التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: Resembling and Imitating the Kuffar, Iqtida'as Sirat'il Mustakim  (Read 882 times)

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اقتضاء الصراط المستقيم
Resembling and Imitating the Kuffar

Quotes from Iqtida'as Sirat'il Mustakim Mukhalafat Ashabi'l Jahim, Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah)

The Call of Jaahiliyyah

"It was narrated in Sahihayn (two Sahih; Bukhari and Muslim) from Amr ibn Dinar, that Jaabir ibn Abdillah (radiyallahu anh) said:


غزونا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وقد ثاب معه ناس من المهاجرين، حتى كثروا، وكان من المهاجرين رجل لعاب فكسع أنصارياً، فغضب الأنصاري غضباً شديداً، حتى تداعوا، وقال - الأنصاري، يا للأنصار، وقال المهاجري: يا للمهاجرين: فخرج النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: "ما بال دعوى الجاهلية؟" ثم قال: "ما شأنهم؟" فأخبر بكسعة المهاجري للأنصاري، قال فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: "دعوها فإنها خبيثة"، وقال عبد الله بن أبي ابن سلول: أو قد تداعوا علينا؟ لئن رجعنا إلى المدينة ليخرجن الأعز منها الأذل قال عمر: ألا تقتل يا نبي الله هذا الخبيث - لعبد الله؟ فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: لا يتحدث الناس أنه كان يقتل أصحابه

We went out with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) on Ghazwah (a campaign), and some of the  Muhaajirin joined him until they were many in number. One of the Muhaajirin was a man who liked to play practical jokes, and he hit an Ansaari from behind. The Ansaari  got very angry (and the situation escalated) until they began to call for help against one another. The Ansaari said: "O Ansaar (come and help me)!" And the Muhaajir said: "O Muhaajirin (come and help me)!" Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) came out and said: "What is this call of Jaahiliyyah?" Then he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "What is the matter with them?" And he was told how the Muhaajir had hit the Ansaari from behind. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "Stay away from it; it is disgusting." Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul said: "Have they really called for help against us? When we return to Madinah, indeed the more honourable (i.e., himself) will expel there from the meaner (i.e., the Prophet)." (refer back to: al-Munaafiqun 63/8) Umar (radiyallahu anh) said: "Why don't you execute this Habith (the evil one i.e., Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul), 0  Prophet of Allah?" But Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "Lest the people say that Muhammad kills his companions." (Bukhari, #3518)

It was also narrated by Muslim from Abu'z Zubayr from Jaabir (radiyallahu anh), who said:


اقتتل غلامان: غلام من المهاجرين، وغلام من الأنصار، فنادى المهاجر: يا للمهاجرين، ونادى الأنصاري: يا للأنصار، فخرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فقال: ما هذا؟ أدعوى الجاهلية؟! قالوا: لا يا رسول الله إلا أن غلامين اقتتلا، فكسع أحدهما الآخر، فقال: لا بأس، ولينصر الرجل أخاه ظالماً أو مظلوماً: إن كان ظالماً فلينهه، فإنه له نصر، وإن كان مظلوماً فلينصره

"Two young men got into a fight, one from among the Mujaahirin and one from among the  Ansaar. The Muhaajir called out: "O Muhaajirin!" And the Ansaari called out: "O Ansaar!" Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) came out and said: "What is this call of the people of Jaahiliyyah?" They said: "No, O Messenger of Allah. It is just two young men who got into a fight when one of them hit the other from behind." He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: "It does not matter. Let a man support his brother whether he is wronging others or being wronged. If he is wronging others, let him stop him, then he will be supporting him. And if he is being wronged, let him help him." (Muslim, #2584)

These two names; Muhaajirin and Ansaar, are Islamically acceptable and are mentioned in the Qur'an and Sunnah. Allah called these groups by these names as He called us Muslims.

