التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING TAWHID  (Read 732 times)

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STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING TAWHID
« on: April 11, 2016, 03:12:06 PM »


بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Statements of Ulama (the Scholars) Regarding Tawhid

Shaykh'ul Islam Muhammad ibn Abd’il Wahhab (rahimahullah) said the following regarding "Tawhid and its Types" in his Risalah: "Risalat’ul Mufidat’ul Muhimmat’ul Jalilah"

تَوْحِيدُ Tawhid

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim (In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful),

al-Hamdulillah (All praise is to Allah), He is sufficient for us. May peace be upon those worshipers whom He has chosen, Amma Bad (to proceed): 

May Allah Ta’ala guide you, know that Allah had created his creation to worship Him and so that they do not associate anything to Him. Allah Ta’ala stated:


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

"I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve Me." (adh-Dhariyat 51/56)

الْعِبَادَةُ هِيَ التَّوْحِيدُ Ibadaah (Worship) is Tawhid
 
Ibadaah is Tawhid. For this reason this has been al-Khusumat (the dispute) between al-Anbiya (the Prophets) and their Ummah (people/nation). Just as Allah Ta’ala stated:


وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُواْ اللّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُواْ الطَّاغُوتَ

"And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun Taghout (false gods)." (an-Nahl 16/36)

Types of Tawhid

When it comes to Tawhid it is of three types: Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship), Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allah alone for worship) and Tawhid al-Asma wa’s Sifaat (Oneness/Uniqueness of the Divine Names and Attributes).


الأصل الأول First Asl (Principle) تَوْحِيدُ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah

When it comes to Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah (Oneness of Divine Lordship): it is that which those Kuffar (pl., Kafir) who lived during the time of Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam accepted, yet this did not enter them into Islam. Rasulullah sallalahu alayhi wa sallam fought them, and considered their blood and wealth to be Halal (permissible).

This (type of Tawhid) is making Tawhid in (Allah) Ta’ala in His Fiil (actions). Evidence for this is in this statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:


قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ

"Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Who provideth for you from the sky and the earth, or Who owneth hearing and sight; and Who bringeth forth the living from the dead and bringeth forth the dead from the living; and Who directeth the course? They will say: Allah. Then say: Will ye not then keep your duty (unto Him)?" (Yunus 10/31)

And His statement:


قُل لِّمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهَا إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ قُلْ مَن بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلَا يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ

"Say: Unto Whom (belongeth) the earth and whosoever is therein, if ye have knowledge? They will say: Unto Allah. Say: Will ye not then remember? Say: Who is Lord of the seven heavens, and Lord of the Tremendous Throne? They will say: Unto Allah (all that belongeth). Say: Will ye not then keep duty (unto Him)? Say: In Whose hand is the dominion over all things and He protecteth, while against Him there is no protection, if ye have knowledge? They will say: Unto Allah (all that belongeth). Say: How then are ye bewitched?" (al-Mu’minun 23/84-89)

Ayaat (pl., Ayah; verses of Qur'an) in this regards are many. Too many to summarize and well known to mention.


الأصل الثاني the Second Asl (Principle), تَوْحِيدُ الْأُلُوهِيَّةِ Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah

When it comes to the second Asl (principle), it is Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah: It is that which most struggle in the past and the present took place. It is making Tawhid in Allah Ta’ala with Afal’il Ibad (actions of the worshipers). Like
الدُّعَاءِ ad-Du’a (supplication), الرَّجَاءِ ar-Rajaa (Hope), الْخَوْفِ al-Khawf (fear), الخشية al-Khashyah (awe), الاستعانة al-Isti’anah (seeking aid), الاستعاذة al-Isti’azah (appeal for refuge), المحبة al-Muhabbah (love), الْإنَابَةِ al-Inabah (penitence), النَّذْرِ an-Nadhr (vow), الذبح al-Dhabh (sacrifice), الرَّغْبَةِ ar-Raghbah (aspiration), الخشوع al-Khushu (submissive humility), التذلل al-Tazallul (submissiveness) and التعظيم at-Tadhim (glorification).

The evidence for
الدُّعَاءِ ad-Du'a is the statement (of Allah Ta’ala):

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِي سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

"And your Lord hath said: Pray unto Me and I will hear your prayer. Lo! Those who scorn My service, they will enter Hell, disgraced." (Mu’min 40/60)

For all these types there is evidence in the Qur’an for all of them.


َأصْلُ al-Asl (the Bases) of الْعِبَادَةِ al-Ibadaah; al-Ikhlaas (sincerity) solely for Allah and adherence to the Rasulullah

al-Asl (the Bases) of al-Ibadaah is to isolate al-Ikhlaas (sincerity) solely for Allah Ta’ala (Almighty) the One and Only and to isolate adherence to the Rasul (Prophet of Allah) sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. (Allah) Ta’ala stated:

وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلَّهِ فَلَا تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللَّهِ أَحَداً

"And the Masajid (places of worship) are only for Allah, so pray not unto anyone along with Allah." (Jinn 72/18)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:


قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيْكُمْ جَمِيعًا الَّذِي لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

"Say: O men! I am sent unto you all, as the Messenger of Allah, to Whom belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth: there is no god but He: it is He that giveth both life and death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Unlettered Prophet, who believeth in Allah and His Words: follow him that (so) ye may be guided." (al-A’raf 7/158);

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

"And We sent no messenger before thee but We inspired him, (saying): There is no God save Me (Allah), so worship Me." (al-Anbiya 21/25)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُم بِشَيْءٍ إِلاَّ كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاء لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ وَمَا دُعَاء الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلاَلٍ

"Unto Him is the real prayer. Those unto whom they pray beside Allah respond to them not at all, save as (is the response to) one who stretcheth forth his hands toward water (asking) that it may come unto his mouth, and it will never reach it. The prayer of disbelievers goeth (far) astray." (ar-Ra’d 13/14)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:


ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ

"That is because Allah, He is the True, and that whereon they call instead of Him, it is the False, and because Allah, He is the High, the Great." (al-Hajj 22/62)

al-Ayaat (regarding this matter) are known.

And (Allah) Ta’ala stated:


وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا

"And whatsoever the messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it)." (al-Hashr 59/7)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:


قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

"Say (O Muhammad, to mankind): If ye love Allah, follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful." (Al-i Imran 3/31)

الأصل الثالث the Third Principle,تَوْحِيدُ الذَّاتِ وَالْأسَمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ Tawhid adh-Dhat al-Asma wa’s Sifaat

When it comes to the third principle it is Tawhid in adh-Dhat (the essence of Allah), al-Asma (the names of Allah) and as-Sifaat (the attributes of Allah): As (Allah) Ta’ala stated:


قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ

"Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally Besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him." (al-Ikhlas 112/1-4)

And (Allah) Ta’ala stated:


وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ ۚ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

"Allah's are the fairest names. Invoke Him by them. And leave the company of those who blaspheme His names. They will be requited what they do." (al-A’raf 7/180)

And the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:


لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ

"Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer." (ash-Shura 42/11)1

Shaykh’ul Islam Mujaddid Muhammad ibn Abd’il Wahhab (rahimahullah) answered a question regarding the Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah and Tawhid as-Sifaat in the following manner:2

Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah is the (type of) Tawhid which the Kuffar accepted. As it is in the statement of (Allah) Ta’ala:


قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ

"Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Who provideth for you from the sky and the earth, or Who owneth hearing and sight; and Who bringeth forth the living from the dead and bringeth forth the dead from the living; and Who directeth the course? They will say: Allah. Then say: Will ye not then keep your duty (unto Him)?" (Yunus 10/31)

When it comes to the Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah; it is al-Ikhlaas (sincerity) in Ibadaah (worship) to Allah other than all of the creation. Since the term, "al-Ilah" in Kalaam (speech) of the Arab is the one whom worship is directed. And (the Mushrikin) were saying: "Allah is the Ilah (deity) of the al-Alah (pl., Ilah; deities)" however they were having other (fake) gods with Him such as the Salihin (righteous) and the Malaikah (angels) and other than them. Moreover, they were saying, ‘Allah is consent with this (worship) and these will be intercessors for us in His presence’. Once you learn this, the strangeness of the Din will become evident for you.

