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MUHARRAM, ITS VIRTUES AND THE DAY OF ASHURA
« on: September 30, 2017, 05:13:20 AM »
Shahrullah (The Month of Allah) Muharram, Some of its Virtues and the Day of Ashura

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim,

Muharram is known as
شَهْرُ اللَّهِ Shahrullah (the month of Allah) which is a blessed month and one of the four sacred months. It is accepted as the first month of the Hijri year since the era of Umar Ibn’ul Khattab (radiyallahu anh). It was prescribed as one of the four sacred months in which it is prohibited to fight and shed blood.

Allah Ta’ala states,


إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِندَ اللَّهِ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْراً فِي كِتَـبِ اللَّهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَت وَالاٌّرْضَ مِنْهَآ أَرْبَعَةٌ حُرُمٌ ذلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَقَاتِلُواْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ كَآفَّةً كَمَا يُقَـتِلُونَكُمْ كَآفَّةً وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
“Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein, and fight against the Mushrikin idolaters collectively as they fight against you collectively. But know that Allah is with those who have Taqwa.” (at-Tawbah 9/36)

Ibnu Kathir (rahimahullah) stated the following in the explanation of the above-mentioned Ayah:

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ismail Abu Bakrah said that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said in a speech during his Hajj,


أَلَا إِنَّ الزَّمَانَ قَدِ اسْتَدَارَ كَهَيْئَتِهِ يَوْمَ خَلَقَ اللهُ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، السَّنَةُ اثْنَا عَشَرَ شَهْرًا مِنْهَا أَرْبَعُةٌ حُرُمٌ، ثَلَاثَةٌ مُتَوَالِيَاتٌ: ذُو الْقَعْدَةِ وَذُو الْحِجَّةِ وَالْمُحَرَّمُ وَرَجَبُ مُضَرَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ جُمَادَى وَشَعْبَان

“The division of time has turned to its original form which was current when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year is of twelve months, out of which four months are sacred: Three are in succession Dhu’l Qa’dah, Dhu’l Hijjah and Muharram, and (the fourth is) Rajab of (the tribe of) Mudar which comes between Jumada (ath-Thaniyah) and Sha’baan.”

The following mentioned in the Hashiya of Ibnu Kathir (rahimahullah),


ذَكَرَ الشَّيْخُ عَلَمُ الدِّينِ السَّخَاوِيُّ فِي جُزْءٍ جَمَعَهُ سَمَّاهُ «الْمَشْهُورُ فِي أَسْمَاءِ الْأَيَّامِ وَالشُّهُورِ » أَنَّ الْمُحَرَّمَ سُمِّيَ بِذَلِكَ لِكَوْنِهِ شَهْرًا مُحَرَّمًا، وَعِنْدِي أَنَّهُ سُمِّيَ بِذَلِكَ تَأْكِيدًا لِتَحْرِيمِهِ ؛ لِأَنَّ الْعَرَبَ كَانَتْ تَتَقَلَّبُ بِهِ فَتُحِلُّهُ عَامًا وَتُحَرِّمُهُ عَامًا . قَالَ : وَيُجْمَعُ عَلَى مُحَرَّمَاتٍ وَمَحَارِمَ ومحاريم

Shaykh Alam’ud Din as-Sakhaawi (rahimahullah) stated in a booklet he compiled, entitled “al-Mashhűr fi Asmâ’il Ayyâm wa’sh Shuhűr”, that is Muharram called as such because it is a sacred month. I believe it was called as this to affirm its sanctity, because the Arabs used to change it, making it not sacred one year and making it sacred another year. He said: The plural form of Muharram is Muharramât or Mahârim or Mahârîm.

Allah Ta’ala states,


فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
“so wrong not yourselves therein!”

during these Sacred Months, for sin in them is worse than sin in other months. Likewise, sins in the Sacred City are written multiplied,

وَمَن يُرِدْ فِيهِ بِإِلْحَادٍ بِظُلْمٍ نُّذِقْهُ مِنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
“...and whoever inclines to evil actions therein (in Makkah) or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment.” (al-Hajj 22/25)

Similarly, sin in general is worse during the Sacred Months. For this reason according to Imam Shafii and many among the scholars the Diyah (blood money) is be intensified (increased) in Sacred Month. Likewise the ruling for one who kills other in Haram (sacred land) and one who kills a person in Ihram (performing Hajj, Umrah).

Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated,


وعن ابن عباس في قوله تعالى: (فلا تظلموا فيهن أنفسكم) في كلهن ثم اختص من ذلك أربعة أشهر فجعلهن حراما وعظّم حرماتهن وجعل الذنب فيهن أعظم والعمل الصالح والأجر أعظم ، وقال قتادة في قوله "فلا تظلمـوا فيهن أنفسكم" إن الظّلم في الأشهر الحرم أعظم خطيئة ووزرا من الظلم فيما سواها. وإن كان الظلم على كل حال عظيما ولكن الله يعظّم من أمره ما يشاء ، وقال: إن الله اصطفى صفايا من خلقه: اصطفى من الملائكة رسلا ومن الناس رسلا واصطفى من الكلام ذكره واصطفى من الأرض المساجد واصطفى من الشهور رمضان والأشهر الحرم واصطفى من الأيام يوم الجمعة واصطفى من الليالي ليلة القدر فعظموا ما عظّم الله. فإنما تُعَظّم الأمور بما عظمها الله به عند أهل الفهم وأهل العقل

“On the authority of Ibnu Abbaas (radiyllahu anhuma) that he said, regarding the statement of Allah Ta’ala,

فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
“so wrong not yourselves therein!”