For a man to attribute himself to the Muhaajirin or Ansaar is something good and praiseworthy before Allah and before His Messenger; it is not merely Mubah (permissible) for the purpose of identification, like attributing oneself to a tribe or country, and it is not Makruh (disliked) or Haraam, like attributing oneself to something that could lead to Bid’ah (innovation) or another sin.

Nevertheless, when each of them called on his group to support him, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) denounced that and described it as "The call of Jaahiliyyah." And when it was said to him that those who had given this call were just two young men, and the call had not come from the group, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) called them to stop the wrongdoer and help the one who had been wronged, so as to highlight that what is problematic here is tribalism and partisan attitudes in all cases, which is the action of Ahl’ul Jaahiliyyah (the People of Jaahiliyyah). As for supporting one's group when they are in the right, without overstepping the mark, that is something good which may be Waajib (obligatory) or Mustahabb (encouraged)."

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) also said:

"Similarly, among all other types of Ajam (i.e., non-Arabs), such as Habash (the Ethiopians), Rum (Byzantines) and Turks, there are some who have attained high achievements in Iman (faith) and religious commitment, and their numbers cannot be counted. That is because, as is well known to Ulama (the scholars), true Fadl (superiority) is following that with which Allah sent Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) of faith and knowledge, both Baatin (inwardly) and Dhahir (outwardly). The more he attains of it, the greater the superiority he attains.

Living in cities makes it more likely for a person to attain a high level of religious commitment and softness of heart than living in the wilderness. Superiority is only to be based on praiseworthy concepts and ideas as mentioned in the Qur'an and Sunnah, such as Islam, Iman, Birr (righteousness), Taqwah (piety), Ilm (knowledge), Amal’is Saalih (righteous deeds), Ihsan (goodness) and the like -not just whether an individual is Arab or Ajam (non-Arab), black or white, town­-dweller or Bedouin.

The only reason why it is prohibited to imitate the Bedouins and non-Arabs -even though, as we mentioned, many of them are virtuous people who have attained a high level of religious commitment, and even though one's lineage or location carries no weight in terms of virtue- is based on a principle, which is that Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala has caused living in cities to be more helpful in attaining higher levels of knowledge, religious commitment and softness of heart than living in the wilderness. But at the same time, living in the wilderness helps to build physical strength, strength of character and conciseness of speech than living in cities. This is the basic principle."
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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It is Forbidden to Pray in Places of Punishment

وهذا كما أنه ندب إلى الصلاة في أمكنة الرحمة: كالمساجد الثلاثة ومسجد قباء، فكذلك نهى عن الصلاة في أماكن العذاب. فأما أماكن الكفر، والمعاصي، التي لم يكن فيها عذاب، إذا جعلت مكاناً للإيمان أو الطاعة: فهذا حسن، كما أمر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أهل الطائف أن يجعلوا المسجد مكان طواغيتهم. وأمر أهل اليمامة: أن يتخذوا المسجد مكان بيعة، كانت عندهم، وكان مسجده صلى الله عليه وسلم، مقبرة فجعله مسجداً بعد نبش القبور.

As it is recommended to pray in places of Rahmah (mercy), such as the three mosques1 and Masjid Quba2, it is also forbidden to pray in places of Azaab (punishment).3 With regard to places of Kufr and Maasiyya (sin) in which no punishment occurred, if they are turned into places of Iman or Taat, that is a good thing, as Nabi (salllallahu alayhi wa sallam) instructed the people of at-Taa'if to build the mosque in the place of their Tawaqhit (i.e., palaces of the kings). And he (salllallahu alayhi wa sallam) instructed the people of al-Yamaamah to build the mosque in the place where their church had stood.4 The mosque of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had been a graveyard (of the Mushrikin) that he turned into a mosque after excavating the graves (and moving the remains).5


Footnotes:


Quote
1- It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Nabi (sallallah alayhi wa sallam) said:

لاَ تُشَدُّ الرِّحَالُ إِلاَّ إِلَى ثَلاَثَةِ مَسَاجِدَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ، وَمَسْجِدِ الرَّسُولِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَمَسْجِدِ الأَقْصَى