(Allah) Subhanahu made Istidlaal (deduction) with their acceptance of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah against them regarding the crookedness of their Madhhab (way, religion). Since He is the only al-Mudabbir (Provider and Maker of this world) and other than Him do not own even the weight of an atom, and they themselves accept this, how could they direct their Du'a (worship) to Allah and direct their Du'a to another along with Him?

When it comes to the Tawhid as-Sifaat; neither the Tawhid al-Rububiyyah nor the Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah will be steadfast without accepting the Sifaat. However, the Kuffar is more intelligent than those who reject the Sifaat. Wallahu A’lam! (And Allah knows best)!..



Footnotes


Quote
1- Durar’us Saniyyah, 2/67-69

2- Durar’us Saniyyah, 2/72-73
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: Statements of the Scholars Regarding Tawhid
« Reply #1 on: April 14, 2016, 01:06:59 AM »
Shaykh Abd'ur Rahman ibn Hasan al'ush Shakyh (rahimahullah) in his book, Fath’il Majid Sharhu Kitab’ut Tawhid said the following concerning the sections of Tawhid:

"Tawhid (i.e., unification) is two types:

1-
توحيد في المعرفة والإثبات Tawhid fi’l Marifah wa’l Ithbaat (Unification concerning Knowledge and Proof) and that is unification of Rububiyyah (Lordship), Asma wa’s Sifaat (Names and Attributes).

The second type is:

2-
وتوحيد في الطلب والقصد Tawhid fi’t Talab wa’l Qasd (Unification in demand and goal) and that is unification of Uluhiyyah (divinity and worship).

Sulayman ibn Abdillah (rahimahullah) said that such classification was mentioned by Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Qayyim, and other also stated similar of it.

Allamah Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) said:

"As far as Tawhid which messengers have called for, and about which books have been sent down, is concerned, we say that it is of two types:

Unification concerning knowledge and proof and unification concerning demand and goal.

The first (i.e., unification concerning knowledge and proof) is concerned with proving the reality of the Lord Ta’ala, His attributes, His deeds, His names as well as His expressing Himself in His Books and talking to whomever He wishes from among His servants. It is also concerned with proving the universality of what He has Qadaa wa’l Qadr (Divine Will and Decree) and of His Hikmah (wisdom); the Qur’an has revealed this type as has been mentioned at the beginning of the Surat’ul Hadid, Surah Ta-Ha, the end of the of al-Hashr, the beginning of the Tanzil’us Sajdah, the beginning of the Surah Al-i Imran and the whole of the Surat’ul Iklaas and many others.

The second type (i.e., unification concerning demand and goal): What has been included in the Surah:


قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ

"Say: O ye that reject Faith!" (al-Kafirun 109/1)

and His Ta’ala’s saying:


قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلا نَعْبُدَ إِلا اللَّهَ وَلا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئاً وَلا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضاً أَرْبَاباً مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

"Say, O people of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with Him; that we erect not from ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah. If then they turn back say ye, Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will)." (Al-i Imran 3 /64)

This has also been mentioned at the beginning of the Surah Tanzil’ul Kitaab (i.e., as-Sajdah) and its end, the beginning of the Surat’ul Mu'min, its middle and end; the beginning of the Surat’ul A'raf and its end, the whole of the Surat’ul An'am and most of the Suras of the Qur’an include the theme of both types of Tawhid, thus testifying by Tawhid and calling for it.

Verily, the Qur’an has either informed about Allah, His names, His attributes, His deeds and sayings; it is
التوحيد العلمي الخبري at-Tawhid’ul Ilm’il Khabar (i.e., the Cognitive and Informative) type.

However, calling for worshiping Him Alone, no partner, with Him, while rejecting all others is
التوحيد الإرادي الطلبي at-Tawhid al-Irad’it Talab (willful and is a requested unification).

Thus either Amr (commanding) and Nahy (forbidding); requiring us to Taah (obey) Allah or commanding us to obey His commands and proscriptions; these are the just claims and integral parts of Tawhid.

(Qur’an) has informed, honoring Ahl’it Tawhid (the People of Tawhid i.e., unification) and told us what has been done to them in Dunya (i.e., the present life) and how they will be honored in Akhirah (the Afterlife); that is the reward they are given because they have believed in Tawhid; (the Qur’an) has informed about Ahl’ish Shirk (polytheists) and what has been done to them in Dunya, that is, how they have been punished and the torture that they will pass through in Akhirah. That is the punishment for those who reject Tawhid. The whole Qur’an is concerned about Tawhid and its just claims and rewards. As well it is concerned about Shirk and Ahl’ish Shirk (People of Shirk i.e., polytheists) and their punishment."

Quotation from Ibn Qayyim ends here. (Madarij’us Salikin, 3/417)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: Statements of the Scholars Regarding Tawhid
« Reply #2 on: May 08, 2016, 01:25:28 AM »
Abi'l Izz al-Hanafi (rahimahullah) the commentator of "Aqidat'it Tahawiyyah", in his Sharh, "Muhazzabu Sharh'il Aqidat'it Tahawiyyah" said the following concerning Tawhid:

Tawhid is, then, the beginning of the matter and its end. What is meant by this is Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah, or the belief in the unity of Allah (as the only object of worship). For Tawhid has three dimensions to it:

first, matters concerning Sifaat (the attributes) of Allah;

second, Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah (the oneness of His Lordship), which states that Allah alone created everything;

and third, Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah or the oneness of His Godhead, that Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala alone is to be worshiped and served without performing Shirk (associating any partner) to Him.

Tawhid of Sifaat (i.e, Sifat; attributes)

The first category of Tawhid concerns the attributes of Allah. Those who deny Sifaat (the attributes) include the denial of attributes as part of what they call Tawhid. Jahm Ibn Safwan and those who agree with him say that affirming the attributes requires more than one necessary being (i.e., God)!..

Such a statement is known to be obviously and blatantly wrong, for a being devoid of all attributes cannot have a real existence. It is an impossibility, a mere fancy of mind, an absolute void.

(…)

Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah

The second category of Tawhid, Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, is to believe that He alone is the Creator of everything. There are not two creators equal in attributes and actions. This Tawhid is definitely true without any doubt. It is the goal (or final belief) of many Ahl’ul Nadhar wa’l Kalaam (i.e., the People of Philosophers and Theologians), and some Sufis.

No known people have ever denied the truthfulness of this kind of Tawhid. In fact, hearts have an inherent tendency to believe in it, more so than for any other truth or existence. The messengers, as Allah mentions, questioned their people about this belief in the following manner:


قَالَتْ رُسُلُهُمْ أَفِي اللَّهِ شَكٌّ فَاطِرِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ

"Is there any doubt about the existence of Allah, the Originator of the Heavens and the Earth?" (Ibrahim 14/10)

The person most famous for claiming his ignorance or rejection of the existence of the Creator was Firawn (Pharaoh). But in his inner soul, he was actually sure of it. Musa (alayhi salam) said to him:


لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا أَنْزَلَ هَؤُلَاءِ إِلَّا رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ بَصَائِرَ

"You do know that none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth has sent down these (signs) as eye-openers." (al-Isra 17/102)

And Allah Ta’ala stated the following about Firawn and his people:


وَجَحَدُوا بِهَا وَاسْتَيْقَنَتْهَا أَنْفُسُهُمْ ظُلْمًا وَعُلُوًّا

"Their hearts were convinced of it, but they denied it arrogantly and unjustly." (an-Naml 27/14)

That is why, when Firawn said: "Who is the Lord of the Worlds?" as if rejecting it, he was actually aware of Him, so Musa (alayhi salam) said to him:


قَالَ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا إن كُنتُم مُّوقِنِينَ قَالَ لِمَنْ حَوْلَهُ أَلَا تَسْتَمِعُونَ قَالَ رَبُّكُمْ وَرَبُّ آبَائِكُمُ الْأَوَّلِينَ قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَكُمُ الَّذِي أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ لَمَجْنُونٌ قَالَ رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

"(He is) the Lord and Cherisher of the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them, if you want to believe. (Thereupon Firawn) said to those around him: Do you hear what he says? (Musa) said: (He is) your Lord and the Lord of your fathers and your forefathers. (Firawn) said: Your messenger who has been sent to you is certainly crazed. (Musa) said: Lord of the East and the West and all in between, if you want to understand." (ash-Shuara 26/24-28)

(…)

We know of no people who have ever said that there are two creators of the world equal in attributes and actions. Even the dualist Magians and Sanawiyyah (Manichaeists), who affirm two principles, light and darkness and believe that the world has proceeded from them, agree that light is better than darkness; it is the praiseworthy god, while darkness is evil. They dispute over whether darkness is eternal or contingent. Therefore, they do not affirm two equal lords.

