pray at the grave.


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/485-498

2- Bukhari; Muslim

3- Muslim; Tirmidhi; Nasa’i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Hibban, Sahih; Ibn Abi Shaybah

4- Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasa'i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ibn Hibban; Hakim; Tabarani; Tahawi; Ibn Sa’d; Ibn Abi Shaybah
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #17 on: May 04, 2016, 03:59:01 PM »
b. His Guidance in Burial and Related Matters1

After offering the prayer for the deceased the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would accompany it to the cemetery walking in front of the body. If a person was riding, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would follow behind the body, but if he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was walking he would be close to it, either in front, behind, to the right or to the left of it. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to order them to hasten with the funeral procession.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not sit before the body was put down.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered his companions to stand up for a funeral procession that was passing by. But it is correctly reported that he also sat.

It was of his guidance not to bury the deceased at the time of sunrise, sunset or at high noon.2

His (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) guidance was to make a niche for the body in the side of the grave and to deepen the grave, widening the place for the head and feet.3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


بسم الله و بالله و علي ملة رسول الله

while placing him into the grave.4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would throw three handfuls of soil near the head of the dead person when he was buried.5

After the burial, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stood at the grave praying for the deceased and ordered his companions to do so.6

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) never sat to recite the Qur'an at a grave, nor did he dictate "La-ilaha illallah" to the dead person.

It was his guidance not to loudly announce the death of a eminent person (as was the pre-Islamic custom) and he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited this practice.


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/498-504

2- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma'ajah; Nasa'i; Ahmad, Musnad; Tayalisi; Tabarani; Tahawi; Abu Awana; Ibn Hibbaan; Bayhaqi

3- Bukhari; Ibn Abi Shaybah

4- Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma'ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Hakim; Tabarani; Ibn Hibbaan; Bayhaqi; Ibn Abi Shaybah

5- Ibn Ma'ajah; Ibn Abi Shaybah

6- Abu Dawud; Hakim; Bayhaqi; Ibn Abi Shaybah
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #18 on: May 08, 2016, 03:35:09 PM »
c. His Guidance Concerning Graves and Condolences1

It was not part of his guidance to elevate or construct anything over graves, nor to plaster them with mud or build domes on them.

When he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent Ali (radiyallahu anh) to Yemen he told him to obliterate all idols and level all elevated graves. His own practice was to level all elevated graves.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited the whitewashing of graves, building anything on them and writing on them.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) taught those who wanted to recognize a grave to place a stone on it.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited taking graves as places for prayer and lighting lamps on them, and cursed whoever did so.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited praying toward graves, and warned against making his grave a place of worship.

His guidance was that graves should not be mistreated, stepped on, sat on, leaned on or glorified.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to visit the graves of his companions to supplicate for them and ask Allah to forgive them. His sunnah for visiting graves was to say:


اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَى أَهْلِ اَلدِّيَارِ مِنَ اَلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ, وَإِنَّا إِنْ شَاءَ اَللَّهُ بِكُمْ لَلَاحِقُونَ, أَسْأَلُ اَللَّهَ لَنَا وَلَكُمُ الْعَافِيَةَ

"Peace be upon you, O dwellers of this home of believing men and believing women. Indeed, we will join you, Allah willing. We ask Allah to grant us and you freedom from all evil."2

It was of his guidance to offer condolences to the family of the dead person but not to gather especially for the purpose of offering condolences or to recite Qur'an for him, whether at the grave or elsewhere.

It was his guidance that the family of the deceased should not be put to difficulty by having to serve food to people. Quite the opposite - people should prepare food for them.


Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 1/504-2/5

2- Muslim
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #19 on: May 12, 2016, 03:22:54 PM »
10. The Prophet’s Guidance Regarding Zakah and Charities1

a. His Guidance in Zakah (i.e., the obligatory annual expenditure due from Muslims for the benefit of their community)

His is the most perfect guidance in all aspects of Zakah: its timing, Nisab2, percentages, givers and recipients. It takes into consideration the interests of both the wealthy and the poor, taking from the rich an amount sufficient to meet the needs of the poor without injustice.3

If he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) knew that someone was entitled to Zakah, he would give him, and if he did not know his condition he only gave him after informing him that the rich and those able to earn their livelihood were not entitled to Zakah.4

His guidance was to distribute Zakah to those entitled to it in the country where the wealth was accumulated, and that only the surplus would be sent to be distributed by him.5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to send the collector of Zakah only to owners of obvious wealth such as grazing animals and crops.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to send an assessor to estimate the quantities of dates and grapes, observe how they were irrigated and record the weights. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would calculate the Zakah due accordingly.6

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not take Zakah on horses, slaves, mules and donkeys, or on vegetables and fruits that could not be measured or stored, except for grapes and dates. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not differentiate between fresh or dry dates.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not take the best of the people's property for Zakah, but took the average quality.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited a giver of charity from buying back what he had given.7 But he allowed the rich to eat from it if it was given to him by a poor man as a gift.8

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes borrowed against charity for the benefit of Muslims, or borrowed charity funds from their owners.9

When a person brought Zakah to him he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would supplicate for him, saying:


اللَّهُمَّ بَارِكْ فِيهِ وَفِي إِبِلِهِ

"O Allah, bless him and his camels."10

And at other times, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


اللهم صل عليه

"Oh, Allah! Bless him "11
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/5-29

2- Nisab is the minimum amount of wealth or property which makes one liable to pay Zakah.

3- Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) then said:

"Allah has made it a means of purification for both the wealth and its owner and he restricted the blessing of it to the rich and the blessing of the wealth of those who give Zakah does not cease; indeed, Allah preserves it and increases it.

And He has made  Zakah  incumbent upon four types of wealth, which account for most of the wealth circulating among the people and their need for them is indispensable.

The First: Plants and fruits.

The Second: Cattle: Camels, cows and sheep.

The Third: The two precious metals which are the mainstay of the world's economy and they are: Gold and silver.

The  Fourth: Trading goods in all their different forms.

He has made it incumbent every year and He has made the Hawl (i.e., the minimum period of time after which  Zakah  becomes due upon property) of fruits and crops when they become mature and ripe and nothing could be fairer than this, since, if it were obligatory every month or every Friday, it would be prejudicial to the owners of the wealth, while if it were only obligatory once in a lifetime, it would be prejudicial to the poor and needy.

He has also made the rates of  Zakah different according to the effort put into earning the wealth, for He has made one fifth incumbent upon the whole of the wealth which a person finds — and that is Rikaz i.e., buried treasure (Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Nasa'i; Malik, Muwatta) and it is not deemed that there is any  Hawl for it.

And He has made the payment of half of it, i.e. one tenth, for that which requires effort to acquire it; and that is with regard to fruits and crops which grow unaided and which irrigation is undertaken by Allah, without any effort on the part of the slave.

And He has made the payment of half of one tenth for produce whose irrigation is undertaken by the slave, and which requires effort to irrigate, or which is watered by irrigation wheels or sprinklers or the like. And he has made incumbent a half of that, i.e., a quarter of one tenth on wealth whose growth depends upon work on the part of the owner of the wealth, which is sometimes connected with travel through the land, or sometimes management, or sometimes waiting (for income).

Since charity is not due upon all forms of property, He has fixed Nusub (pl., Nisab) for those forms of wealth upon which Zakah is due which are not injurious to the owners of the wealth and which are shared by the poor and needy:

He fixed for silver two hundred Dirhams (Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah) and for gold twenty Mithqals (a measure of gold equivalent to a gold Dinar).

For grains and fruits, it is five Wasqs; and that is five loads of the Arabian camel. (Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta)

For sheep, it is forty sheep, for cows, it is thirty cows and for camels, it is five camels. However if the Nisab  does not necessitate Muwasah (Charity given by the rich to the poor, which does not cause hardship to either of them) from the same species of animal, the owner is obliged to pay one sheep. And if the five is repeated five times and the number of camels reaches twenty-five, the Nisab due is one of them (i.e., for each five camels up to twenty-five, one sheep must be given).