"Do not set out on a journey except for three Mosques i.e.; Masjid’al Haram (i.e., Ka’bah), the Masjid’ur Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), and the Masjid’al Aqsa, (Mosque of Jerusalem)." (Bukhari, #1189)

Again it was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) that Nabi (sallallah alayhi wa sallam) said:


صَلاَةٌ فِي مَسْجِدِي هَذَا خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ صَلاَةٍ فِيمَا سِوَاهُ إِلاَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ

"One prayer in my Masjid (Mosque) is better than one thousand prayers in any other mosque excepting Masjid’al Haram." (Bukhari, #1190)

2- It was narrated from Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) that he said:


كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَأْتِي مَسْجِدَ قُبَاءٍ كُلَّ سَبْتٍ مَاشِيًا وَرَاكِبًا‏.‏ وَكَانَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ يَفْعَلُهُ

"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi w asallam) used to go to the Mosque of Quba every Saturday (sometimes) walking and (sometimes) riding. Abdullah (Ibn Umar) used to do the same.”

Added Nafi (in another narration):


زَادَ ابْنُ نُمَيْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ عَنْ نَافِعٍ فَيُصَلِّي فِيهِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ

"He then would offer two Rak’at (in the Mosque of Quba)." (Bukhari, #1193-1194; Muslim, #1399)

Tirmidhi narrated that Usayd ibn Zaheer  al-Ansaari  narrated that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


الصَّلاَةُ فِي مَسْجِدِ قُبَاءٍ كَعُمْرَةٍ

"Prayer in Masjid Quba is like Umrah." (Tirmidhi, #324; Hakim, Mustadrak, 1/487)

3- It was narrated from Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyalalhu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


لاَ تَدْخُلُوا عَلَى هَؤُلاَءِ الْمُعَذَّبِينَ إِلاَّ أَنْ تَكُونُوا بَاكِينَ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُونُوا بَاكِينَ فَلاَ تَدْخُلُوا عَلَيْهِمْ، لاَ يُصِيبُكُمْ مَا أَصَابَهُمْ

"Do not enter (the places) of these people where Allah's punishment had fallen unless you do so weeping. If you do not weep, do not enter (the places of these people) because Allah's curse and punishment which fell upon them may fall upon you." (Bukhari, #433)

Abu Salih al-Ghifari reported regarding Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh):


أَنَّ عَلِيًّا، - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ - مَرَّ بِبَابِلَ وَهُوَ يَسِيرُ فَجَاءَهُ الْمُؤَذِّنُ يُؤَذِّنُ بِصَلاَةِ الْعَصْرِ فَلَمَّا بَرَزَ مِنْهَا أَمَرَ الْمُؤَذِّنَ فَأَقَامَ الصَّلاَةَ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ قَالَ إِنَّ حَبِيبِي صلى الله عليه وسلم نَهَانِي أَنْ أُصَلِّيَ فِي الْمَقْبُرَةِ وَنَهَانِي أَنْ أُصَلِّيَ فِي أَرْضِ بَابِلَ فَإِنَّهَا مَلْعُونَةٌ

"Ali (once) passed by Babylon during his travels. The Mu'adhdhin (the person who calls for prayer) came to him to call for Asr (the afternoon) prayer. When he passed by that place, he commanded to announce for the prayer. After finishing the prayer he said: My affectionate friend (i.e., the Prophet) prohibited me to say prayer in the graveyard. He also forbade me to offer prayer in Babylon because it is accursed." (Abu Dawud, #490)

4- It was narrated from Talaq ibn Ali that he said:


خَرَجْنَا وَفْدًا إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَبَايَعْنَاهُ وَصَلَّيْنَا مَعَهُ وَأَخْبَرْنَاهُ أَنَّ بِأَرْضِنَا بِيعَةً لَنَا فَاسْتَوْهَبْنَاهُ مِنْ فَضْلِ طَهُورِهِ فَدَعَا بِمَاءٍ فَتَوَضَّأَ وَتَمَضْمَضَ ثُمَّ صَبَّهُ فِي إِدَاوَةٍ وَأَمَرَنَا فَقَالَ ‏"‏ اخْرُجُوا فَإِذَا أَتَيْتُمْ أَرْضَكُمْ فَاكْسِرُوا بِيعَتَكُمْ وَانْضَحُوا مَكَانَهَا بِهَذَا الْمَاءِ وَاتَّخِذُوهَا مَسْجِدًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْنَا إِنَّ الْبَلَدَ بَعِيدٌ وَالْحَرَّ شَدِيدٌ وَالْمَاءَ يَنْشَفُ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مُدُّوهُ مِنَ الْمَاءِ فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَزِيدُهُ إِلاَّ طِيبًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَخَرَجْنَا حَتَّى قَدِمْنَا بَلَدَنَا فَكَسَرْنَا بِيعَتَنَا ثُمَّ نَضَحْنَا مَكَانَهَا وَاتَّخَذْنَاهَا مَسْجِدًا فَنَادَيْنَا فِيهِ بِالأَذَانِ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَالرَّاهِبُ رَجُلٌ مِنْ طَيِّئٍ فَلَمَّا سَمِعَ الأَذَانَ قَالَ دَعْوَةُ حَقٍّ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ اسْتَقْبَلَ تَلْعَةً مِنْ تِلاَعِنَا فَلَمْ نَرَهُ بَعْدُ

"We went out as a delegation to Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam); we gave him our oath of allegiance and prayed with him. We told him that in our land there was a church that belonged to us. We asked him to give us the leftovers of his purification (Wudu water). So he called for water, performed Wudu and rinsed out his mouth, then he poured it into a vessel and said to us: Leave, and when you return to your land, demolish your church, and sprinkle this water on that place, and take it as a Masjid. We said: Our land is far away and it is very hot; the water is far away and it is very hot; the water will dry up. He sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: Add more water to it, for that will only make it better. So we left and when we came to our land we demolished our church, then we sprinkled the water on that place and took it as a Masjid, and we called the Adhan in it. The monk was a man from Tayy, and when he heard the Adhan, he said: It is a true call. Then he headed toward one of the hills and we never saw him again." (Nasai, #701)

5- It was narrated from Anas (radiyallahu anh) that he said:


قَدِمَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَدِينَةَ فَنَزَلَ أَعْلَى الْمَدِينَةِ، فِي حَىٍّ يُقَالُ لَهُمْ بَنُو عَمْرِو بْنِ عَوْفٍ‏.‏ فَأَقَامَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِيهِمْ أَرْبَعَ عَشْرَةَ لَيْلَةً، ثُمَّ أَرْسَلَ إِلَى بَنِي النَّجَّارِ فَجَاءُوا مُتَقَلِّدِي السُّيُوفِ، كَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ، وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ رِدْفُهُ، وَمَلأُ بَنِي النَّجَّارِ حَوْلَهُ، حَتَّى أَلْقَى بِفِنَاءِ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ، وَكَانَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ حَيْثُ أَدْرَكَتْهُ الصَّلاَةُ، وَيُصَلِّي فِي مَرَابِضِ الْغَنَمِ، وَأَنَّهُ أَمَرَ بِبِنَاءِ الْمَسْجِدِ، فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى مَلإٍ مِنْ بَنِي النَّجَّارِ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ يَا بَنِي النَّجَّارِ ثَامِنُونِي بِحَائِطِكُمْ هَذَا ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالُوا لاَ وَاللَّهِ، لاَ نَطْلُبُ ثَمَنَهُ إِلاَّ إِلَى اللَّهِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ أَنَسٌ فَكَانَ فِيهِ مَا أَقُولُ لَكُمْ، قُبُورُ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، وَفِيهِ خَرِبٌ، وَفِيهِ نَخْلٌ، فَأَمَرَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِقُبُورِ الْمُشْرِكِينَ فَنُبِشَتْ، ثُمَّ بِالْخَرِبِ فَسُوِّيَتْ، وَبِالنَّخْلِ فَقُطِعَ، فَصَفُّوا النَّخْلَ قِبْلَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ، وَجَعَلُوا عِضَادَتَيْهِ الْحِجَارَةَ، وَجَعَلُوا يَنْقُلُونَ الصَّخْرَ، وَهُمْ يَرْتَجِزُونَ، وَالنَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم مَعَهُمْ وَهُوَ يَقُولُ ‏"‏ اللَّهُمَّ لاَ خَيْرَ إِلاَّ خَيْرُ الآخِرَهْ فَاغْفِرْ لِلأَنْصَارِ وَالْمُهَاجِرَهْ