As for the Christians, who believe in the Trinity, they do not affirm three separate lords for the world. Rather, they agree that the creator of the world is one and they say, “In the name of the Father, the Son and Ruh’ul Quddus (the Holy Ghost)” as one God. But this belief in the triune God is self-contradictory, and their belief in Hulul (incarnation) is even worse. That is why they have great differences regarding its interpretation. No one has been able to produce an intelligible view, and no two views agree with each other. They believe that He is one as essence, three as hypotheses; but then they differ about the nature of the hypotheses. Some conceive them as properties, others as qualities, and still others as persons. Every human being knows in the light of his natural reason that this is false. In any case, they do not say that there are two Creators similar to one another.

The point here is that there have never been any people who have affirmed the existence of two equal creators. In spite of all that, many Ahl’ul Kalaam wa’n Nadhar wa’l Falsafa (theologians and philosophers) have tired themselves out trying to prove the fact that there is only one Creator. Some of them have admitted that it cannot be proven by rational argument and claim that it is something that is known only through Sam (Wahy i.e., revelation).

In the presence of those who deal with social sciences, the most common argument they advance is known as Dalil’it Tamanu (the argument of exclusion). This argument runs like this. If there were two creators and they disagreed about something, such as one wanted to move X, whereas the other did not want it to be moved, or one wanted to make Y a living being, whereas the other wanted to make it lifeless, then, logically speaking, there are only three possibilities. First, the wills of the two are both carried out; second, only the will of one of them is carried out; third, the will of neither of them is carried out.

The first case is not possible because it requires the existence of contraries.

The third possibility is also ruled out because it would imply that a body is neither moving nor not moving and this is impossible. This would also imply that both of them are incapable of carrying out their wills, which would disqualify them from being God. Finally, if the will of one is realized and not that of the other, he alone will deserve to be God and the one whose will is not realized cannot be considered God.

For a fuller treatment of this argument, one may consult the relevant chapters of this book.

Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah Encompasses Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah

Many people who deal with social sciences think that Dalil’it Tamanu is implied in the verse of Allah Ta’ala:


لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا

"Had there been gods other than Allah, the Heavens and the Earth would have collapsed." (al-Anbiya 21/22)

The cause of their misunderstanding is their belief that Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah (the Unity of Lordship) which they try to prove is the same as Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah (the Unity of Godhead) which the Qur’an states and which the prophets preached. But this is not so.

Rather the Tawhid which the prophets preached and which their books teach is the Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah, which encompasses or includes the Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah. It means to worship and to serve Allah without ascribing any partner to Him. The Arab polytheists and pagans affirmed the notion of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah and that the Creator of the heavens and the earth is one. Allah states about them:


وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ

"If you ask them who created the heavens and the earth, they will say: Allah." (Luqman 31/25)

and:


قُل لِّمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَن فِيهَا إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

"Say (to them): To whom does the earth and all upon it belong, if you truly know? They will say: To Allah. Say (to them then): Will you not then receive admonition?" (al-Mu’minin 23/84-85)

There are many verses of this nature in the Qur’an.

They did not believe about their idols that they participated with Allah in the creation of the world. Their beliefs were the same as those of the other polytheists of the world, the Indians, Turks, Berbers and others. Sometimes they believed that their idols represented some pious men, prophets or saints who would intercede for them with Allah and bring them closer to Allah. This was the root of the polytheism of the Arabs. In talking about the people of Nuh, Allah states:


وَقَالُوا لَا تَذَرُنَّ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَلَا تَذَرُنَّ وَدًّا وَلَا سُوَاعًا وَلَا يَغُوثَ وَيَعُوقَ وَنَسْرًا

"They said: Do not abandon your gods; abandon not Wadd, nor Suwa’s, nor Yaghuth, nor Ya‘uq, nor Nasr." (Nuh 71/23)

It is confirmed in the Sahih of Bukhari, the books of Qur’anic commentary, narratives of the prophets and elsewhere, from Ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) and other Salaf, that those were the names of some pious people among the people of Nuh. When they died, the people gathered over their graves, then put up their statues and after a period of time they began to worship them. And these particular idols were passed on to the Arab tribes. Ibn Abbaas mentions where they went to tribe by tribe. (Bukhari, #4920; Muslim, #969; Tirmidhi, #1049; Abu Dawud, #3218; Nasa’i, #2031; Ahmad, Musnad, 1/129)

It is confirmed in Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu’l Hayyaj al-Asadi that Ali Ibn Abi Talib (radiyallahu anh) said to him:


أَلَا أَبْعَثُكَ عَلَى مَا بَعَثَنِي رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ؟ أَمَرَنِي أَنْ لَا أَدَعَ قَبْرًا مُشْرِفًا إِلَّا سَوَّيْتُهُ، وَلَا تِمْثَالًا إِلَّا طَمَسْتُهُ

"Shall I send you on a mission like the mission Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) sent me on? He commanded me not to leave any elevated grave but to raze it to the ground, and not to leave any idol except to demolish it." (Bukhari, #1324; Muslim, #531, #969; Abu Dawud, #3218; Tirmidhi, #1049; Nasa’i, #703; Darimi, #1403; Ahmad, Musnad, 1/96, 1/129, 6/146)

In the Sahihayn (two Sahih; Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim) it is also recorded that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said during his fatal illness:


لَعَنَ اللَّهُ الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى، اتَّخَذُوا قُبُورَ أَنْبِيَائِهِمْ مَسَاجِدَ

"May Allah curse the Jews and Christians who took the grave sites of their prophets as places of worship." (Bukhari, #1324, #1330, #1390; Muslim, #529, #531; Abu Dawud, #3227; Nasa’i, #703; Darimi, #1403; Ahmad, Musnad, 6/80, 6/121, 6/146, 6/252)

He was warning against what they had done. Commenting on this Hadith, A’ishah (radiyallahu anha) said:


وَلَوْلَا ذَلِكَ لَأُبْرِزَ قَبْرُهُ، وَلَكِنْ كُرِهَ أَنْ يُتَّخَذَ مَسْجِدًا

"If the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had not warned us against this, his grave would have been elevated, but he abhorred that his grave should be made a place of worship."

