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Julaybib

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The Issue of Inheritance from Kafir
« on: 04.03.2016, 05:22:00 AM »
!بسم الله والحمد لله الذي هدانا لدينه المرتضى، والصلاة والسلام على رسوله المصطفى وعلى آله وصحبه اجمعين
:وبعد

The Issue of Inheritance from Kafir

With Ittifaq (agreement) it is not Ja’iz (permissible) for a Kafir to inherit from a Muslim. Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) mentions the Ittifaq regarding this matter and stated:

قَالَ النَّبِيُّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - فِي الْحَدِيثِ الصَّحِيحِ لَا يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرَ وَلَا الْكَافِرُ الْمُسْلِمَ
وَاتَّفَقَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ عَلَى أَنَّ الْيَهُودِيَّ وَالنَّصْرَانِيَّ لَا يَرِثُ مُسْلِمًا وَلَوْ كَانَ ابْنَهُ وَأَبَاهُ ; لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ قَطَعَ الْمُوَالَاةَ بَيْنَهُمَا


“In the Sahih Hadith, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa salam) said:

لَا يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرَ وَلَا الْكَافِرُ الْمُسْلِمَ

“Neither the Muslim inherits from the Kafir (a disbeliever), nor does the Kafir inherit from the Muslim.”

The Muslimun made Ittifaq that the Jews and Nasara (i.e., the Christians) can not inherit from the Muslim even if he is his son or his father. This is because Allah severed the Muwalat (bond, ties) between them.” (Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Jawab’us Sahih li man Baddala Din’al Masih; 2/278, Dar’ul Asima, 1991)

The Ikhtilaaf (disagreement) regarding the matter is concerning whether or not the Muslim can inherit from the Kafir. In his “Ahkamu Ahl’idh Dhimma,” Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) mentions this Ikhtilaaf and points out the view of Shaykh’ul Islam (i.e., Ibn Taymiyyah):


وَأَمَّا تَوْرِيثُ الْمُسْلِمِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِ فَاخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ السَّلَفُ، فَذَهَبَ كَثِيرٌ مِنْهُمْ إِلَى أَنَّهُ لَا يَرِثُ كَمَا لَا يَرِثُ الْكَافِرُ الْمُسْلِمَ: وَهَذَا هُوَ الْمَعْرُوفُ عِنْدَ الْأَئِمَّةِ الْأَرْبَعَةِ، وَأَتْبَاعِهِمْ.
وَقَالَتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ: بَلْ يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرَ، دُونَ الْعَكْسِ، وَهَذَا قَوْلُ مُعَاذِ بْنِ جَبَلٍ، وَمُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ، وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، وَسَعِيدِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ، وَمَسْرُوقِ بْنِ الْأَجْدَعِ، وَعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُغَفَّلٍ، وَيَحْيَى بْنِ يَعْمَرَ، وَإِسْحَاقَ بْنِ رَاهَوَيْهِ. وَهُوَ اخْتِيَارُ شَيْخِ الْإِسْلَامِ ابْنِ تَيْمِيَةَ. قَالُوا: نَرِثُهُمْ وَلَا يَرِثُونَنَا، كَمَا نَنْكِحُ نِسَاءَهُمْ، وَلَا يَنْكِحُونَ نِسَاءَنَا.


”When it comes to the Muslim inheriting from the Kafir, the Salaf (predecessors) had Ikhtilaaf regarding this. Most of them held the view that he can not inherit just like the Kafir could not inherit from the Muslim. This is the Ma’ruf (known) in the presence of the Four Imams and their adherents.
 
Another group from them said, On the contrary, except for the opposite, the Muslim would inherit from the Kafir. This is the opinion of Mu’adh ibn Jabal (radiyallahu anh),  Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain), Muhammad ibn’ul Hanafiyya (radiyallahu anh), Muhammad ibn Ali ibn’ul Husayn, Said ibn’ul Musayyab (rahimahullah), Masruk ibn Ajda’, Abdullah ibn Mughaffal, Yahya ibn Ya’mar ve Ishaq ibn Rahawayh. It is the choice of Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah. They said, we will inherit from them but they will not inherit from us, just as we wed their women but they cannot wed our women.”