Also, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) has fixed the ages of these obligatory animals in accordance with their increase or decrease and according to the greatness or smallness of their numbers, such as Ibn Makhadh (a male camel which is one year old) and bint Makhadh (a female camel which is one, year old) and above that, Ibn Labun (a male camel which is two years old) and bint Labun (a female camel which is two years old) and above that, al-Hiqq (a male camel which is three years old) and al-Hiqqah (a female camel which is three years old) and above that al-Jaza (a male camel which is four years old) and al-Jaza'ah (a female camel which is four years old) and the more the number of camels increases, the greater the age; up to the end, after which, He has made the increase in the number which must be given in accordance with the number of the animals owned.

So His Wisdom necessitates that He designate a fixed amount on property which is liable to Muwasah, which does not cause hardship to the owner and which is sufficient for the poor and needy. And it happens that injustice is perpetrated by the two parties: The rich person when he refuses to pay what is obligatory for him and the recipient when he takes what he does not deserve, which results in great harm from the two parties to the poor and needy.

And Allah, Most High has assumed the responsibility Himself for the division of charity and He has divided it into eight categories, all of which fall under two types:

The First: Those who take what they need and they take in accordance with the severity or weakness of their need, or the greatness or smallness of the amount; and they are the poor and needy, for the manumission of slaves and the wayfarers.

The Second: Those who take from it in order to benefit (others) thereby; and they are those whose work it is to collect it, distribute it etc., those whose hearts are inclined towards Islam, the debtors, in order to resolve disputes and the warriors who fight in Allah's cause. If the one who takes it is not in need and does not benefit the Muslims with it, then he has no share in Zakah."

4- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Nasa'i

5- Ibn Ma’ajah

6- Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Shafii, Musnad; Bayhaqi

7- Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta

8- Bukhari; Muslim; Ahmad, Musnad; Malik, Muwatta

9- Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Darimi; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Daraqutni; Bayhaqi

10- Nasai, #2458

11- Bukhari; Muslim; Abu Dawud
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #20 on: May 22, 2016, 03:55:50 PM »
b. His Guidance in Zakat'ul Fitr1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stipulated that Zakat’ul Fitr2 should be a Sa3 measure of dates, barley, cheese or raisins.4

It should be given before the Id Prayer. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


مَنْ أَدَّاهَا قَبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ زَكَاةٌ مَقْبُولَةٌ وَمَنْ أَدَّاهَا بَعْدَ الصَّلاَةِ فَهِيَ صَدَقَةٌ مِنَ الصَّدَقَاتِ

"If it is given before the prayer it is an accepted Zakat, but if given after the prayer it is a kind of Sadaqah (charity)."5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to give it especially to the poor rather than all eight categories6 entitled to Zakah.
 

Footnotes:



Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/18

2- A religious obligation at the end of Ramadhan, the month of fasting. It is incumbent upon the Muslim and upon those whom he provides for, including the children and adults.

3- Equal to about one and one-third cups and approximately three kilograms.

4- Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta

According to the other reports Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) permitted a Sa of flour (Abu Dawud; Nasa’i) and half a Sa of wheat (Abu Dawud; Nasa’i) in place of a Sa of these other things.

5- Abu Dawud

6- Allah Ta’ala informed these eight categories in the Qur’an:


إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاء وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْعَامِلِينَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِينَ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ

"Sadaqah (alms) are for the poor and the needy, and those employed to administer the (funds); for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled (to Truth); for those in bondage and in debt; in the Cause of Allah; and for the wayfarer: (thus is it) ordained by Allah" (at-Tawbah 9/60)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #21 on: May 25, 2016, 04:11:58 PM »
c. His Guidance in Sadaqat’ut Tatawwu (Voluntary Charity)1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was the most generous person with regard to giving charity from what was in his possession,  never  considering  anything bestowed by Allah too much or too little.

If someone asked anything in his possession he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would readily give it to him, whether little or much.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was more happy and pleased to give than to receive.

Whenever he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) met a needy person he would give him preference over himself, sometimes with his food and sometimes with his clothing.