In the Sahihayn it is also recorded that while on his deathbed, someone mentioned to the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) some church in Abyssinia and described its beauty and icons. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


إِنَّ أُولَئِكَ إِذَا مَاتَ فِيهِمُ الرَّجُلُ الصَّالِحُ بَنَوْا عَلَى قَبْرِهِ مَسْجِدًا، وَصَوَّرُوا فِيهِ تِلْكَ التَّصَاوِيرَ، أُولَئِكَ شِرَارُ الْخَلْقِ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ

"Whenever a pious person died in their community they erected a church on his grave and decorated it with icons. They will be the worst people in Allah’s sight on the Day of Judgment." (Bukhari, #417, #427, #434; Muslim, #528; Nasa’i, #704; Ahmad, Musnad, 6/51)

In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated, some five days before he died:


إِنَّ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ كَانُوا يَتَّخِذُونَ قُبُورَ أَنْبِيَائِهِمْ وَصَالِحِيهِمْ مَسَاجِدَ، أَلَا فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْقُبُورَ مَسَاجِدَ، فَإِنِّي أَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْ ذَلِكَ

"Beware! The people before you used to make the graves of their prophets and pious people a worshiping ground. Beware! Do not make graves into mosques. I strictly forbid you to do so." (Muslim, #532; Tabarani, al-Mu’jam’ul Kabir, #1686)

Another cause of Shirk (associating partners with Allah) is the worship of the stars. People build idols symbolizing their properties and then worship them. It is said that the Shirk of the people of Ibrahim (alayhi wa sallam) was of this nature. Similarly, there is associating partners with Allah by (taking) angels and Jinns (as Allah’s partners) and using idols to worship them.

Such people affirmed the existence of the Creator and did not claim that there were two creators for this world. But they took these idols as intermediaries to intercede for them. Allah Ta’ala Himself said about such people:


وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللَّهِ زُلْفَى

"Those who take as protectors other than Allah say that they only worship them in order that they might bring them nearer to Allah." (az-Zumar 39/3)

He (Ta’ala) also says:


وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَؤُلَاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ قُلْ أَتُنَبِّئُونَ اللَّهَ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

"They serve besides Allah things that neither hurt them nor profit them and say: These are our intercessors with Allah. Say: Do you indeed inform Allah of something He knows not in the heavens or on earth? Glory to Him, and far is He above the partners they ascribe to Him." (Yunus 10/18)

Similar was the case with the previous polytheistic nations who denied the messengers. Concerning the story of Salih (alayhi salam), Allah Ta’ala states that the nine groups of people swore by Allah that they would attack Salih (alayhi salam) and his family at night. Those evil-doing polytheists swore by Allah that they would kill their prophet and his family, thus establishing that they believed in Allah (but a belief in the manner) of polytheists.

It is clear, therefore, that the Tawhid which is desired or which is the goal is Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah, which encompasses and includes Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah.

(...)

Ibn Abi’l Izz then said:

Explanations in Qur’an Regarding the Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah

The Qur’an abounds with statements and parables concerning this type of Tawhid. It first affirms the Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, that there is no Creator other than Allah. That requires or necessitates that no one should be worshiped except Allah. It takes the first proposition as evidence for the second proposition. The Arabs believed in the first proposition and disputed the second. Allah then made it clear to them:

Since you know that there is no creator except Allah, and that He is the One Who can give a person what benefits him or keep away from him what harms him, and He has no partner in those acts, then how can you worship others besides Him and associate partners with Him in His Godhead?

For example, Allah Ta’ala says:


قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَسَلَامٌ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَى آللَّهُ خَيْرٌ أَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ أَمَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَأَنزَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاء فَأَنبَتْنَا بِهِ حَدَائِقَ ذَاتَ بَهْجَةٍ مَّا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تُنبِتُوا شَجَرَهَا أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ يَعْدِلُونَ

"Say: Praise be to Allah and peace be on His servants whom He has chosen (for His message). Who is better: God, or the false gods they associate with Him? Or who has created the heavens and the earth, and who sends you down rain from the sky with which He brings forth beautiful gardens? It is not in your power to cause the growth of the trees in them. Can there be another god besides Allah? Yet they are a people who assign equals (to Him)." (an-Naml 27/59-60)

At the end of other, similar verses, Allah states:

"Can there by another god besides Allah?"1

This is Istifhaam Inkaar (a rhetorical question whose answer is definitely in the negative). They accepted the notion that no one but Allah does such things. Allah used that as a proof against them. It does not mean to ask if there is another god besides Allah, as some have claimed. Such a meaning is inconsistent with the context of the verses and since the people actually used to take other gods alongside Allah. As Allah Ta’ala says:


أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ اللّهِ آلِهَةً أُخْرَى قُل لاَّ أَشْهَدُ

"Can you possibly bear witness that besides Allah there is another god? Say: I witness it not." (al-An’am 6/19)

And they used to say (about the Prophet):


أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَهاً وَاحِداً إِنَّ هَذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

"Does he make all the gods one? That is truly a strange thing." (Sa’d 38/5)

But they would never say that there was another god (with Allah) that would:


جَعَلَ الْأَرْضَ قَرَاراً وَجَعَلَ خِلَالَهَا أَنْهَاراً وَجَعَلَ لَهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ حَاجِزاً

"make the earth a fixed abode, place rivers in its fold, and place firm hills therein." (an-Naml 27/61)

They accepted the fact that only Allah did all those things. Therefore, Allah says:


يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

"People, adore your Guardian- Lord, Who created you and those who went before you that you may learn to be righteous." (al-Baqarah 2/21) and:

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَخَذَ اللّهُ سَمْعَكُمْ وَأَبْصَارَكُمْ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى قُلُوبِكُم مَّنْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِهِ

"Say: Think, if Allah took away your hearing and your sight and sealed up your hearts, who, a god other than Allah, could restore them to you?" (al-An’am 6/46)

And there are similar other verses.

Since Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah, which the theologians and those Sufis who are in agreement with them consider to be the end-all and goal of their endeavor, is part of the Tawhid which the prophets preached and the heavenly books teach, various evidence exists that point to it, such as other evidence that prove the existence of the Creator and the truthfulness of the Prophet. By Allah’s mercy to His creation, the truths that are most important and most needed have the most evident proofs.

(…)

Ibn Abi’l Izz ends his explanation with the following statements:

Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah implies Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah but not vice-versa. One who cannot create is incompetent and one who is incompetent does not deserve of divinity and worship; of being God. Allah says:


أَيُشْرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخْلُقُ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ

"Do they associate with Allah those who cannot create anything and who are themselves created?" (al-A’raf 7/191);

أَفَمَنْ يَخْلُقُ كَمَنْ لَا يَخْلُقُ

"Can the One Who creates and the one who cannot create be equal? Do you not learn the lesson?" (an-Nahl 16/17); and:

(…)

Baatil Descriptions and Classifications of Tawhid

Now that it is established that Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah is what the prophets preached and what the heavenly books taught, as has been pointed out, one should not heed the statement of those who divide Tawhid into three types (as in the following manner).

This first type of Tawhid, they say, is the Tawhid of Amm (the common people).

The second type is the Tawhid of Khawaas (the elect), which, they say, is the Tawhid that is realized in mystical experience.

The third is the Tawhid of Khawass’ul Khawass (the elect of the elect). This Tawhid, they believe, is affirmed by the Eternal Being Himself.

However, one should not heed these statements, for the people who were most perfect in Tawhid were Anbiya (prophets peace be on them all). Rasul (the messengers) were even greater than they, especially those of Ulu’l Azm (resolute purpose), namely Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa and Muhammad (peace be on them all).

Of these, two Khalil (the most beloved of Allah); Muhammad and Ibrahim, were the most complete in Tawhid for they fulfilled the demands of Tawhid more than anyone else; demands regarding Ilm (knowledge), Marifat, Haal (experience), Da’wah (calling men to it) and Jihaad (striving for its cause).

No Tawhid can be more complete than the Tawhid which the messengers stated, preached and struggled for. That is why Allah Subhanahu commanded His Prophet (peace be on him) to follow in their footsteps. After describing Ibrahim’s argument with his people in support of Tawhid and his denunciation of Shirk, and after mentioning other prophets among his descendants, Allah Ta’ala says:


أُولَئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ فَبِهُدَاهُمُ اقْتَدِهِ

"Those were the ones who received Allah’s guidance; follow then their way." (al-An’am 6/90)

No one can be more complete in Tawhid than those whom the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was told to follow.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to teach his companions that they should say in the morning:


أَصْبَحْنَا عَلَى فِطْرَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ، وَكَلِمَةِ الْإِخْلَاصِ، وَدِينِ نَبِيِّنَا مُحَمَّدٍ، وَمِلَّةِ أَبِينَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا مُسْلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

"We begin our day on Fitrah (the pattern) of Islam. The statement of Ikhlaas (sincerity), the religion of our Prophet, Muhammad, and Millah (the faith) of our forefather, Ibrahim, who submitted himself sincerely to Allah and did not associate anyone with Him." (Darimi, #2688; Ahmad, Musnad, 3/406-407)

The Millah of Ibrahim is Tawhid. The religion of Muhammad is every statement, Amaal (action), and I’tiqad (belief) that He brought from Allah. The statement of Ikhlaas (sincerity) is the testimony that La-ilaha Illalah (there is no god but Allah). The Fitrah of Islam is the natural disposition man has been given to Muhabbah (love) and worship only Allah, without ascribing any partner to Him, and submitting to Him with complete servitude, humility and reverence.

