التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: THE PURPOSE & SPIRIT OF I’TIKAF (SECLUSION)  (Read 933 times)

Ummah

  • Global Moderator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 510
  • O people! Respond (with obedience) to Allah's Call
THE PURPOSE & SPIRIT OF I’TIKAF (SECLUSION)
« on: 24.06.2016, 09:25:54 PM »
بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
The Purpose and Spirit of I’tikaf (Seclusion)
Ibn’ul Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/82-84

Ibn'ul Qayyim (rahimahullah) said the following in the beginning of the chapter regarding the Guidance of Rasulullah regarding I’tikaf:

فَصْل فِي هَدْيِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي الِاعْتِكَافِ
Chapter Regarding the Guidance of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) Regarding I’tikaf

"Since Salah’ul Qalb (righteousness of the heart) and its Istiqaamah (going straight upon) the path which leads to Allah Ta’ala is dependent upon its being totally dedicated to Allah and completely focused on approaching Allah Ta’ala -for the muddled affairs of the heart cannot be set in order except by approaching Allah Ta’ala- and since excessive eating and drinking, socializing with people, sleeping and talking are things which increase the confusion in his heart and distract him in every way and prevent him from proceeding on the path to Allah Ta’ala, and weaken him or hinder him and stop him, Rahmah (the Mercy) of (Allah;) Aziz (the Almighty) and Rahim (the Most Merciful) necessitated that He legislate for His worshipers fasting which will remove Shahawaat (the desires) for of food and drink and empty the heart of the distraction of desires, which are obstacles to its reaching Allah Ta’ala. And so He has legislated in accordance with Maslahah (benefit), so that Abd (the worshiper) might benefit thereby in Dunya (worldly life) and in Akhirah (the Hereafter) and not be harmed by it (now or later).

And He (i.e., Allah) legislated I'tikaf for them, the purpose and spirit of which is to cause the heart to be devoted to Allah Ta’ala and Khalwah (occupy) with (worshiping) Him Wahdahu Subhanahu while cutting off from material affairs, so that his intimacy is with Allah and not with people. With it the worries and delusions of the heart replaced with the Dhikr (remembrance), love of Allah and heading to Allah. It will invade the heart so that worries will only be for Dhikr of Allah, thoughts will be only for attaining the consent of Allah and for things which will leads to get closer to Allah. Friendship with Allah takes over the friendship with the people. This will prepare him for his intimacy with Him on the day of loneliness that no friend other than Allah makes one happy, when he is in his grave. This is the greatest purpose of I’tikaf.

And since this goal is only achieved when it is accompanied by fasting, I'tikaf  was legislated during the best days of fasting; and they are the last ten days of Ramadan; and it was not narrated that Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed I’tikaf except while fasting. Rather Aishah (radiyallahu anha) said:


لَا اعْتِكَافَ إِلَّا بِصَوْمٍ
"No I’tikaf (is accepted) without fasting."
(Abi Dawud, Hadith no: 2473; Bayhaqi, 4/317; Hakim, 1/440; Daraqutni, 2/200; Daylami, Hadith no: 7981; Tahawi, Mushkil'uth Athar, 4/20; Ibnu Hajar, Bulugh’ul Maram, Hadith no: 702)1

Allah Subhanahu has not mentioned I'tikaf except with fasting and Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not perform it except while fasting.

The Rajih (preferred) Dalil (evidence) that the Jumhur (majority) of the Salaf (predecessors) is: Fasting is a condition for I’tikaf. This is also the Rajih view of Shaykh’ul Islam Abu’l Abbas Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah).

As for Kalaam (speech); He has legislated for the Ummah (the Muslim nation) that they check their Lisaan (tongues) from all speech which does not benefit them in the Akhirah.