"When Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) arrived Medina he dismounted at Awali-i-Medina amongst a tribe called Banu Amr ibn Awf. He stayed there for fourteen nights. Then he sent for Bani Najjar and they came armed with their swords. As if I am looking (just now) as Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was sitting over his Rahila (mount) with Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anh) riding behind him and all Banu Najjar around him till he dismounted at the courtyard of Abu Ayyub's house. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) loved to pray wherever the time for the prayer was due even at sheep-folds. Later on he ordered that a mosque should be built and sent for some people of Banu Najjar and said: O Banu Najjar! Suggest to me the price of this (walled) piece of land of yours. They replied: No! By Allah! We do not demand its price except from Allah.

Anas (radiyallahu anh) added:

There were graves of pagans in it and some of it was unleveled and there were some date-palm trees in it. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ordered that the graves of the pagans be dug out and the unleveled land be level led and the date-palm trees be cut down . (So all that was done). They aligned these cut date-palm trees towards the Qiblah of the mosque (as a wall) and they also built two stone side-walls (of the mosque). His companions brought the stones while reciting some poetic verses. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was with them and he kept on saying: There is no goodness except that of Akhirah (the Hereafter), O Allah! So please forgive Ansar (the helpers) and Muhajirin (the emigrants)." (Bukhari, #428; Muslim, #524)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Change grey hair and do not resemble the Jews

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) instructed that grey hair be changed, so as not to resemble the Jews. This has to do with a matter that is beyond our control, so how about if a person deliberately imitates non­Muslims in the way he dresses and speaks?

Whoever follows someone else in doing something for some reason of his own, it is to be regarded as imitation of others, if this action is originally taken from that other person. But if someone does something and it so happens that the other person did it too, without either of them trying to copy the other, then whether that is regarded as imitation is subject to further examination, but it may still be prohibited lest it lead to imitation or because it is contrary to some Islamic teachings.
For example, the Lawgiver commanded us to dye the beard and shave the mustache (so as to avoid resembling others, as the Prophet said). Moreover, we may note that the words of the Prophet;


غَيِّرُوا الشَّيْبَ وَلاَ تَشَبَّهُوا بِالْيَهُودِ

"Change grey hair and do not resemble the Jews." (Tirmidhi, #1752; Nasai, #5073-5074; Ahmad, Musnad, 12/507)

indicates that imitation of them may occur without one intending or taking any action to do so; rather it may result from merely refraining from changing something that was created in us. This indicates that imitating them in deeds is more serious than that which happens by coincidence.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Accepting Gifts from Kuffar During the Festivals of the Kuffar