This is the Tawhid of Khassat’ul Khassas (the most elite or dear from among the chosen ones of Allah). Whoever turns away from it is the fool of all fools. Allah has Himself said:


َمَن يَرْغَبُ عَنن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

"Who turns away from the faith of Ibrahim but such as debase their souls with folly? Him We chose and rendered pure in this world, and he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the righteous. Behold! His Lord said to him: Submit to Me, (and) he said: I submit to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe." (al-Baqarah 2/130-131)

There is No Need for the Arguments of Ahl’ul Kalaam

The one with Hissi Salim (intelligence and sense) is not in need of Jadal (the arguments) of the dialecticians and the theologians or their terms and methods. In fact, they may only lead him to doubts that will further lead him to confusion, bewilderment and misbelief. Truly, Tawhid is beneficial when the heart is free of all of those (diseases), that is, Qalbi Salim (the sound heart), concerning which no one will prosper unless he approaches Allah with such a heart.

The second and third types of Tawhid, which have been called the Tawhid of Khawass’us Khawas (the elect and that of the elect of the elect), culminate in Fana (the passing away of the self) which most Sufis strive for. It is a dangerous alley which leads to (the concept of) Ittihad (union).

Here is the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of the Rasul (sallallahu alayhi wa salam), the traditions of the best people of all ages after the age of the Rasul, and the works of the leading scholars. Is there any mention of Fana in any of them? Has any one of them talked about these levels of Tawhid (Tawhid of Amm, Tawhid of Khawaas and Tawhid of Khawass’ul Khawass)! In fact, this concept developed later, when some people became excessive with respect to some parts of the religion, just as the Khawaarij did earlier in Islam or the Christians did in their religion. Allah has condemned all excesses in religion and has strictly prohibited them. Allah states:


يَاأَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ

"People of the Book! Commit not excesses in your religion; nor say aught of Allah except the truth." (an-Nisa 4/171)

And also:


قُلْ يَاأَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا أَهْوَاءَ قَوْمٍ قَدْ ضَلُّوا مِنْ قَبْلُ وَأَضَلُّوا كَثِيرًا وَضَلُّوا عَنْ سَوَاءِ السَّبِيلِ

"Say: People of the Book! Exceed not in your religion the bounds (of what is proper), trespassing beyond truth, nor follow the vain desires of people who went wrong in times gone by, who mislead many and strayed themselves from the even way." (al-Ma’idah 5/77)

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


لَا تُشَدِّدُوا فَيُشَدِّدَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ، فَإِنَّ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ شَدَّدُوا فَشَدَّدَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ، فَتِلْكَ بَقَايَاهُمْ فِي الصَّوَامِعِ وَالدِّيَارَاتِ، رَهْبَانِيَّةٌ ابْتَدَعُوهَا مَا كَتَبْنَاهَا عَلَيْهِمْ

"Do not commit excess and make things difficult for yourselves, for Allah will then make things difficult for you. From among those who came before you were people who went to excesses and Allah made things difficult for them. It is their remnants that you see in the cloisters and monasteries.

رَهْبَانِيَّةٌ ابْتَدَعُوهَا مَا كَتَبْنَاهَا عَلَيْهِمْ

"They invented monasticism. We did not prescribe it for them." (al-Hadid 57/27)" (Abu Dawud, #4914; Abu Ya’la, Musnad, #3694) Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith.

This is the end of statements of the commentator of Aqidat'it Tahawiyyah.


Footnotes


Quote
1- Allah Ta’ala stated:

أَمَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَأَنزَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاء فَأَنبَتْنَا بِهِ حَدَائِقَ ذَاتَ بَهْجَةٍ مَّا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تُنبِتُوا شَجَرَهَا أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ يَعْدِلُونَ

"Or, Who has created the heavens and the earth, and Who sends you down rain from the sky? Yea, with it We cause to grow well-planted orchards full of beauty of delight: it is not in your power to cause the growth of the trees in them. (Can there be another) god besides Allah? Nay, they are a people who swerve from justice." (an-Naml 27/60);

أَمَّن جَعَلَ الْأَرْضَ قَرَاراً وَجَعَلَ خِلَالَهَا أَنْهَاراً وَجَعَلَ لَهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ حَاجِزاً أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

"Or, Who has made the earth firm to live in; made rivers in its midst; set thereon mountains immovable; and made a separating bar between the two seas? (Can there be another) god besides Allah? Nay, most of them know not." (an-Naml 27/61);

أَمَّن يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاء الْأَرْضِ أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ قَلِيلاً مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ

"Or, Who listens to the distressed when he calls on Him, and Who relieves his suffering, and makes you (mankind) inheritors of the earth? (Can there be another) god besides Allah? Little it is that ye heed!" (an-Naml 27/62);

أَمَّن يَهْدِيكُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَن يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْراً بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى اللَّهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

"Or, Who guides you through the depths of darkness on land and sea, and Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His Mercy? (Can there be another) god besides Allah? High is Allah above what they associate with Him!" (an-Naml 27/63);

أَمَّن يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَمَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَإِلَهٌ مَّعَ اللَّهِ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

"Or, Who originates Creation, then repeats it, and who gives you sustenance from heaven and earth? (Can there be another) god besides Allah? Say: Bring forth your argument, if ye are telling the truth!" (an-Naml 27/64)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING TAWHID
« Reply #3 on: December 06, 2017, 03:25:39 PM »
Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) said the following regarding "The Meaning of La-ilaha Illallah and What it Necessitates"

(From among the Fuqaha of Hanbali Madhhab, Wazir Abu Mudhaffar) Ibnu Hubayra (d. 560H) in his book “al-Ifsaah” stated,

“Witnessing, "Whoever witnesses La-ilaha Illallah (there is no –true- God –deserving to be worshiped- but Allah)" (which is mentioned in the Hadith)28, necessitates one who witnesses it (by uttering) to know (while fully conscious and aware of its meaning, committing accordingly both in Dhahir and Baatin) that there is no –true- God –deserving to be worshiped- but Allah. Allah Ta’ala states:


فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللّٰهُ
“Know, therefore, that there is no –true- God –deserving to be worshiped- but Allah.” (Muhammad 47/19)

It is necessary for the one uttering it, to be witnessing it. Allah Ta’ala explained it and informed that the one witnessing the Haqq; if he does not know what he witnessed then he does not reach the Sidq (truthfulness) which is found in those  whom witness by knowing it. He Ta’ala stated:

إِلَّا مَنْ شَهِدَ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
“Except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly (i.e. believed in the Oneness of Allah, and obeyed His Orders), and they know (the facts about the Oneness of Allah).” (az-Zukhruf 43/86)”

He said, “The name اللَّهُ “Allah” coming after (the particle) إِلَّا “except” (in the statement لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ ) in the Marfu form (nominative case) necessitates that this right of Ilahiyah (worship) is due solely to Allah and no one deserves this other than Allah Subhanahu.”

He said, “This affirmation necessitates knowing that whoever in it has circumstantial evidences of the Huduth (i.e. created later) that it cannot be an Ilah. So when you say La-ilaha Illallah, your saying includes that nothing other than Allah can be Ilah. Therefore, it necessitates for you to isolate Allah Subhanahu, He Alone in this regards.”