(The command in the Ayah) “not to wrong yourself!” applies in all months, then Allah Ta’ala singled out four months and made them sacred, and emphasized their sanctity, and He Ta’ala made sin during these months more grave, and He Ta’ala made righteous deeds and the reward thereof greater.

Qataadah (rahimahullah) said the following, concerning the statement:


فَلاَ تَظْلِمُواْ فِيهِنَّ أَنفُسَكُمْ
“so wrong not yourselves therein!”

إن الظّلم في الأشهر الحرم أعظم خطيئة ووزرا من الظلم فيما سواها. وإن كان الظلم على كل حال عظيما ولكن الله يعظّم من أمره ما يشاء

Wrongdoing during the sacred months is more serious and incurs a greater burden of sin than in other months. Wrongdoing is a serious matter in any circumstances, but Allah Ta’ala makes whatever He Ta’ala wills of His commands carry more weight.”

Qatadah (rahimahullah) then said,


إن الله اصطفى صفايا من خلقه: اصطفى من الملائكة رسلا ومن الناس رسلا واصطفى من الكلام ذكره واصطفى من الأرض المساجد واصطفى من الشهور رمضان والأشهر الحرم واصطفى من الأيام يوم الجمعة واصطفى من الليالي ليلة القدر فعظموا ما عظّم الله. فإنما تُعَظّم الأمور بما عظمها الله به عند أهل الفهم وأهل العقل

“Allah Ta’ala has chosen elites from His creation above others: from among the angels He Ta’ala chose angel Messengers, from among mankind He Ta’ala chose mankind Messengers, from among speech He Ta’ala chose His Dhikr (remembrance) of Him Ta’ala, from among spaces on earth He Ta’ala chose the Masajid (pl. Masjid; mosques), from among the months He Ta’ala chose Ramadhaan and the sacred months, from among days He Ta’ala chose Jumu‘ah (Friday), and from among nights He chose Laylat’ul Qadr (the Night of Decree). So venerate that which has been chosen by Allah Ta’ala, for people of understanding and wisdom respect that which has been chosen by Allah Ta’ala.” (Ibnu Kathir, Tafsir)

It was proven from Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) that the best fasting after Ramadhaan is fasting in the month of Muharram. It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu anh) said: Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said,


أَفْضَلُ الصِّيَامِ بَعْدَ رَمَضَانَ شَهْرُ اللَّهِ الْمُحَرَّمُ وأفضل الصلاة بعد الفريضة صلاة الليل
“The best fasting after Ramadhaan is the month of Allah namely Muharram, and the best prayer after the obligatory prayer is prayer at night.” (Muslim, Hadith no: 1163)

It was narrated from Ali Ibnu Abi Taalib (radiyallahu anh) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said,

إِنْ كُنْتَ صَائِمًا بَعْدَ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَصُمِ الْمُحَرَّمَ فَإِنَّهُ شَهْرُ اللَّهِ فِيهِ يَوْمٌ تَابَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ عَلَى قَوْمٍ وَيَتُوبُ فِيهِ عَلَى قَوْمٍ آخَرِينَ
"If you will fast after the month of Ramadaan, then fast Muharram, for indeed it is Allah's month in which there is a day that Allah Ta’ala accepted the repentance of a people, and in which He Ta’ala accepts the repentance of other people." (Tirmidhi, Hadith no: 741)

As for the Day of Ashura and fasting in it, the following can be mentioned:

Izz bin Abd’us Salaam (rahimahullah) stated the following regarding the degree of the Day of Ashura in the presence of Allah Ta’ala,


وَتَفْضِيلُ الأَمَاكِنِ وَالأَزْمَانِ ضَرْبَانِ : أَحَدُهُمَا : دُنْيَوِيٌّ .. وَالضَّرْبُ الثَّانِي : تَفْضِيلٌ دِينِيٌّ رَاجِعٌ إلَى أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَجُودُ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ فِيهَا بِتَفْضِيلِ أَجْرِ الْعَامِلِينَ , كَتَفْضِيلِ صَوْمِ رَمَضَانَ عَلَى صَوْمِ سَائِرِ الشُّهُورِ , وَكَذَلِكَ يَوْمُ عَاشُورَاءَ .. فَفَضْلُهَا رَاجِعٌ إلَى جُودِ اللَّهِ وَإِحْسَانِهِ إلَى عِبَادِهِ فِيهَا

“Superiority of times and places is of two types, the first of which is in worldly terms and the second is in religious or spiritual terms because of what Allah Ta’ala bestows upon His slaves at those times and in those places of a greater reward for deeds, such as the greater virtue of fasting Ramadhaan over fasting in other months or on the Day of Ashura. Its virtue is due to Allah’s generosity and kindness to His slaves during it.” (Qawaa’id’ul Ahkaam, 1/38)

Even though Ashura is the tenth day of the month of Muharram it is not Makruh (disliked) to single out the Day of Ashura for fasting. Mardawi (rahimahullah) narrated this view from Ibnu Taymiyyah (rahimahullah).