Continuing his statements the Shaykh (rahimahullah) narrates the following from of Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah:


قَالَ شَيْخُنَا: وَقَدْ ثَبَتَ بِالسُّنَّةِ الْمُتَوَاتِرَةِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - كَانَ يُجْرِي الزَّنَادِقَةَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الْأَحْكَامِ الظَّاهِرَةِ مَجْرَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَيَرِثُونَ وَيُورَثُونَ. وَقَدْ مَاتَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أُبَيٍّ، وَغَيْرُهُ مِمَّنْ شَهِدَ الْقُرْآنُ بِنِفَاقِهِمْ، وَنُهِيَ الرَّسُولُ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - عَنِ الصَّلَاةِ عَلَيْهِ، وَالِاسْتِغْفَارِ لَهُ، وَوَرِثَهُمْ وَرَثَتُهُمُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ: كَمَا وَرِثَ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ أُبَيٍّ ابْنُهُ، وَلَمْ يَأْخُذِ النَّبِيُّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - مِنْ تَرِكَةِ أَحَدٍ مِنَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ شَيْئًا، وَلَا جَعَلَ شَيْئًا مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَيْئًا، بَلْ أَعْطَاهُ لِوَرَثَتِهِمْ، وَهَذَا أَمْرٌ مَعْلُومٌ بِيَقِينٍ، فَعُلِمَ أَنَّ الْمِيرَاثَ مَدَارُهُ عَلَى النُّصْرَةِ الظَّاهِرَةِ لَا عَلَى إِيمَانِ الْقُلُوبِ، وَالْمُوَالَاةِ الْبَاطِنَةِ، وَالْمُنَافِقُونَ فِي الظَّاهِرِ يَنْصُرُونَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ عَلَى أَعْدَائِهِمْ، وَإِنْ كَانُوا مِنْ وَجْهٍ آخَرَ يَفْعَلُونَ خِلَافَ ذَلِكَ، فَالْمِيرَاثُ مَبْنَاهُ عَلَى الْأُمُورِ الظَّاهِرَةِ لَا عَلَى إِيمَانِ الْقُلُوبِ، وَالْمُوَالَاةِ الْبَاطِنَةِ

Our Shaykh said, it has been established with the Mutawatir (mass transmitted narration) Sunnah that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) held the Munafiq (hypocrite) Zanadika (heretics) where he held the Muslimin, in the occurrence of rulings thus they would inherit, and they would be inherited from. When Abdullah ibn Ubay and others died the Qur’an attested to their Nifaq (hypocrisy), and restricted Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) to perform Salah (i.e., Salaat’ul Janazah; funereal prayer) over them and to ask Istighfaar (forgiveness) for them, yet they left inheritance and the believers became their inheritors. As Abdullah ibn Ubay left inheritance to his son, and Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not take a single thing of what was left from the Munafiqin and he did not make any of it booty. On the contrary, he gave it to their inheritors and this is an affair known with certainty. It was known that inheritance is subjected upon the occurrence of support and not upon the Iman of the hearts, nor the inner bond, the Munafiqun in the apparent are helping the Muslimin against their enemies and on another angle, it happened that they were doing the opposite of this. The inheritance is built upon apparent affairs and not upon the Iman of the hearts or the inner bond.

وَأَمَّا أَهْلُ الذِّمَّةِ فَمَنْ قَالَ بِقَوْلِ مُعَاذٍ، وَمُعَاوِيَةَ، وَمَنْ وَافَقَهُمَا: يَقُولُ قَوْلَ النَّبِيِّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -: " «لَا يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرَ» " الْمُرَادُ بِهِ الْحَرْبِيُّ لَا الْمُنَافِقُ، وَلَا الْمُرْتَدُّ، وَلَا الذِّمِّيُّ: فَإِنَّ لَفْظَ " الْكَافِرِ " - وَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ يَعُمُّ كُلَّ كَافِرٍ - فَقَدْ يَأْتِي لَفْظُهُ، وَالْمُرَادُ بِهِ بَعْضُ أَنْوَاعِ الْكُفَّارِ، كَقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى: {إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا} [النساء: 140] ، فَهُنَا لَمْ يَدْخُلِ الْمُنَافِقُونَ فِي لَفْظِ " الْكَافِرِينَ "، وَكَذَلِكَ الْمُرْتَدُّ، فَالْفُقَهَاءُ لَا يُدْخِلُونَهُ فِي لَفْظِ " الْكَافِرِ " عِنْدَ الْإِطْلَاقِ، وَلِهَذَا يَقُولُونَ: إِذَا أَسْلَمَ الْكَافِرُ لَمْ يَقْضِ مَا فَاتَهُ مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ، وَإِذَا أَسْلَمَ الْمُرْتَدُّ فَفِيهِ قَوْلَانِ

