التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: The Prophet’s Prohibiting Using What Allah has Forbidden for Medical Purposes  (Read 584 times)

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بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
The Prophet’s Guidance on Prohibiting Using What Allah has Forbidden for Medical Purposes

   إبن قيم الجوزية   الطب النبوي
Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Tibb'un Nabawi (Zaad'ul Maad fi Hadyi Hayr'il Ibaad)

Abu Dawud narrated that Abu’d Darda (radiyallahu anh) said that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ الدَّاءَ وَالدَّوَاءَ وَجَعَلَ لِكُلِّ دَاءٍ دَوَاءً فَتَدَاوَوْا وَلاَ تَدَاوَوْا بِحَرَامٍ

“Allah has sent down the disease and the cure and has created a cure for every disease. Seek the cure, but do not use what has been prohibited for medical purposes.” (Abu Dawud, #3874; Bayhaqi, 10/5; Tabarani)

Bukhari in addition narrated that Ibn Mas’ud (radiyallahu anh) said:


إنَّ اللهَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ شِفَاءَكُمْ فِيمَا حَرَّمَ عليكم

“Verily Allah has not made your cure in that which has been forbidden for you.” (Bukhari; Ibn Hibban, Mawarid, #1397; Bayhaqi, 10/5)

In addition in the Sunnan (i.e., Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Ma'ajah) it is narrated that Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) said:


نهى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنِ الدَّوَاءِ الخَبِيثِ

“Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) has disallowed using impure (prohibited) substances for medical purposes.” (Abu Dawud, #3870; Tirmidhi, #2046; Ibn Ma’jah, #3459; Ahmad, Musnad, #2/305; Hakim, 4/410; Bayhaqi, 10/5; Tahawi, Mushkil, 4/264; Abu Nu’aym, Hilyat’ul Awliya, 8/375)

In addition Imam Muslim narrated that Tariq ibn Suwayd al-Ju’fi said:


أنه سأل النبىَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عن الخمر، فنهاه، أو كَرِهَ أن يصنَعَها، فقال: إنما أصنعُها للدواء، فقال: إنَّه لَيْسَ بِدَوَاءٍ ولكنَّهُ دَاءٌ

“He asked Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) about alcohol and that he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) has disallowed it or hated that he makes it. He said:

I only make it for medical purposes. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

It is not a cure. Rather, it is a disease.”
(Muslim, #1984; Ahmad, Musnad, 4/317)

In addition in the Sunnan it is narrated that:


أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم سُئل عن الخمر يُجْعَل فى الدَّواء، فقال: إنَّهَا دَاءٌ ولَيسَتْ بِالدَّوَاءِ

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was asked about al-Khamr (alcoholic beverages) for medical purposes. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Verily that is not a cure, rather it is a disease.”
(Abu Dawud, #8373; Tirmidhi, #2047; Ibn Abi Shaybah, #7380; Ahmad, Musnad, 4/317; Daraqutni, 4/265; Ibn Hibban, Mawarid, #1377)

In addition, Muslim narrated that Tariq ibn Suwayd al-Hadrami said:


قلت: يا رسول الله ؛ إنَّ بأرضنا أعناباً نَعتصِرُها فنشرب منها، قال: لا. فراجعتُه، قلتُ: إنَّا نستشفى للمريض قال: إنَّ ذَلِكَ لَيْسَ بِشِفَاءٍ وَلَكِنَّهُ دَاءٌ

“I said: Ya Rasulullah (O Messenger of Allah)! There are some wines in our land that we squeeze (for alcohol) and that we drink from. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

Do not do it.

So I went back to him and said:

We use it for medical purposes. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

It is not a cure. Rather, it is a disease.”
(Muslim, #1984; Abu Dawud; Tirmidhi; Ibn Ma’ajah, #3500; Ahmad, Musnad, 4/311)

Nasa’i narrated that:


أَنَّ طَبِيبًا، سَأَلَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ ضِفْدَعٍ يَجْعَلُهَا فِي دَوَاءٍ فَنَهَاهُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ قَتْلِهَا

a doctor mentioned using frogs to make medicine and the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) prohibited killing the frog for that purpose. (Nasa’i, 7/210; Abu Dawud, #3871; Ahmad, Musnad, 3/453, 3/499; Ibn Abi Shaybah, 8/92, #3761; Bayhaqi, Sunnan, 9/318)1

Using what Allah has prohibited in medicine is an evil act according to the religion and the mind. As for the religion, we mentioned several Ahadith (pl., Hadith) on this subject.