لا يكره إفراد العاشر بالصيام على الصحيح من المذهب، ووافق الشيخ تقي الدين (ابن تيمية) أنه لا يكره

"It is not Makruh to single out the tenth for fasting, according to the correct view. Shaykh Taqiyy’ud Din (Ibnu Taymiyah) agreed that it is not Makruh." (Mardawi, al-Insaf, 3/346)

In the final year of his life, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) expressed his intent to fast the ninth day as well.


فَإِذَا كَانَ الْعَامُ الْمُقْبِلُ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ صُمْنَا الْيَوْمَ التَّاسِعَ
"Next year Inshallah (if Allah wills), we will fast on the ninth day." (Muslim, Hadith no: 1916)

For this reason it is Mustahabb (recommended) to fast both Tasu’a (the ninth) with Ashura (the tenth) of Muharram.

Bayhaqi narrated a Hadith in Sunan'ul Kubra that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said,


صوموا قبله يوماً وبعده يوماً
"Fast one day before it and one day after it."

This Hadith indicates that it is Mustahabb to fast on the ninth, the tenth and the eleventh days of Muharram. It was narrated from Tawus (by Ibnu Abi Shaybah, al-Musannaf, 2/313) and also from Ibnu Sirin (by Ibnu Qudamah, al-Mughni, 4/441) that they both used to fast one day before the day of Ashura and one day after it.

Ibn’ul Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (rahimahullah) said:


مراتب صوم عاشوراء ثلاثة: أكملُها: أن يُصام قبله يومٌ وبعده يومٌ ، ويلى ذلك أن يُصام التاسع والعاشر، وعليه أكثرُ الأحاديث ، ويلى ذلك إفرادُ العاشر وحده بالصوم

“The ways of fasting Ashura are three, the most perfect of which is to fast one day before it and one day after it. The next best is to fast the ninth and tenth days, which is what is mentioned in most of the Ahadith (pl. Hadith). The next best is to fast the tenth day only.” (Zaad’ul Ma’ad, 2/76)

It was narrated from Qatadah that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said,


صِيَامُ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ أَحْتَسِبُ عَلَى اللَّهِ أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ السَّنَةَ الَّتِي قَبْلَهُ وَالسَّنَةَ الَّتِي بَعْدَهُ وَصِيَامُ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ أَحْتَسِبُ عَلَى اللَّهِ أَنْ يُكَفِّرَ السَّنَةَ الَّتِي قَبْلَهُ
"I seek from Allah that fasting on the Day of Arafah may atone for the sins of the preceding and the coming years, and I seek from Allah that fasting on the Day of Ashura may atone for the sins of the preceding year."

And the following was stated in another version of the Hadith that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was asked about fasting on the Day of Arafah (which is 9th day of the month Dhi'l Hijjah), whereupon he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said,

قَالَ وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ فَقَالَ:‏ يُكَفِّرُ السَّنَةَ الْمَاضِيَةَ وَالْبَاقِيَةَ‏.‏ قَالَ: وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ فَقَالَ:‏ يُكَفِّرُ السَّنَةَ الْمَاضِيَةَ
"The Day of Arafah expiates the sins of the preceding year and the coming year. He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was asked about fasting on the Day of Ashura (which is the 10th day of the month Muharram), whereupon he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said: It expiates the sins of the preceding year." (Muslim, Hadith no: 1162; Tirmidhi, Hadith no: 749)

Imam Nawawi said the following concerning this Hadith:

"Fasting the Day of Arafah expiates for two years, and the Day of Ashura expiates for one year. If when a person says 'Amin' it coincides with the Amin of the angels, he will be forgiven all his previous sins (…) each one of the things we have mentioned will bring expiation. If there are minor sins for which expiation is needed, expiation for them will be accepted; if there are no minor sins or major sins, good deeds will be added to his account and he will be raised in status (…) If he had committed major sins but no minor sins, we hope that his major sins will be reduced." (Nawawi, al-Majmu Sharh’ul Muhadhdhab, part 6, Sawm Yawm Arafah)

We addressed
“Bid’ah (Reprehensible Innovations) that are Related with the Day of Ashura and some of the Fabricated Reports" so refer back to it for more information regarding the matter.

Wallahu A’lam (Allah knows)!
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: MUHARRAM, ITS VIRTUES AND THE DAY OF ASHURA
« Reply #1 on: September 17, 2018, 03:58:58 PM »
Bismillah,

just a reminder...
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)