وأما قبول الهدية منهم يوم عيدهم: فقد قدمنا عن علي رضي الله عنه: أنه أتي بهدية النيروز فقبلها. وروى ابن أبي شيبة في المصنف: حدثنا جرير، عن قابوس عن أبيه: "أن امرأة سألت عائشة، قالت: إن لنا أظآرا من المجوس، وإنه يكون لهم العيد فيهدون لنا. قالت: أما ما ذبح لذلك اليوم فلا تأكلوا، ولكن كلوا من أشجارهم". وقال: حدثنا وكيع، عن الحسن بن حكيم عن أمه، عن أبي برزة: أنه كان له سكان مجوس، فكانوا يهدون له في النيروز والمهرجان، فكان يقول لأهله: ما كان من فاكهة فكلوه، وما كان من غير ذلك فردوه. فهذا كله يدل على أنه لا تأثير للعيد في المنع من قبول هديتهم، بل حكمها في العيد وغيره سواء، لأنه ليس في ذلك إعانة لهم على شعائر كفرهم. لكن قبول هدية الكفار من أهل الحرب وأهل الذمة مسألة مستقلة بنفسها فيها خلاف وتفصيل ليس هذا موضعه. وإنما يجوز أن يؤكل من طعام أهل الكتاب في عيدهم، بابتياع أو هدية، أو غير ذلك مما لم يذبحوه للعيد. فأما ذبائح المجوس فالحكم فيها معلوم، فإنها حرام عند العامة وأما ما ذبحه أهل الكتاب لأعيادهم وما يتقربون بذبحه إلى غير الله نظير ما يذبح المسلمون هداياهم وضحاياهم متقربين بها إلى الله تعالى ، وذلك مثل ما يذبحون للمسيح والزهرة ، فعن أحمد فيها روايتان أشهرهما في نصوصه أنه لا يباح أكله وإن لم يسم عليه غير الله تعالى ، ونقل النهي عن ذلك عن عائشة وعبد الله بن عمر

"As for accepting a gift from them on the day of their festival, we have quoted above that Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh) was brought a gift on the occasion of Nayruz and he accepted it. (Bayhaqi, Sunan’ul Kubra, 9/235)

Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated that:

"Once a woman asked Aishah (radiyallahu anha): We have some wet nurses from among the Magians, and they have a festival on which they bring us gifts. She said: As for what is slaughtered for that day, do not eat it, but eat from their vegetables." (Ibn Abi Shaybah, Musannaf, #24361)

It was narrated from Abu Barzah that: "He (radiyallahu anh) had some Magian neighbors who used to bring him gifts on the occasion of Nayruz and Mahrjaan, and he used to say to his family: Whatever is of fruits, eat it, and whatever is otherwise, reject it." (Ibn Abi Shaybah, Musannaf, #24362)

It is only permissible to eat of the food of Ahl'ul Kitaab (the People of the Book i.e., Jews and Christians) during their festivals that which has not been slaughtered for the festival, whether it is bought or received as a gift.

As for meat slaughtered by the Magians, the ruling on that is well known, and it is Haraam according to all. As for that which is slaughtered by Ahl'ul Kitaab for their festivals and that which they slaughter as an act of worship to draw close to anything other than Allah
, as the Muslims offer sacrifices as an act of worship to draw closer to Allah, namely as that which they sacrifice to the Messiah (i.e., Isa), two views have been narrated from Ahmad concerning that, the most well known of which in his texts is that it is not permissible to eat it even if the name of something other than Allah has not been mentioned over it. The prohibition on that was narrated from Aishah (radiyallahu anha) and Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyallahu anh)."
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Exchanging Gifts Between Muslimin During the Festivals of the Kuffar

ومن أهدى للمسلمين هدية في هذه الأعياد مخالِفة للعادة في سائر الأوقات غير هذا العيد : لم تقبل هديته ، خصوصا إن كانت الهدية مما يستعان بها على التشبه بهم ، مثل إهداء الشمع ونحوه في الميلاد ، أو إهداء البيض واللبن والغنم في الخميس الصغير الذي في آخر صومهم ، وكذلك أيضا لا يهدى لأحد من المسلمين في هذه الأعياد هدية لأجل العيد ، لا سيما إذا كان مما يستعان بها على التشبه بهم كما ذكرناه