When it comes to the Ahl’idh Dhimmah; whosoever said the statements of Mu’adh (radiyallahu anh) and Mu’awiyyah (radiyallahu anh) and whomever agrees to them says the statement of the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam): “The Muslim cannot inherit from the Kafir” what is intended by it is the Harbi (the non Muslim who is at war against Islam) and not the Munafiq, not the Murtad (apostate) and not the Dhimmi (non-Muslim citizen of the Islamic State): indeed the expression ‘al-Kafir (the infidel)’ if it had been generalized for all Kuffar (pl., Kafir), it could come as its expression, what is intended by it, is some types of the Kuffar, as in the statement of Allah Ta’ala:

إِنَّ اللّهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعاً

“For Allah will collect Munafiqun and Kuffar, all in Jahannam (Hell).” (an-Nisa 4/140)

Here the Munafiqun is not entered in to the expression of the Kafirin. The (expression) Murtad is like this, the Fuqaha (jurists) do not enter it into the expression “al-Kafir” by generalization, and for this reason they say when the Kafir becomes Muslim he does not execute what he missed from Salah, and there are two statements regarding when the Murtad becomes Muslim.” (2/853-855)

In the light of these narrations, we can say the following: It is not permissible for the Kafir to inherit from the Muslim. This is a matter accepted with Ittifaq and Ikhtilaaf regarding it is unknown. The Ikhtilaaf regarding this matter is whether a Muslim can inherit from the Kafir. Mentioned above with its Salaf and its Khalaf (latter-day), the Jumhur (majority) of the scholars do not permit this and that the most famous and known view by the four Imams and their adherents is this as well. Also mentioned above through narrations given by Ibn’ul Qayyim is that the preference of Ibn Taymiyyah was that inheritance could be taken from the Kafir. In order to continue, by the will of Allah, we will present the views of the Jumhur scholars, the Rajih (preferred) Qawl (opinion/view) and the opposing views.
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

Julaybib

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Re: The Issue of Inheritance from Kafir
« Reply #1 on: 07.03.2016, 05:22:42 PM »
Who among are the Kuffar, the Scholars claim Inheritance can be taken from?

We had previously mentioned some scholars; specifically Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) who had stated the Kuffar could be inherited from. However, the matter further needs clarification as to which type of Kafir could one inherit from. As Shaykh’ul Islam mentioned, there are different types of Kuffar. The relationship of the Muslim with the Kuffar differs according to their types. The most clear and known example of this is the permitted marriage between the Muslim men and Kuffar women along with the permit of eating their slaughtered animals. The Shari’ah allows the Muslim men to wed the women of the Ahl’ul Kitaab (People of the Book i.e., Jews and the Christians) and eat the meat of their slaughtered animals, although they are Kafir. Yet this permit is not valid for the Kuffar other than the Ahl’ul Kitaab. Similar to this, in general terms the Muslim are commanded to come to an agreement of Dhimmah with the Ahl’ul Kitaab where as they are commanded to fight against other Kuffar in general terms.

So moving along from what had previously been mentioned we come across the question as to which type Kuffar can the Muslim inherit from? Which type of Kuffar did the Sahabah (companions) such as Mu’adh (radiyallahu anh), Mu’awiyyah (radiyallahu anh), those from the Tabi’in, those from the Salaf and the Khalaf, those who share the same view like Ibn Taymiyyah intend? Does this apply to all Kuffar in general or does it apply to the Dhimmi Kuffar and not the Harbi? Our aim is to touch upon this fact and clarify it with this work inshallah.