Whoever  dealt  with  him  would  be overwhelmed by his lenience.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) practiced charity of various kinds; sometimes with a gift, or sometimes charity, and sometimes he would buy an item and give it back it to the seller along with its price. Sometimes he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would borrow something and then return more then what he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) took. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would accept a gift and give one in return more than its value2 out of kindness and in order to express all diverse forms of charitable deeds to the utmost of his ability. His benevolence was expressed with his property, his actions and his words. He would give whatever he had, he would order the giving of charity and he would encourage it, so that if a miserly person saw him, his behavior would call upon him to be giving.

Anyone who associated with him could not help but be kind and generous. For this reason, he was the most open-hearted of people and the finest soul among them; for charity and righteous deeds have an amazing ability to open the heart; and this was in addition to the things by which Allah had distinguished him, such as His opening his heart by the Message, its special characteristics and its consequences and the opening of his heart to compassion and the removal of Satan's portion (i.e., influence) from it.
 

Footnotes:



Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/21

2-Bukhari
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #22 on: June 03, 2016, 10:12:15 AM »
11. The Prophet’s Guidance Concerning Fasting1
 
a. His Guidance in Fasting Ramadhan

The guidance of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), was the most perfect of guidance and the greatest in achieving the goal of fasting and the easiest for human beings to follow.

It was a part of his (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) guidance in the month of  Ramadan to  perform many acts of worship of various types, and Jibril (alayhi salam) used to go over the Qur'an with him in the month of Ramadan.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also used to perform many acts of charity and benevolence, recite the Qur'an and pray, Dhikr (mentioning Allah) and perform I’tikaf.2

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to favor Ramadan with more acts of worship than other times.

According to his guidance he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would only begin the fast of Ramadhan after a verified sighting of the new moon or the evidence of a witness. In case it was not sighted and without a witness he would complete thirty days of Sha’ban.3

If the new moon could not be sighted on the twentyhigth of Sha’ban due to clouds, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) completed thirty days of the month. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not fast on Yawm’ush Shakk (the day of doubt), or tell anyone to do it.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) terminated the fast at the end of the month based on the testimony of two witnesses.4

If two witnesses gave a testimony about sighting the moon after Id prayer time had passed, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would break his fast, order people to do so and would perform the Id prayer at its time the following morning.5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to hasten to break of the fast (at sunset) and ordered the people to do so.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also used to delay his Suhur6 and encourage others to do the same.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to break his fast before performing the Maghrib prayer.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would break his fast with fresh or dry dates, and if unavailable, with water.7

Upon breaking his fast he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


ذَهَبَ الظَّمَأُ وَابْتَلَّتِ الْعُرُوقُ وَثَبَتَ الأَجْرُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ

"Thirst has gone, the veins have been moistened and the reward is assured, if Allah wills."8
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/30

Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) stated the following at the beginning of the chapter, regarding
"The Wisdom and Benefits Behind Fasting":

"The objective behind fasting is to restrain Nafs (the soul) from (its) Shahuwaat (pl., Shahwah; desires) and to prevent it from those things, which are beloved to it. And its purpose is to control the soul’s strength, so that it can be prepared to attain what is found in it (the fast) from success and joy for the soul. Through the fast, one curbs his hunger and thirst and is reminded of the condition of the hungry stomachs of Masaakin (pl., Miskin; needy people).

Through fasting, one narrows the passages Shaytan (the Devil) has inside the servant (of Allah) by narrowing the passages of food and drink. Also, it prevents the forces of the limbs from getting too accustomed to things that are harmful to it in Dunya (worldly life) and Akhirah (the Hereafter). And each of the soul’s body limbs and energies can cease their rebelliousness (to Allah) and be harnessed by its bridle. So therefore, the fast is the bridle of those who fear and obey Allah and the shield of those wage war (against desires). And it is a garden for Abrar (the righteous) and Mukarrab (devoted) servants of Allah. And it is for Rabb’il A’lamin (the Lord of the worlds), over all other actions (done to please sincerely to Allah). (Bukhari, #1904, #7492, #7538; Muslim, #1151; Tirmidhi, #764; Ibn Ma’ajah, #1707; Nasa’i, #2211-2216; Ahmad, Musnad, 2/234, 2/395, 2/411; Bayhaqi, 4/235, 4/237; Tabarani, Kabir, 10/120; Tahawi, Mushkil’ul Athar, 4/116)