He (rahimahullah) also said, “Winding up of the benefits in this: You must know that this Kalimah (statement
لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ La-ilaha Illallah; Nothing has the right to be worshiped except Allah) comprises complete Kufr (disbelief) in the Taaghout that are worshiped other than Allah and complete Imaan in Allah Ta’ala. Therefore, when you Nafy Ilahiyah (negate the right of worship from everyone and everything other than Allah Ta’ala) and affirm compliance to Allah (regarding acceptance of His being the sole Ilah), then you have rightly disbelieved in all Taaghout and believed (solely) in Allah.” Quotation (from Ibnu Hubayra) ends here.29

In his Tafsir (explanation of the statement) Abu Abdullah Qurtubi stated, “
لاَ إِلٰـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ “La-ilaha illa huwa (There is no -true- Ilah –deserving to be worshiped- but Him) meaning, “There is no Ma’bud (who deserves to be worshiped) but Him.”30

Az-Zamakhshari31 said, “The word
إِلَهَ al-Ilah "god" is a generic noun just like the word “man” or “horse (mare; mature female horse or other equine animal)”. It refers to anyone or anything that is Ma’bud (actually worshiped), regardless of it being worshiped in Haqq (truth, deserving) or Baatil (falsely, being unworthy of that). Later on it became triumphantly used for the Ma’bud (i.e. Allah Ta’ala) that is worshiped in Haqq (truth).”32

(From among the Shafii Fuqaha and the Mufassir) al-Baqaai (d. 885H) said:

“La-ilaha Illallah includes a great rejection that nothing should be worshiped in truth other than (Allah Ta’ala); al-Malik’ul Adham (the Magnificent King). Therefore, indeed this knowledge (that La-ilaha Illallah) is the greatest reminder (savior) from the horrors that will occur during Saat (Hour i.e. Resurrection) time. It only becomes Ilm (knowledge) if it benefits. It is only considered beneficial if it is coupled with submissive obedience and acting according to its requirements. Otherwise, it is pure ignorance.”33 Quotation (from al-Baqaai) ends here.


Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) said the following regarding "The Mushrikin Being Aware of Meaning of the Kalimat’ut Tawhid (La-ilaha Illallah)"

All of the Mufassirin explained (the term) “al-Ilah” as “Ma’bud (the one who is worshiped)”. The Mushrikin know this. It is because they were Ahl’ul Lisaan (the People of Language i.e. knew Arabic as experts). When the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) requested from them to say La-ilaha Illallah they said:

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلٰهاً وَاحِداً إِنَّ هَذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ
"Has he made gods (all) into one God? Truly this is a strange thing!" (Sa’d 38/5)

They knew that Allah is al-Khaaliq (the Creator), ar-Raaziq (the Provider), al-Mudabbir (the Disposer) of all the affairs, Rabb (Lord) and Malik (King) of everything as Allah Taala informed regarding them with it in many places in His Kitaab.

Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) said the following regarding "Knowing the Meaning of La-ilaha Illallah is the First Waajib (Obligation) On the Slave"

Allah Subhanahu made it Fardh (obligation) upon His slaves the Marifah of (the statement) La-ilaha Illallah (there is no –true- god –who deserves to be worshiped- but Allah) and knowing that there is no –true- god –who deserves to be worshiped- but Him. Allah Ta’ala said,

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا اللّٰهُ
“Know, therefore, that there is no –true- God –deserving to be worshiped- but Allah.” (Muhammad 47/19)

Imam Bukhari, mentioned the Ayat under the following Baab (chapter) then he said,

[بَابُ الْعِلْمُ قَبْلَ الْقَوْلِ وَالْعَمَلِ] “Chapter: Knowledge precedes statement and action.”34

He pointed out that the Ilm of the meaning of (the statement) La-ilaha Illallah is the first Waajib. After this Qawl (statement) and Amal (deed/action) come.

Allah Ta’ala states,


هَذَا بَلَاغٌ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِيُنْذَرُوا بِهِ وَلِيَعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا هُوَ إِلٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ
“Here is a Message for mankind: that they may take warning there from, and let them know that He is (no other than) One Ilah (god; Allah) let men of understanding take heed.” (Ibrahim 14/52)

Allah Ta’ala did not state (in the Ayah): “Let them say that He is (no other than) One Ilah” (rather He Ta’ala states: “...let them know that He is -no other than- One Ilah”)!..

Allah Ta’ala states,


فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكُمْ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا أُنْزِلَ بِعِلْمِ اللّٰهِ وَأَنْ لَا إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ
"If then they (your false gods) answer not your (call) know ye that this Revelation is sent down (replete) with the knowledge of Allah and that there is no god but He! Will ye even then submit (to Islam)?" (Hud 11/14)

Meaning: Know that there is no –true- god –deserving to be worshiped- but He Ta’ala. Allah Ta’ala states,

وَلَا يَمْلِكُ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ الشَّفَاعَةَ إِلَّا مَن شَهِدَ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
“And those whom they invoke besides Allah have no power of intercession, except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly (i.e. believed in the Oneness of Allah, and obeyed His Orders), and they know (the facts about the Oneness of Allah).” (az-Zukhruf 43/86)

The Mufassirin stated, “Except those who witness that there is no –true- god –who deserves to be worshiped- but Allah and (that is to say) they should know in their hearts what they attested to with their tongues…”35

Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


مَنْ مَاتَ وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ أنْ لَا إِلٰهَ إلَّا اللهُ، دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ
“He who died knowing (fully well) that there is no –true- god –who deserves to be worshiped- but Allah entered Paradise.”36

The Ulamaa made Istidlaal (inference) with these and similar Ayaat (to prove) that the first Waajib upon the human being is Marifatullah (knowing Allah). These Ayaat indicate that the firmest of Faraidh (pl. Fardh; obligations) is the Ilm of the meaning of La-ilaha Illallah and the greatest of the Jahl is deficiency regarding its meaning. Since Marifah of its meaning is the firmest of the Waajibaat (pl. Waajib; obligations) then the Jahl regarding it is the greatest of the Jahl and the ugliest of it (i.e. the Jahl).

Shaykh Aba Butayn (rahimahullah) said the following regarding "The Affirmation of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah is not Sufficient to be Muslim"

As for the affirmation of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah (the oneness of His Lordship), it is (affirmation) that Allah Subhanahu is Khaliq (Creator), Malik and Mudabbir of everything. Both the Muslim and the Kaafir unavoidably affirm it. However, it can not be imagined that (merely with the affirmation of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah) a person is Muslim until, he fulfills Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah (Lordship); that which the Rusul (messengers) called to, the Mushrikin had turned away from affirming, and that with which the Muslim is differentiated from the Shirk (and Ahl’ush Shirk), the Ahl’ul Jannah (the People of Paradise) is differentiated from the Ahl’un Naar (the People of Hell-fire).

Allah Subhanahu informed in many places in His Kitaab that the Mushrikin were indeed affirming Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah. Allah Subhanahu had taken their affirmation of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah upon their committing Shirk in Tawhid al-Ilahiyyah (i.e. concerning allocating Uluhiyyah sincerely to Allah Alone) as Hujjah (proof) against them. Allah Subhanahu states:


قُلْ مَن يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالأَرْضِ أَمَّن يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ والأَبْصَارَ وَمَن يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيَّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَن يُدَبِّرُ الأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ فَذَلِكُمُ اللّهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقُّ
"Say: Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? and who is it that rules and regulates all affairs? They will soon say: Allah!.. Say: will ye not then show piety (to Him)? Such is Allah, your True Lord!.." (Yunus 10/31-32)

al-Bakriyy’ush Shafii39 in his Tafsir said upon this Ayah:

If you say, “While they were affirming this then how could they worship the idols?” I say, “All of the Mushrikin have I’tiqaad that their worship to the idols is worship to Allah and coming closer to Him Ta’ala. However, they had various paths (to follow) in this regards:

A Firqah (sect) among them said, “We are not eligible to worship Allah without having Wasait (pl. Wasitah; intermediaries) due to the Adhamah (magnificence) of Allah, so we worship them in order that they may bring us nearer to Allah.”