In his as Sawa’qi’l Mursala, Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) explained the views of Mu’adh (radiyallahu anh) and his likes, and recorded the following:


ومعاذ بن جبل وغيرهما من الصحابة لما ورثوا المسلم من الكافر ولم يورثوا الكافر من المسلم لم يعارضوا قوله: "لا يرث المسلم الكافر ولا الكافر المسلم" بآرائهم وعقولهم بل قيدوا مطلق هذا اللفظ أو خصوا عمومه وظنوا أن المراد به الحربي كا فعل ذلك بعض الفقهاء بقوله لا يقتل مسلم بكافر حيث حملوه على الحربي دون الذمي والمعاهد

“When they said ‘the Muslim inherit from the Kafir and the Kafir do not inherit from the Muslim’, with their view and their intellect, Mu’adh ibn Jabal (radiyallahu anh) and others from the Sahabah, did not oppose his (sallallahu alayhi wa salam) statement:

لا يرث المسلم الكافر ولا الكافر المسلم

“Neither the Muslim inherit from the Kafir (a disbeliever), nor does the Kafir inherit from the Muslim.”

On the contrary, they restricted this expression absolute or singled it out to its  general and thought that the intended was the Harbi just as some from the Fuqaha did with his statement of: “A Muslim can not be killed for a Kafir” they assumed it to be the Harbi other than the Dhimmi and the confederate.

Likewise, the quotation given above from Ibn Qayyim from his Ahkamu Ahl’idh Dhimma also points to this: “…We will inherit from them but they will not inherit from us, just as we wed their women but they cannot wed our women.”
 
If taken notice those who carry this view, compare inheritance from the Kuffar to marriage with the Kuffar. The outcome of this is that the intended Kuffar here are the Ahl’ul Kitaab because marriage with the Kuffar women who are not Ahl’ul Kitaab is unambiguous.

The narration Ibn Qayyim transmits from Ibn Taymiyyah also points to this:

“When it comes to the Ahl’idh Dhimmah; whosoever said the statements of Mu’adh (radiyallahu anh) and Mu’awiyyah (radiyallahu anh) and whomever agrees to them says the statement of the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam): “The Muslim cannot inherit from the Kafir” what is intended by it is the Harbi.”

Bayhaqi (rahimahullah) said:


قَالَ الْبَيْهَقِيّ رَحمَه الله: " قد رَوَاهُ الشّعبِيّ، وَعبد الْملك بن عُمَيْر عَن عَليّ رَضِي الله عَنهُ دون ذكر المَال، وَبَلغنِي عَن أَحْمد بن حَنْبَل رَضِي الله عَنهُ فِي مَا رَوَاهُ عَنهُ أَبُو بكر أَحْمد بن مُحَمَّد بن هَانِئ، أَنه ضعف الحَدِيث الَّذِي رُوِيَ عَن عَليّ رَضِي الله عَنهُ أَن مِيرَاث الْمُرْتَد لوَرثَته من الْمُسلمين ".
ثمَّ قد جعله الشَّافِعِي رَحمَه الله لخصمه ثَابتا، وَاعْتذر فِي تَركه قَوْله بِظَاهِر قَول النَّبِي - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّم َ -: " لَا يَرث الْمُسلم الْكَافِر
كَمَا تركُوا بِهِ قَول معَاذ، وَمُعَاوِيَة رَضِي الله عَنْهُمَا، وَغَيرهمَا فِي تَوْرِيث الْمُسلم من الْيَهُودِيّ - يَعْنِي أَنهم مَعنا - لم يخصوا خبر أُسَامَة بقول معَاذ وَغَيره، فَكَذَلِك وَجب أَن لَا يخصوه بقول عَليّ رَضِي الله عَنهُ حَتَّى يحملوا الْخَبَر على الْكَافِر الْحَرْبِيّ دون الْمُرْتَد، كَمَا لم يحملوه على الْكَافِر الْحَرْبِيّ دون الذِّمِّيّ بقول معَاذ رَضِي الله عَنهُ وَغَيره


“ash-Sha’bi narrated it, Abd’ul Malik ibn Umayr from Ali (radiyallahu anh) without having mentioned the property, and it reached me from Ahmad ibn Hanbal (radiyallahu anh) in what Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hani narrated from him:

مِيرَاث الْمُرْتَد لوَرثَته من الْمُسلمين

"Inheritance of the Murtad belongs to his inheritors from the Muslimin." is a Dhayif (weak) Hadith that was narrated from Ali (radiyallahu anh).

Then ash-Shafii (rahimahullah), made it stable upon his opponent and excused abandoning his statement with the Dhahir of the statement by Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam): “The Muslim cannot inherit from the Kafir.”