As for excess of sleep, He has legislated Qiyam’ul Layl (the Night Prayer) for them, which is the best form of wakefulness, with the most benign result. And it is the middle form (i.e., neither too much nor too little) of wakefulness, which benefits both the heart and the body and does not prevent the worshipers from attaining his needs (i.e., working during the day). Riyaadhaah (Spiritual Retreat) of Arbabu Riyaadhaatu wa’s Suluk (Masters of Spiritual Retreat and Journey) is upon these four Arkaan (pl., Rukn; pillars i.e., eating less, less intimacy with the people, speaking less and sleeping less). And the happiest of people are those who perform them in the manner prescribed by Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and do not deviate in the way, nor fall short in the way that those who go extremes."


Quote from: Footnotes
1- It was also narrated from Aishah (radiyallahu anha) the wife of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) that she said:

أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَعْتَكِفُ الْعَشْرَ الأَوَاخِرَ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ حَتَّى تَوَفَّاهُ اللَّهُ، ثُمَّ اعْتَكَفَ أَزْوَاجُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ
"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to practice I`tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan till Allah took him (i.e., died) and then his wives used to practice I`tikaf after him."
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 2026; Muslim, Hadith no: 1172; Abi Dawud, Hadith no: 2462; Abd’ur Razzak, Hadith no: 8038)

The following was narrated from Abdullah Ibnu Umar (radiyallahu anhuma):

حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى، عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ الْقَاسِمَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَنَافِعًا، مَوْلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that al-Qasim Ibnu Muhammad and Nafi, the Mawla (freed slave) of Abdullah Ibnu Umar (radiyallahu anhuma) said:

قَالاَ لاَ اعْتِكَافَ إِلاَّ بِصِيَامٍ بِقَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى فِي كِتَابِهِ
"You cannot do I’tikaf unless you are fasting, because of what Allah, Tabaraka wa Ta’ala, says in His Book:

وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ وَلاَ تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنْتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ‏
"And eat and drink until the white thread becomes clear to you from the black thread of dawn, then complete the fast until night-time, and do not have intercourse with them while you are doing itikaf in mosques." (al-Baqarah 2/187)

فَإِنَّمَا ذَكَرَ اللَّهُ الاِعْتِكَافَ مَعَ الصِّيَامِ
Allah only mentions I’tikaf together with fasting."

قَالَ مَالِكٌ وَعَلَى ذَلِكَ الأَمْرُ عِنْدَنَا أَنَّهُ لاَ اعْتِكَافَ إِلاَّ بِصِيَامٍ
(Imam) Malik said: "That is (the ruling) in our presence. No I’tikaf (is accepted) without fasting."
(Malik, Muwatta, Hadith no: 696)
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Izhâr'ud Dîn

  • Global Moderator
  • Sr. Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 254
  • فَفِرُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ
Re: THE PURPOSE & SPIRIT OF I’TIKAF (SECLUSION)
« Reply #1 on: 26.05.2019, 12:31:51 AM »

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was regular in I'tikaaf during the last ten days of Ramadhaan until he died. Once he missed it in Ramadhaan but made the days up during the month of Shawwal.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) once did I'tikaaf in the first ten days of Ramadhaan, then the middle ten days, then the last ten days, seeking Laylat’ul Qadr (the Night of Decree). Then it became clear to him that it is in the last ten days, so he continued to do it then, until he died.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) always combined I'tikaaf with fasting.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to order a tent to be set up for him in the mosque in which to seclude himself.

When intending I'`tikaaf, he began it after performing the Fajr prayer.

His mattress would be placed for him inside his tent, which he entered alone.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would only enter his house for answering the call of nature.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to put his head into Aisha (radiyallahu anha)’s room to comb his hair, even when she had her menses.2

Some of his wives used to visit him during his I'tikaaf, and when she (i.e., Safiyyah bint Huyay) got up to leave he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would get up and escort her. These visits were at night.3

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) did not have sexual relations with any of his wives during I'tikaaf, not even kissing.

He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to perform I'tikaaf ten days every year, in the year before he died he did it for twenty days.