A Firqah (sect) among them said, “The Malaikah (pl. Malak; angels) are privileged in the presence of Allah. So we obtain idols that are in the shape of Malaikah (and we worship them) in order to that they may bring us nearer to Allah.”

A Firqah (sect) among them said, “We made the Asnaam (idols) a Qiblah for us in Ibadaah Just as the Qa’bah is a Qiblah (direction of worship) in Ibadaah (worship).”

A Firqah (sect) among them had I’tiqaad that, “Every idol has a Shaytaan (devil) that mandates it with the order of Allah. Therefore, whoever worships the idol fulfilling its rights in Ibadaah; Shaytan will decree what he wishes from it, with the order of Allah. Otherwise Shaytaan of the idol infects a disaster with the order of Allah.”

Ibnu Kathir said regarding statement of Allah Ta’ala:


وَالَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ مَا نَعْبُدُهُمْ إِلَّا لِيُقَرِّبُونَا إِلَى اللّٰهِ زُلْفَى
"But those who take for protectors other than Allah (say): We only serve them in order that they may bring us nearer to Allah." (az-Zumar 39/3)

“What motivates them to worship them (i.e. the idols) is the fact that they made their idols in the image of the Muqarrab Malaikah (Angels that are exalted and close to Allah) -or so they claim- and when they worship those images it is like worshiping the angels, so that they will perform Shafa’ah (intercede) with Allah for them to help and give them provision and other worldly needs.

Zayd bin Aslam and Ibnu Zayd narrated that Qatadah, as-Suddi and Malik said: The Ayah: “...in order that they may bring us nearer to Allah!..” (az-Zumar 39/3) means: "So that they may perform Shafa’ah (intercede) for us and bring us closer to Him.”40 (Quotation from Ibnu Kathir ends here.)

Allah Ta’ala states:


وَلَئِنْ سَاَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوَاتِ وَالْاَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ الْعَزِيزُ الْعَلِيمُ
”If thou wert to question them: Who created the heavens and the earth? They would be sure to reply: They were created by (Him), al-Aziz (the Exalted in Power), al-Alim (Full of Knowledge).” (az-Zukhruf 43/9);

وَلَئِنْ سَاَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللّٰهُ فَاَنّٰى يُؤْفَكُونَ
“If thou ask them, who created them, they will certainly say: Allah!.. How then are they deluded away (from the Truth)?” (az-Zukhruf 43/87);

وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ اَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ اِلَّا وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ
“And most of them believe not in Allah without associating (other as partners) with Him!” (Yusuf 12/106)

Ibnu Abbaas (radiyallahu anhum) and others stated, “If you ask them: Who created the Samawaat (skies) and the earth? They will say: Allah!.. Whereas, they worship others along with Him Ta’ala.”41

“The Imaan” in this Ayah is explained as “their affirmation of Tawhid ar-Rububiyyah”, and “the Shirk” (in this Ayah is explained) as “their Ibadaah to other than Allah” and that is (transgression of) Tawhid al-Uluhiyyah.



Quote
Footnotes:

28- The Hadith that Ibnu Hubayra (rahimahullah) referred is narrated by Ubadah Ibn'us Saamit (radiyallah) and its text is as follows,

مَنْ شَهِدَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، وَأَنَّ عِيسَى عَبْدُ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولُهُ وَكَلِمَتُهُ، أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ، وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ، وَالْجَنَّةُ حَقٌّ وَالنَّارُ حَقٌّ، أَدْخَلَهُ اللَّهُ الْجَنَّةَ عَلَى مَا كَانَ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ
“Whoever testifies that La-ilaha Illallah; there is no –true- God –deserving to be worshiped- but Allah Alone who has no partner, and that verily Muhammad is His servant and Rasul (Messenger) and that verily Isa (alayhi salam) is Allah's servant and His Rasul as well as His Kalimah (word) that He Ta’ala directed to Maryam (alayhi salam) as well as it is His Ruh (spirit). Jannah (The Garden i..e Paradise) is a reality; Naar (the Fire i.e. Hell-fire) is a reality, Allah Ta’ala would admit this person into the Jannah no matter what his deeds may be.” (Bukhari, Hadith no: 3435; Muslim, Hadith no: 28)

29- Abd’ur Rahman bin Hasan, Fath’ul Majid, 122-123.

30- Qurtubi Tafsir, 1/109.

31- Az-Zamakhshari is one of the leaders of Ahl’ul Bid’ah namely the Mu’tazilah sect. He is a Lughah scholar. Due to his being expert in the field of Lughah, Ulamaa among Ahl’us Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah benefits from his books. He died in 538H. For his detailed biography refer back to: adh-Dhahabi, Lisaan’ul Mizaan, 6/4.

32- az-Zamakhshari, al-Kashshaf, 1/36.

33- Abd’ur Rahman bin Hasan, Fath’ul Majid, 134.

34- Bukhari, Sahih, Kitaab’ul Ilm.

35- Refer back to Ibnu Kathir, Tafsir, 7/229; Qurtubi, Tafsir, 16/122.

36- Muslim, Sahih, Hadith no: 26; Ahmad, Musnad, 1/509, Hadith no: 464 and a group of Muhaddith among them are; Nasai, Ibnu Abi Shaybah, Hakim, Ibnu Hibbaan, Bayhaqi narrated from Uthman bin Affan (radiyallahu anh).

39- The Muhaqqiq (verifier) of the book had placed the following information as a footnote with regards to whom the person referred as “al-Bakriyy’ush Shafii” is:

I could not find anyone other than two Mufassir called “Bakri” in the book “Tabaqaat’ul Mufassirin” among the Shafiites.

The former has become famous and known as “Fakhr’ud Din ar-Razi” and his name is Muhammad bin Umar bin Hasan. He was among the leaders of one of the sects who oppose the way of the Salaf, namely the Asharite sect, and he was one of the greatest of the Kalaam scholars. He died in 606H. (Dawudi, Tabaqaat’ul Mufassirin, 1/440)

The latter is Ali bin Ya’qub bin Jibril. He opposed and oppressed Shaykh’ul Islam Ibnu Taymiyyah when Shaykh’ul Islam (rahimahullah) went to Egypt. He died in 724H. (Dawudi, Tabaqaat’ul Mufassirin, 2/215)

Even though his style resembles that of Fakhr’ud Din ar-Razi, the quote in subject is not found in his Tafsir. Allahu A’lam!..

40- Ibnu Kathir, Tafsir, 7/75.

41- Tabari, Tafsir, 16/286-289.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: STATEMENTS OF THE SCHOLARS REGARDING TAWHID
« Reply #4 on: July 25, 2018, 03:19:13 PM »
Shaykh’ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated the following in Dar’u Ta’ârudh’il Aqli wa’n Naql regarding Tawhîd:

“The Tawhîd the Messengers conveyed and informed comprises Allâh Ta’âlâ being the only in regards to Ilahiyyah (divinity). This will ensue by attesting to the Oneness of Allâh and that there is none deserving to be worshipped but Allâh and by servitude, and Tawakkul (reliance) solely to Allâh, friendship and enmity for sake of He Ta’âlâ and by doing all solely for He Ta’âlâ.

Thus, this simultaneously includes Ithbât (affirmation) and acceptance of the Asmâ (names) and Sifât (pl. Sifat; attributes) Allâh Ta’âlâ informed regarding His Dhât (essence).