As for the mind, Allah has prohibited whatever substances He has prohibited because they are impure. Further, Allah has never disallowed a good, beneficial matter for Muslims, as He has decided in the case of the Bani Isra’il (the Children of Israel):


فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَاتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ

“For the wrong-doing of the Jews, We made unlawful for them certain good foods which had been lawful for them, and for their hindering many from Allah’s way.” (an-Nisa 4/160)

Allah has prohibited some matters and substances because of the harm that they carry and to save His slaves from such harm. It is not suitable that the slaves seek these harmful substances for medical purposes. Even if such substances appear to have an affect on the disease, they bring about a more serious illness in the heart because they are impure and unclean. In this case, the sick person who uses what Allah has disallowed for medicinal purposes might be able to remove the physical illness but would cause himself a more serious disease in the heart.

Further, the Muslims are required to avoid what Allah has disallowed, while using the in medicine means that one will not avoid them, as the religion requires. This is the opposite of what the prohibitions seek to achieve.

In addition, what Allah has prohibited is a disease as the religion states by the tongue of the Messenger. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to use it as a medicine.

Furthermore, prohibited substances affect the heart and soul and make them impure, since the various substances that the body consumes affect the body. When a substance cause an evil outcome in the body, the nature of the body will acquire this evil temperament. What about if the substance is impure and evil itself? In this case, when the substance is impure, the body becomes impure as well. This is why Allah has prohibited the impure types of foods, drinks and clothes because of the evil effects that such substances have on the body and soul.

In addition, allowing using prohibited substances for medicinal purposes will later on encourage taking these substances to satisfy desire and lust, especially when the heart likes such substances. This is especially the case when the heart thinks that such substances cure the illness of the body, thus making them even more desirable and likeable. The religion, on the other hand, has closed the door to consuming or using prohibited substances. There is contradiction if the religion closes the door to using prohibited substances on one hand and opens the door to using it in other instances on the other hand.

In addition, prohibited substances that people might use in medicine carry more types of harm than the harm that they might remove. For instance, "the mother of all evil substances; alcohol"2, which Allah has not made a cure or a remedy, is very harmful to the brain, which controls the body, according to the doctors and many scholars of Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence). Hippocrates, for example, said while discussing serious illnesses:

“Alcohol has a serious harmful effect on the brain, because it reaches the brain quickly along with some other harmful substances that the body contains, thus causing harm to the brain.”

The author of al-Kamil (al-Qanun) in addition said:

“Drinking (alcohol) brings harm to the brain and the nervous system.”

There are two other types of disallowed medicines (other than Khamr);

One that the heart does not like, such as snake meat and poisons. Such substances are heavy on the heart and the stomach (let alone being dangerous) and are thus a disease not a cure.

There are in addition in some other medicines that are not disliked themselves, such as some drinks pregnant women take.

These substances carry more harm than benefit, and consequently, the mind and the religion corroborate on disliking them.

There is another wisdom behind disallowing taking prohibited substances as medicine. That is that a condition that the medicine works is one’s belief that it would work and bring the cure by Allah’s blessing. Indeed, whatever is beneficial is in addition blessed, and the more benefit it carries, the more blessing it will bring about. In addition, what the people considered most blessed is the substance that they think carries the most benefit. The Muslim, on the other hand, believes that what Allah has disallowed is not beneficial or blessed. Consequently, He will not have a good idea about the disallowed substances and his system will not accept it. Rather, the stronger the slave’s faith is, the more he hates the disallowed substances and believes that it is impure. In this case, if the slave takes such a substance it will indeed be a disease not a cure for him, unless he believes that it is pure and thus he dislike for it subsidies. Therefore, the believer will not accept the disallowed substances and will consider it a disease, otherwise he will be contradicting the faith.3


Footnotes:


Quote
1- In Zaad’ul Maad there is this addition in the text:

“According to the narration, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated:


من تداوي بالخمر فلا شفاه الله

“Allah will not give cure to the one who uses Khamr for medicinal purposes.” (Kanz’ul Ummal, #28313; Dhahabi, Tibb, 45, 119; Suyuti, Jami’us Saghir; Abu Nu’aym)

2- It is the wording of the Hadith:


الخمر آم الخباءث

“Khamr (alcohol) is the mother of all evil substances.”

الخمر آم الفواحش

“Khamr (alcohol) is the mother of all Fuhssiyyah (evil).” (Daraqutni, Kitab’ul Ashriba, 4/247; Tabarani, 11/164, 11/203)

3- Ending of this chapter in Zaad’ul Maad is as follows:

"Then Mu'min (the believer) use it only as a disease. Wallahu A’lam (Allah knows)!.."
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)