This is since the person who fasts, in fact does nothing (wrong). He only abandons his Shahwah (desire) and his food for the sake of his Ma’bud (the One whom he worships). So fasting is an abandonment of those things that the soul loves and desires, preferring instead Allah’s love and contentment. And it is a secret kept between the servant and his Lord; no one else is aware of it. Ibaad (the slaves) may recognize the person whom is fasting abandoning things that nullify ones fast in Dhahir (the apparent) however his abandoning eating, drinking and his Shahwah for his Ma’bud is something no man recognizes. This is the truth of fasting.

Fasting has an amazing effect in preserving one’s Dhahir (outer limbs) and Baatin (inner) capacities as well as protecting the soul from being overtaken by destructive components, which can ruin and destroy it. And it has a remarkable effect in causing all the harmful things that prevent the soul from being healthy to be emptied out. So fasting guards and protects the health of the person’s heart and body limbs. And it returns the soul all that the hands of the desires have taken from it.

So it is from the greatest ways of improving one’s Taqwa (piety), as Allah Ta’ala has said:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

"O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you in order that you attain Taqwa (piety)." (al-Baqarah 2/183)

And Nabi (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) has said:


الصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ

"Fasting is a shield." (Bukhari, #1904, #7492; Muslim, #1151; Tirmidhi, #614, #764, #2616; Ibn Ma’ajah, #3973; Nasa’i, #2217, #2224-2226, #2231, #2233)

And he sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded those who had intense desires for marriage but were not able to marry, to observe fasting, making it a shield against those desires (of marriage). (Bukhari, #5066; Muslim, #1400)

When the benefits of fasting are born witness to by Aql’ul Salim (sensible minds) and Fitr’ul Mustaqim (upright intuitions), one will come to realize that Allah prescribed it as Rahmah (a mercy) for mankind, Ihsaan (goodness) to them and a protection and shield for them.

Rasulullah (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam)’s guidance concerning it was Akmal’ul Huda (the most perfect of guidance), and the best for reaching the desired objective and the easiest on the soul."

2- I’tikaf is seclusion in the mosque for devotion to worship.

3- Sha’ban is the Hijrih month that preceding Ramadan.

4- Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad

5- Abu Dawud; Ahmad, Musnad

6- Suhur is a pre-dawn meal for those intending to fast.

7- Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Ahmad, Musnad; Ibn Khuzaymah

8- Abu Dawud; Daraqutni; Hakim, al-Mustadrak; Bayhaqi, Sunnan’ul Kubra
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #23 on: June 10, 2016, 03:27:23 AM »
b. His Guidance in What Is Allowed and Prohibited While Fasting

His guidance was that when one fasts he should abstain from improper speech, noisy arguments, insults and replying to them. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) instructed that if one is cursed or insulted he should only say:


فَلْيَقُلْ إِنِّي صَائِمٌ

"I am fasting."1

While travelling, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sometimes observed fasting and sometimes broke his fast, and he gave his companions the option to do either .

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would order his companions to break their fast when they approached an enemy.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not specify any certain distance after which a traveller would be excused from fasting.

When his companions would start a journey, they would break the fast even before leaving the residential area and affirmed that this was the Sunnah of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).2

It might be that on a day of fasting he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would be in a state of sexual impurity at the break of dawn, but he would then perform Ghusl and observe the fast as usual.3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would kiss one of his wives while fasting in Ramadhan.4 He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) compared the kissing of a fasting person to rinsing the mouth with water (during ablution).5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would clean his teeth with Miswaq (a toothstick),6 he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did Madmadah (rinse his mouth) and Istinshaq (nose) and pour water on his head while fasting. But he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) forbade the fasting person from sniffing the water up high into his nose.7

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ruled that a fasting person need not make up the day if he ate or drank out of forgetfulness. It was a part of his guidance to waive the ruling on one who ate or drank forgetfully and he said that it was Allah who fed him and gave him drink.8