And when leaving to fulfill some need, he might pass by a sick person on his way and he would not visit him.4
 

Footnotes:


Quote
1- Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/82

2- Bukhari; Muslim; Malik, Muwatta

3- Bukhari; Muslim

4- Abu Dawud
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmű'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)

Izhâr'ud Dîn

  • Global Moderator
  • Sr. Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 254
  • فَفِرُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ
Re: THE PURPOSE & SPIRIT OF I’TIKAF (SECLUSION)
« Reply #2 on: 26.05.2019, 12:34:24 AM »


باب الاعتكاف
Bab’ul I’tikaaf (Chapter of I’tikaaf i.e., Seclusion in the Masjid)

Quote from: Hadith no: 1
عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يعتكف في العشر الأواخر من رمضان حتى توفاه الله تعالى ثم اعتكف أزواجه من بعده وفي لفظ كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يعتكف في كل رمضان فإذا صلى الغداة جاء مكانه الذي اعتكف فيه

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها
It was narrated from Aisha (radiyallahu anha) that (she said:)

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يعتكف في العشر الأواخر من رمضان حتى توفاه الله تعالى ثم اعتكف أزواجه من بعده
“Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to practice I’tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan till he died and then his wives used to practice I’tikaf after him.”
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 2026; Muslim, Hadith no: 1172; Abu Dawud, Hadith no: 2462)


وفي لفظ
In another version (she said):

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يعتكف في كل رمضان فإذا صلى الغداة جاء مكانه الذي اعتكف فيه
“Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to practice I’tikaf every year in the month of Ramadan. And after offering the morning prayer, he used to enter the place of his I’tikaf.”
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 2041; Muslim, Hadith no: 1173)

Quote from: Hadith no: 2
عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أنها كانت ترجل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهي حائض وهو معتكف في المسجد وهي في حجرتها يناولها رأسها وفي رواية وكان لا يدخل البيت إلا لحاجة الإنسان وفي رواية أن عائشة قالت إني كنت لأدخل البيت للحاجة والمريض فيه فما أسأل عنه إلا وأنا مارة

عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أنها
It was narrated from Aisha (radiyallahu anha) that (she said):

كانت ترجل النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وهي حائض وهو معتكف في المسجد وهي في حجرتها يناولها رأسها
“During her menses, (Aisha) used to comb and oil the hair of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) while he used to be in I’tikaf in the mosque. He would stretch out his head towards her while she was in her chamber.”
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 2046; Muslim, Hadith no: 297)


وفي رواية
In another narration (she said):

وكان لا يدخل البيت إلا لحاجة الإنسان
“The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) use to enter the house for natural calls (for relieving himself).”
(Muslim, Hadith no: 297; Abu Dawud, Hadith no: 2467; Tirmidhi, Hadith no: 804; Malik, Muwatta, Hadith no: 693)


وفي رواية أن عائشة قالت
In another narration, Aisha (radiyallahu anha) said:

إني كنت لأدخل البيت للحاجة والمريض فيه فما أسأل عنه إلا وأنا مارة
“When I was in I’tikaf, I would enter the house for the call of nature and inquire about the sick (in the family) passing by.”
(Muslim, Hadith no: 297; Ibnu Majah, Hadith no: 1848)

Quote from: Hadith no: 3
عن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قال قلت يا رسول الله إني كنت نذرت في الجاهلية أن أعتكف ليلة وفي رواية يوماً في المسجد الحرام قال فأوف بنذرك ولم يذكر بعض الرواة يوماً ولا ليلة

عن عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه قال
It was narrated from Umar ibn’ul Khattab (radiyallahu anh) that he said:

قلت يا رسول الله إني كنت نذرت في الجاهلية أن أعتكف ليلة
"O Allah's Messenger! I vowed to observe I’tikaf for one day during Jaahiliyyah (the Pre-Islamic) period."
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 3144; Muslim, Hadith no: 27-1956)


وفي رواية
In another narration it was said:

يوماً في المسجد الحرام قال
“(I vowed to observe I’tikaf) for one day in Masjid’ul Haraam (the Sacred Mosque in Makkah) so the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

فأوف بنذرك
“Fulfil your Nahdr (vow).”
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 2032; Muslim, Hadith no: 27-1952; Abu Dawud, Hadith no: 2474, 3325; Tirmidhi, Hadith no: 1539)


بعض الرواة يوماً ولا ليلة ولم يذكر
Some of the narrators did not mention “one day” or “one night”.