Whilst they abandoned with it the statement of Mu’adh, and Mu’awiyyah (radiyallahu anhuma), and others, regarding the inheritance of the Muslim from the Jews. Meaning, the implication of their statement is that they did not allocate report from Usamah (radiyallahu anh) with the statement of Mu’adh (radiyallahu anh) and others. Like this, it became necessary; they do not allocate it with the statement of Ali (radiyallahu anh) until they assume the report upon the Harbi Kafir except the Murtad, as they do not assume the Harbi Kafir except the Dhimmi with the statement of Mu’adh (radiyallahu anh) and others.” (Mukhtasar’u Hilafiyyat’il Bayhaqi, Maktabat’ur Rushd 1997, Riyad)

Which Kuffar belong to the Harbi, the Ahl’il Harb?

Another issue we have at hand is the matter regarding whom among the Kuffar fit the description of being Harbi. This matter carries importance because some from among the rationalists who are barren of Fiqhu’l Shari’ah distort and change this term befitting their Fatawa (religious verdict). Such that they include only those stubborn, tyrant Kuffar who declare war against Islam and curse it, and some who live in Daru’l Harb (Abode of War). As a result, they concluded that inheritance be taken from any Kafir who lives in Daru’l Harb. It is one thing that people as such are deprived of the Fiqh of Iman, yet it is another matter that they haphazardly establish views and another matter that they allocate the people of Daru’l Harb in to this group.


أَهْل الْحَرْبِ أَوِ الْحَرْبِيُّونَ: هُمْ غَيْرُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يَدْخُلُوا فِي عَقْدِ الذِّمَّةِ، وَلاَ يَتَمَتَّعُونَ بِأَمَانِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَلاَ عَهْدِهِمْ

Ahl’il Harb (the People of War) or the Harbiyyun: They are non-Muslim who do not enter into an agreement of Dhimmah and do not benefit from the protection of the Muslimin and acquaintance. (Mawsuat’ul Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaytiyya; al-Mughni, 8/352-362; Kashshaf'ul Kina, 3/28; Fatawa-i Hindiyya, 2/174, Fath'ul Qadir, 4/278-284)

Those included in this definition are those who are Ahl’ul Kitaab, yet have not entered into an agreement of Dhimmi. The agreement of Dhimmi is done through the authority of the Islamic government and thus for it to take place today and Islamic government is needed. In the same sense in this definition those Kuffar in general who are not under an agreement nor has acquaintance are also included. A distinction has not been made as to the Kuffar being soft or harsh, raging war or not, good or bad.

Evidently, there is a difference between the Kuffar who rage war against Islam and those who do not. However, such difference only presents itself in areas such as treating those who do not rage war with kindness.

Whereas according to general Islamic law all Kafir citizens of Daru’l Harb carry the Hukm of Harbi and subjected to same law and this includes the laws of inheritance.

Understood from this description; even if from the Ahl’ul Kitaab if they are not under the agreement of Dhimmi the Kuffar, if they are not under the protection and acquaintance of the Muslim, they enter into the description of being Harbi.
 
In conclusion understood from the statements of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Qayyim and al-Lahmi who summarized the work of Imam Bayhaqi, those scholars who permit inheriting from the Kuffar, intended with this the Dhimmi who live under the rule of Islam and not the Kuffar who live in the abode of Kufr. On the contrary it is seen that they explained the Hadith:


لَا يَرِثُ الْمُسْلِمُ الْكَافِرَ وَلَا الْكَافِرُ الْمُسْلِمَ

“Neither the Muslim inherits from the Kafir (a disbeliever), nor does the Kafir inherit from the Muslim.” as:

“The Muslim can not inherit from the non-Dhimmi Kafir.”

Also according to what is understood from the Dhahir (apparent) of the matter is that even if the Kafir is an Ahl’il Kitaab yet is not a Dhimmi he will be evaluated as a Harbi and inheritance cannot be taken from him. Although we are not aware of the statements of the Salaf such as Mu’adh (radiyallahu anh), Mu’awiyyah (radiyallahu anh), Ishaq ibn Rahawayh (rahimahullah) the scholars who have succeeded them have explained their words as such which has only strengthened the view that inheritance from the people of Dar’ul Harb is not permitted.

We seek refuge in Allah from speaking about that which we have no knowledge of and ask of Him to teach us what we do not know. Wallahu A’lam (and Allah knows)!..
قولوا "لا إله إلا الله" تفلحوا

"Say, La-ilaha Illallah (there is no -true- god -to be worshiped- but Allah) and thus be successful."

 

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