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) permitted sick and travelling persons to break the fast and make up the missed days later.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also permitted a pregnant or nursing women to do the same if they feared harm to themselves.
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad; Malik, Muwatta; Daraqutni

2- Tirmidhi; Daraquni; Bayhaqi

3- Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta

4- Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta

5- Abu Dawud; Ibn Khuzaymah; Ibn Hibban; Hakim; Dhahabi

6- Bukhari

7- Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Nasa'i; Ahmad, Musnad; ash-Shafi'i

8- Bukhari; Tirmidhi; Ahmad, Musnad; Bayhaqi
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #24 on: June 17, 2016, 10:02:49 AM »
c. His Guidance in Voluntary Fasting

His guidance was most complete and perfect for achieving the desired objective with ease.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to fast until it was said that he would never stop fasting. And he would refrain from fasting until it was said that he was not going to fast.1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) never fasted a full month except for Ramadhan, but he never fasted in any other month more than he did in Sha’ban.2 And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not let any month pass without fasting in it.

According to his guidance, it is disliked to single out Friday3 as a day to fast, but he took care to fast on Mondays and Thursdays.4

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) never missed fasting on the days of the full moon (i.e., the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of every lunar month), whether at home or on a journey, and he encouraged others to fast them.5

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also used to fast the first three days of every lunar month.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) encouraged fasting six days from the month of Shawaal, saying that fasting them after the fast of Ramadhan is equivalent to fasting the entire year.6

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) always fasted the Day of Ashura7, mentioning that it expiates the sins of the past year.8

With regard to the Day of Arafah, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said that it expiates the sins of the past year and the coming year.9 But his guidance for Hajj pilgrims was not to fast on the Day of Arafah.

It was not of his guidance to fast every day of the year. On the contrary, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


من صام الدهر لا صام ولا افطر

"Whoever fasts every day has neither fasted nor broken the fast."10

Sometimes he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would intend to fast voluntarily and then break his fast. And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would sometimes ask his family:


هل عندكم شي؟

"Do you have any food?"

If they said no, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would say:


إني إذا صائم

"Then, I am fasting."11

And he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


إِذَا دُعِيَ أَحَدُكُمْ إِلَى طَعَامٍ وَهُوَ صَائِمٌ فَلْيَقُلْ إِنِّي صَائِمٌ

"If one of you is invited to a meal while fasting, he should say: I am fasting."12
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Bukhari

2- Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta

3- Bukhari; Muslim

4- Tirmidhi; Nasa'i; Ibn Ma’ajah

5- Nasa’i; Ahmad, Musnad

6- Muslim; Tirmidhi; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad

7- Ashura the tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is not Makruh (disliked) to single out the day of Ashura for fasting. Mardawi said this and narrated from Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah).

لا يكره إفراد العاشر بالصيام على الصحيح من المذهب، ووافق الشيخ تقي الدين (ابن تيمية) أنه لا يكره

"It is not Makruh to single out the tenth for fasting, according to the correct view. Shaykh Taqiyy ad-Din (Ibn Taymiyah) agreed that it is not Makruh." (Mardawi, al-Insaf, 3/346)

In the final year of his life, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) expressed his intent to fast the ninth day as well.


فَإِذَا كَانَ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ صُمْنَا الْيَوْمَ التَّاسِعَ

"Next year Inshallah (if Allah wills), we will fast on the ninth day." (Muslim, #1916)

For this reason it is Mustahabb (recommended) to fast both Tasu’a (the ninth) with Ashura (the tenth) of Muharram.

Bayhaqi narrated a Hadith in Sunan'ul Kubra that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

صوموا قبله يوماً وبعده يوماً

"Fast one day before it and one day after it."

This Hadith indicates that it is Mustahabb to fast on the ninth, the tenth and the eleventh days of Muharram. It was narrated from Tawus (Ibn Abi Shaybah, al-Musannaf, 2/313) and also from Ibn Sirin (Ibn Qudamah, al-Mughni, 4/441) that they both used to fast one day before the day of Ashura and one day after it. Wallahu A'lam (and Allah knows)!..