Quote from: Hadith no: 4
عن صفية بنت حيي رضي الله عنها قالت كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم معتكفاً في المسجد فأتيته أزوره ليلاً فحدثته ثم قمت لأنقلب فقام معي ليقلبني وكان مسكنها في دار أسامة بن زيد فمر رجلان من الأنصار فلما رأيا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أسرعا في المشي فقال على رسلكما إنها صفية بنت حيي فقالا سبحان الله يا رسول الله فقال إن الشيطان يجري من ابن آدم مجرى الدم وإني خفت أن يقذف في قلوبكما شراً أو قال شيئاً وفي رواية أنها جاءت تزوره في اعتكافه في المسجد في العشر الأواخر من رمضان فتحدثت عنده ساعة ثم قامت تنقلب فقام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم معها يقلبها حتى إذا بلغ باب المسجد عند باب أم سلمة ثم ذكره بمعناه

عن صفية بنت حيي رضي الله عنها قالت
It was narrated from (the wife of the Messenger of Allah) Safiyyah bint Huyayy (radiyallahu anha) that she said:

كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم معتكفاً في المسجد فأتيته أزوره ليلاً فحدثته ثم قمت لأنقلب فقام معي ليقلبني وكان مسكنها في دار أسامة بن زيد فمر رجلان من الأنصار فلما رأيا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أسرعا في المشي فقال
While Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had been observing I'tikaf, I came to visit him one night and talked with him for some time. Then I stood up to go back and he (the Prophet) also stood up with me in order to bid me good-bye. She was at that time residing in the house of Usama ibn Zayd (radiyallahu anh). The two persons from the Ansar happened to pass by him. When they saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), they began to walk swiftly, thereupon the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said to them:

على رسلكما إنها صفية بنت حيي فقالا
“Walk calmy (don’t hurry), she is Safiyya daughter of Huyyay (i.e., my wife).” Both of them said:

سبحان الله يا رسول الله فقال
“Subhanallah (glorified be Allah)! O Messenger of Allah! (How dare we suspect you?)” Whereupon the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:

إن الشيطان يجري من ابن آدم مجرى الدم وإني خفت أن يقذف في قلوبكما شراً أو قال شيئاً
“Shaytan circulates in the body of Ibn Adam (mankind) like the circulation of blood and I was afraid lest it should instill any evil in your heart or anything.”
(Bukhari, Hadith no: 2039, 3281; Muslim, Hadith no: 2175; Abu Dawud, Hadith no: 2470, 4994; Ibnu Majah, Hadith no: 1851)


وفي رواية
In another narration (it was narrated that):

أنها جاءت تزوره في اعتكافه في المسجد في العشر الأواخر من رمضان فتحدثت عنده ساعة ثم قامت تنقلب فقام النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم معها يقلبها حتى إذا بلغ باب المسجد عند باب أم سلمة ثم ذكره بمعناه
“(The wife of the Prophet, Safiyya bint Huyyay informed that) she (radiyallahu anha) went to visit the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), in the Masjid while he was in I'tikaf in the last ten days of Ramadan. She had a talk with him for a while, then she got up in order to return home. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) accompanied her, when they reached the gate of the Masjid, opposite the door of Umm Salama (radiyallahu anha) ... then reported to the meaning (of the first Hadith).” (Muslim, Hadith no: 2175)
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmű'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)

 

Related Topics

  Subject / Started by Replies Last post
1 Replies
837 Views
Last post 01.08.2019, 03:51:51 AM
by Izhâr'ud Dîn