"If someone gives a gift to the Muslims on these festivals and that is contrary to his habit at all other times apart from this festival, then his gift is not to be accepted, especially if the gift is something that is used to imitate them, such as giving candles and the like at Christmas, or giving eggs, milk and lambs on Maundy Thursday, which comes at the end of their fast (i.e., the end of Lent). Similarly, no gift should be given to any of the Muslims on these festivals because of the festival, especially if it is something that is used to imitate them, as we have stated above."
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Worship Based on Ru’yat'ul Hilal (Sighting the New moon); Not by Calculation, Methods Followed by Others

وأيضاً - عن ابن عمر رضي الله عنهما، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال: " إنا أمة أمية: لا نكتب ولا نحسب، الشهر: هكذا هكذا، يعني مرة تسعة وعشرين، ومرة ثلاثين ". رواه البخاري و مسلم
فوصف هذه الأمة، بترك الكتاب والحساب، الذي يفعله غيرها من الأمم في أوقات عباداتهم وأعيادهم، وأحالها على الرؤية، حيث قال - في غير حديث: " صوموا لرؤيته وأفطروا لرؤيته "، وفي رواية: " صوموا من الوضح إلى الوضح "، أي من الهلال إلى الهلال
وهذا: دليل على ما أجمع عليه المسلمون - إلا من شذ من بعض المتأخرين المخالفين، المسبوقين بالإجماع - من أن مواقيت الصوم والفطر والنسك: إنما تقام بالرؤية عند إمكانها، لا بالكتاب والحساب، الذي تسلكه الأعاجم: من الروم، والفرس، والقبط والهند، وأهل الكتاب من اليهود والنصارى
وقد روي عن غير واحد من أهل العلم: أن أهل الكتابين قبلنا إنما أمروا بالرؤية - أيضاً - في صومهم وعباداتهم،وتأولوا على ذلك: قوله تعالى: {كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ}، ولكن أهل الكتابين بدلوا


"It was narrated from Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

إنا أمة أمية: لا نكتب ولا نحسب، الشهر: هكذا هكذا، يعني مرة تسعة وعشرين، ومرة ثلاثين

"We are Ummi (an unlettered) Ummah (nation); we neither write nor calculate. The month is like this and like this; meaning that sometimes it is twenty-nine and sometimes it is thirty." It was narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) described this Ummah as refraining from writing and calculation, which other nations do with regard to their rituals and festivals. This Hadith  indicates that the Ummah should resort to sighting the moon, as he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said in another Hadith:


صوموا لرؤيته وأفطروا لرؤيته

"Fast when you see it (the new moon) and break the fast when you see it." (Bukhari; Muslim)

According to another report:


صوموا من الوضح إلى الوضح

"Fast from newborn to Newborn." (Tabarani, al-Kabir, 1/190, #504; Tabarani, al-Awsat, 3/192, #2900)

that is, from new moon to new moon.

This is indicative of what the Muslims are upon Ijmaa (unanimously agreed) -apart from Shazz (odd views) on the part of some Mutaakhirin (later dissenting scholars) whose views are outweighed by Ijmaa (the consensus) of Musabuqin (those past i.e., the early scholars)- that the times for beginning and ending Sawm (the fast) and for Nusuk (rituals of Hajj) are based on Ru’yah (sighting the new moon) when possible, not by means of writing and calculation, which are methods followed by A’jam (non-Arabs) such as Rum (the Byzantines), Fars (Persians), Qibt (Egyptians), Hind (Indians) and Ahl’ul Kitaab (the People of the Book), namely Yahud (the Jews) and Nasara (Christians). More than one of Ahl’ul Ilm (the People of Knowledge i.e., scholars) have narrated that Ahl’ul Kitaabayn (i.e., both the Jews and the Christians) before us were also enjoined Ru’yah (to sight the moon) with regard to their fasts and Ibadaah (worship), based on the verse in which Allah Ta’ala says:


كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ

"Observing Sawm (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you." (al-Baqarah 2/183)

but both the people of the Book changed it."
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

 

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