8- Muslim

9- Muslim

10- Nasa'i; Ibn Ma’ajah; Ahmad, Musnad; Hakim; Ibn Khuzaymah

11- Muslim

12- Muslim; Abu Dawud; Ibn Ma’ajah; Darimi; Ahmad, Musnad
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: The Guidance of Rasulullah Concerning Worship, Dealings and Manners
« Reply #25 on: June 25, 2016, 09:54:36 PM »
d. His Guidance in I'tikaaf1

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was regular in I'tikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadhaan until he died. Once he missed it in Ramadhaan but made the days up during the month of Shawwal.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) once did I'tikaaf in the first ten days of Ramadhaan, then the middle ten days, then the last ten days, seeking Laylat’ul Qadr (the Night of Decree). Then it became clear to him that it is in the last ten days, so he continued to do it then, until he died.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) always combined I'tikaaf with fasting.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to order a tent to be set up for him in the mosque in which to seclude himself.

When intending I'`tikaaf, he began it after performing the Fajr prayer.

His mattress would be placed for him inside his tent, which he entered alone.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would only enter his house for answering the call of nature.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to put his head into Aisha (radiyallahu anha)’s room to comb his hair, even when she had her menses.2

Some of his wives used to visit him during his I'tikaaf, and when she (i.e., Safiyyah bint Huyay) got up to leave he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would get up and escort her. These visits were at night.3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not have sexual relations with any of his wives during I'tikaaf, not even kissing.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to perform I'tikaaf ten days every year, in the year before he died he did it for twenty days.

And when leaving to fulfill some need, he might pass by a sick person on his way and he would not visit him.4
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/82

Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) said the following in the beginning of the chapter regarding the Guidance of Rasulullah regarding I’tikaf:


The Purpose and Spirit of I’tikaf (Seclusion)

Chapter Regarding the Guidance of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) Regarding I’tikaf

"Since Salah’ul Qalb (righteousness of the heart) and its Istiqaamah (going straight upon) the path which leads to Allah Ta’ala is dependent upon its being totally dedicated to Allah and completely focused on approaching Allah Ta’ala -for the muddled affairs of the heart cannot be set in order except by approaching Allah Ta’ala- and since excessive eating and drinking, socializing with people, sleeping and talking are things which increase the confusion in his heart and distract him in every way and prevent him from proceeding on the path to Allah Ta’ala, and weaken him or hinder him and stop him, Rahmah (the Mercy) of (Allah;) Aziz (the Almighty) and Rahim (the Most Merciful) necessitated that He legislate for His worshipers fasting which will remove Shahawaat (the desires) for of food and drink and empty the heart of the distraction of desires, which are obstacles to its reaching Allah Ta’ala. And so He has legislated in accordance with Maslahah (benefit), so that Abd (the worshiper) might benefit thereby in Dunya (worldly life) and in Akhirah (the Hereafter) and not be harmed by it (now or later).

And He (i.e., Allah) legislated I'tikaf for them, the purpose and spirit of which is to cause the heart to be devoted to Allah Ta’ala and Khalwah (occupy) with (worshiping) Him Wahdahu Subhanahu while cutting off from material affairs, so that his intimacy is with Allah and not with people. With it the worries and delusions of the heart replaced with the Dhikr (remembrance), love of Allah and heading to Allah. It will invade the heart so that worries will only be for Dhikr of Allah, thoughts will be only for attaining the consent of Allah and for things which will leads to get closer to Allah. Friendship with Allah takes over the friendship with the people. This will prepare him for his intimacy with Him on the day of loneliness that no friend other than Allah makes one happy, when he is in his grave. This is the greatest purpose of I’tikaf.

And since this goal is only achieved when it is accompanied by fasting, I'tikaf  was legislated during the best days of fasting; and they are the last ten days of Ramadan; and it was not narrated that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed I’tikaf except while fasting. Rather Aishah (radiyallahu anha) said:


لَا اعْتِكَافَ إِلَّا بِصَوْمٍ

"No I’tikaf (is accepted) without fasting." (Abi Dawud, #2473; Bayhaqi, 4/317; Hakim, 1/440; Daraqutni, 2/200; Daylami, #7981; Tahawi, Mushkil'uth Athar, 4/20; Ibn Hajar, Bulugh’ul Maram, #702)

Allah Subhanahu has not mentioned I'tikaf except with fasting and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not perform it except while fasting.