Allâh Ta’âlâ states:


وَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لا إِلَهَ إِلا هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ
“And your god is One Ilah (i.e. Allâh). There is no –true- god –deserving to be worshipped- but He, ar-Rahmân (Most Gracious), ar-Rahîm (Most Merciful).” (al-Baqarah 2/163);

وَقَالَ اللَّهُ لا تَتَّخِذُوا إِلَهَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ
“Allâh has said: Take not (for worship) two gods: for He is just One Ilah: then fear Me (and Me alone).” (an-Nahl 16/51);

وَمَنْ يَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَهاً آخَرَ لا بُرْهَانَ لَهُ بِهِ فَإِنَّمَا حِسَابُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ إِنَّهُ لا يُفْلِحُ الْكَافِرُونَ
“If anyone invokes, besides Allâh, any other god, he has no authority therefor; and his reckoning will be only with his Lord! And verily the Unbelievers shall not prosper!” (al-Mu’minűn 23/117);

وَاسْأَلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنَا أَجَعَلْنَا مِنْ دُونِ الرَّحْمَنِ آلِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ
“And question thou our messengers whom We sent before thee; did We appoint any deities other than ar-Rahmân (the Most Gracious), to be worshipped?” (az-Zukhruf 43/45)

Allâh Ta’âlâ informs all the Anbiyâ (pl. Nabî; Prophets) called people to the servitude to Allâh alone Who has no partner.

Allâh Ta’âlâ states:


قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَداً حَتَّى تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ
“There is for you an excellent example (to follow) in Ibrâhîm and those with him, when they said to their people: We are clear of you and of whatever ye worship besides Allâh: we have rejected you, and there has arisen, between us and you, enmity and hatred for ever, unless ye believe in Allâh and Him alone.” (al-Mumtahinah 60/4)

Allâh Ta’âlâ stated the following when He Ta’âlâ informs about the Mushrikîn:

إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا إِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا اللَّهُ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ وَيَقُولُونَ أَئِنَّا لَتَارِكُو آلِهَتِنَا لِشَاعِرٍ مَجْنُونٍ
“For they, when they were told that there is no god except Allâh, would puff themselves up with pride. And say: What! Shall we give up our gods for the sake of a Poet possessed?” (as-Sâffât 37/35-36)

There are many similar Ayât (pl. Ayah; Qur’ânic verses) in the Qur’ân.

The purpose of Tawhîd is not only the abstract belief that Allâh Ta’âlâ created the universe of existence and the unification of Allâh simply in His Rububiyyah (Lordship) as the people of Kalâm (theological rhetoric) and the Sufis deem. Those who believe as such, deem they accepted the final peak of Tawhîd, only when they accept it relying upon proof. They deem to have reached the peak of Tawhîd when they only witness this point of the matter and delve into its depths.

With mere affirmation of the Sifât that befit Allâh, practicing Tanzîh (elevating Allâh and exalting Him above defects and deficiencies) of Allâh and accepting that Allâh created everything alone an individual does not become a Muwahhîd.

For him to be accounted as Muwahhîd, he needs to attest; there is no -true- Ilâh deserving to be worshipped but Allâh and that Allâh is alone in this along with accepting Allâh to be the only Ilâh deserving to be worshipped and fulfilling the duty of servitude to Allâh without associating partners with Him.

The meaning of “Ilâh” is “Ma’luh” and “Ma’bud”. It means the one who deserves servitude/to be worshipped. Whereas “Ilâh” does not mean, “The one who has power to create and invent (originate)”. If the term Ilâh is taken in the concept of, “The one who has power to create and invent (originate)” –just like the Sifâtiyya theologians did and as narrated by Abu Hasan al-Ash’ârî and those who follow him and believed that this was the most specific meaning of the description of Ilâh and its Ithbât and acceptance is taken in consideration as the final peak of Tawhîd, then he would not know; the reality of the reason the Messengers were sent and neither the reality of Tawhîd.

As known the Mushrikîn of the Arabs were Mushrik even though they recognized (and accept) Allâh is the One Who created everything.

Allâh Ta’âlâ stated:


وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللَّهِ إِلا وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ
“And most of them believe not in Allâh without associating (other as partners) with Him!” (Yűsuf 12/106)

In this regards some among the Salaf said, “If you were to question them: Who created the heavens and the earth? They would be sure to reply: They were created by Allâh.”1 However they’ll still worship other than Allâh Ta’âlâ.”

Allâh Ta’âlâ stated:


قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلا تَذَكَّرُونَ قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلا تَتَّقُونَ قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلا يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ
“Say: To whom belong the earth and all beings therein? (Say) if ye know! They will say: To Allâh. Say: Yet will ye not receive admonition? Say: Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Mighty Throne? They will say: (They belong) to Allâh. Say: Will ye not then fear? Say: Who is it in whose hands is the sovereignty of all things,- who protects (all), but is not protected (of any)? (Say) if ye know. They will say: (It belongs) to Allâh. Say: Then how are ye deluded?” (al-Mu’minűn 23/84-89)

So consequently it does not mean that everyone who affirms Allâh is the creator of everything and that Allâh is the Rabb of everything abandons everything other than Allâh and performs servitude to Allâh, directs Du’a to Allâh, fears Allâh, hopes from Allâh, builds friendship and enmity for the sake of Allâh, obeys He Ta’âlâ’s Messengers, commands with what Allâh Ta’âlâ commands and he prohibits people from the prohibitions of Allâh Ta’âlâ.

Even though the Mushrikîn were affirming that the creator of everything is Allâh Ta’âlâ, they associated partners to Allâh by accepting those who they associated as partners to be intercessors for them.

Allâh Ta’âlâ stated:


أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُفَعَاءَ قُلْ أَوَلَوْ كَانُوا لا يَمْلِكُونَ شَيْئاً وَلا يَعْقِلُون قُلْ لِلَّهِ الشَّفَاعَةُ جَمِيعاً لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ
“What! Do they take for intercessors others besides Allâh? Say: Even if they have no power whatever and no intelligence? Say: To Allâh belongs exclusively (the right to grant) intercession: to Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth...” (az-Zumar 39/43-44);

وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَؤُلاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ قُلْ أَتُنَبِّئُونَ اللَّهَ بِمَا لا يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلا فِي الأَرْضِ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ
“They serve, besides Allâh, things that can hurt them not nor profit them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allâh. Say: Do ye indeed inform Allâh of something He knows not, in the heavens or on earth?- Glory to Him! and far is He above the partners they ascribe (to Him)!” (Yűnus 10/18);

وَلَقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا فُرَادَى كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَتَرَكْتُمْ مَا خَوَّلْنَاكُمْ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِكُمْ وَمَا نَرَى مَعَكُمْ شُفَعَاءَكُمُ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُمْ فِيكُمْ شُرَكَاءُ لَقَدْ تَقَطَّعَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَضَلَّ عَنْكُمْ مَا كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ
“And behold! Ye come to us bare and alone as We created you for the first time: Ye have left behind you all (the favors) which We bestowed on you: We see not with you your intercessors whom ye thought to be partners in your affairs: so now all relations between you have been cut off, and your (pet) fancies have left you in the lurch!” (al-An’âm 6/94);

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَنْدَاداً يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ
“Yet there are men who take (for worship) others besides Allâh, as equal (with Allâh): They love them as they should love Allâh.” (al-Baqarah 2/165)

For this reason, those who follow them do as the Mushrikîn do; some of them perform Sajdah (prostration) and direct Du’â to the sun and some to the moon and others to the stars. They fast for their (i.e. sun, stars etc.) sake and they worship them.

These people deem that only when they believe those they associate as partners to govern and administer their affairs is when they fall into Shirk and when they are taken as Sabab (cause) and Wâsita (means) it is not Shirk. Whereas it is a matter known by necessity in the Dîn of Islâm that these acts are Shirk.”

Citation from Shaykh’ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah ends here.2



Footnotes:
Quote
1- Allâh Ta’âlâ stated:

وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ الْعَزِيزُ الْعَلِيمُ
“If thou wert to question them, Who created the heavens and the earth? They would be sure to reply, They were created by (Allâh), al-Azîz (the Exalted in Power), al-Alîm (Full of Knowledge).” (az-Zukhruf 43/9)

2- Ibnu Taymiyyah, Dar’u Ta’ârudh’il Aqli wa’n Naql, 1/224-228.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)