The Rajih (preferred) Dalil (evidence) that the Jumhur (majority) of the Salaf (predecessors) is: Fasting is a condition for I’tikaf. This is also the Rajih view of Shaykh’ul Islam Abu’l Abbas Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah).

As for Kalaam (speech); He has legislated for the Ummah (the Muslim nation) that they check their Lisaan (tongues) from all speech which does not benefit them in the Akhirah.

As for excess of sleep, He has legislated Qiyam’ul Layl (the Night Prayer) for them, which is the best form of wakefulness, with the most benign result. And it is the middle form (i.e., neither too much nor too little) of wakefulness, which benefits both the heart and the body and does not prevent the worshipers from attaining his needs (i.e., working during the day). Riyaadhaah (Spiritual Retreat) of Arbabu Riyaadhaatu wa’s Suluk (Masters of Spiritual Retreat and Journey) is upon these four Arkaan (pl., Rukn; pillars i.e., eating less, less intimacy with the people, speaking less and sleeping less). And the happiest of people are those who perform them in the manner prescribed by Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and do not deviate in the way, nor fall short in the way that those who go extremes."

2- Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta

3- Bukhari; Muslim

4- Abu Dawud
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: THE GUIDANCE OF RASULULLAH CONCERNING WORSHIP, DEALINGS & MANNERS
« Reply #26 on: August 20, 2016, 02:20:54 PM »
12. The Prophet’s Guidance in Hajj and Umrah1

a. His Guidance in Umrah2

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) undertook Umrah3 four times after the Hijrah (migration) to Madinah. They were:

1- Umrat’ul Hudaybiyyah: The polytheists prevented him (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) from reaching Makkah, Baytullah (th House of Allah i.e., Ka’bah) in the sixth year following the Hijrah therefore he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) slaughtered and shaved at the place where they stopped him, ending the state of Ihraam.4

2-  Umrat’ul Qadhiyyah (The Umrah of Compensation; for the Umrat’ul Hudaybiyyah), in the following year he remained for three days and then left.

3- The Umrah joined with Hajj.5

4- The Umrah from al-Ju'ranah.

It happened that during his lifetime he never began an Umrah from inside Makkah; he performed all of them when entering Makkah.

It was never reported that he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed Umrah more than once in the same year.

All of his Umrahs were performed during the Hajj months6 in contradiction to the practice of the polytheists, for they disliked that Umrah be performed during them.7

But he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


عمرة في رمضان تعدل حخة
"An Umrah in the month of Ramadhan8 is equal (in reward) to a Hajj."9


Footnotes:

Quote
1- Allah Ta'ala stated:

وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ
"And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad), the  Hajj and Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allah." (al-Baqarah 2/196)

2- Zad’ul Ma’ad, 2/86-96

3- Umrah is the lesser pilgrimage, which may be done at any time of the year.

4- Bukhari

5- Hajj is the greater pilgrimage, performed at a specific time each year.

6- The Hajj months are: Shawwal, Dhu'l Qa'dah and Dhu'l Hijjah.

7- Ibn Qayyim then said: "This is evidence that performing Umrah in the months of Hajj is without doubt preferable to performing it in the month of Rajab."

8- Ibn Qayyim then said: "The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was occupied in Ramadan with acts of worship which were more important than Umrah, in addition to the fact that his not performing it was a mercy for his people, for had he done it, the people would have rushed to do so, and combining Umrah with fasting would have been a hardship for them. And he used to avoid many acts which he should have performed due to fear that they would be a burden to them."

9- Bukhari; Muslim; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma’ajah; Darimi; Ahmad, Musnad
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: THE GUIDANCE OF RASULULLAH CONCERNING WORSHIP, DEALINGS & MANNERS
« Reply #27 on: September 17, 2018, 03:58:47 PM »
Bismillah,

just a reminder...
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)