التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: رسائل التوحيد 1 PAMPLETHS ON TAWHID 1  (Read 859 times)

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Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

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Re: الرسائل التوحيد 1 Pamphlets on Tawhid 1
« Reply #1 on: 26.11.2017, 05:16:59 PM »
خُطْبَةُ الْحَاجَةِ

إِنَّ الْحَمْدَ لِلّٰهِ، نَحْمَدُهُ، وَنَسْتَعِينُهُ، وَنَسْتَغْفِرُهُ، وَنَعُوذُ بِاللهِ مِنْ شُرُورِ أَنْفُسِنَا، وَمِنْ سَيِّئَاتِ أَعْمَالِنَا، مَنْ يَهْدِهِ اللهُ فَلاَ مُضِلَّ لَهُ، وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلاَ هَادِيَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنْ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ.

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ وَلاَ تَمُوتُنَّ إِلاَّ وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ.﴾ [آل عمران: 102]

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالاً كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً وَاتَّقُوا اللهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ إِنَّ اللهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا.﴾ [النساء: 1]

﴿يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللهَ وَقُولُوا قَوْلاً سَدِيدًا. يُصْلِحْ لَكُمْ أَعْمَالَكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ فَازَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا.﴾ [الأحزاب: 71-70]

أَمَّا بَعْدُ: فَإِنَّ أَصْدَقَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللهِ، وَخَيْرَ الْهَدْيِ هَدْيُ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَشَرَّ الْأُمُورِ مُحْدَثَاتُهَا، وَكُلَّ مُحْدَثَةٍ بِدْعَةٌ، وَكُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلاَلَةٌ، وَكُلَّ ضَلاَلَةٍ فِي النَّارِ.


Khutbatul Hjah (The Sermon of Necessity)

All praise is due to Allhu Tal. We praise Him, seek His help, and seek His forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allh from the evil within ourselves and the consequences of our evil deeds. Whoever Allh guides, there is no one who can led him astray, and whoever Allh leads astray, then there is no one who can guide him. I bear witness there is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Allh, He is One and He has no partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and His Rasl (Messenger).

O you who believe! Fear Allh as He should be feared, and die not except as Muslims. (l-i Imrn 3/102)

O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his wife, and from them both He created many men and women and fear Allh through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and beware of severing the ties of kinship. Surely, Allh is Ever an All-Watcher over you. (an-Nis 4/1)

O you who believe! Keep your duty to Allh and fear Him, and speak the truth. He will set your deeds right and forgive your sins. And whoever obeys Allh and His Messenger, has truly achieved a great triumph. (al-Ahzb 33/70-71)

Amm Bad (to Proceed):

Verily, the most truthful speech is the Kalmullh (Speech of Allh), the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. The worst of affairs are the newly invented matters. Every newly invented matter is a Bidah (religious innovation), and every Bidah is a Dallah (misguidance), and every misguidance is in the Nr (Hellfire).1




Quote
Footnotes:

1- This Du' (prayer) which Shaykhul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah Rahimahullh accounted as a knot between the Islmic system and Imn (Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmul Fatw, 14/223) which is known as Khutbatul Hjah (The Sermon of Necessity) was recited by Raslullah Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam during the beginning of his Jumuah Khutbah (Friday Sermon). Various portions of this renown Khutbah has been narrated with different wordings in an-Nas, Hadth no: 3278; Muslim, Hadth no: 868; Ab Dwd, Hadth no: 2118; at-Tirmidh, Hadth no: 1105, and in other compilations of Hadth.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: الرسائل التوحيد 1 Pamphlets on Tawhid 1
« Reply #2 on: 26.11.2017, 05:17:31 PM »
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Our Dawah (Call)

Our sole purpose primarily, is to circulate the Aqidah of Tawhid everywhere we are able to reach. This is the call of all the Rasul (messenger) and Nabi (prophet) from Adam (alayhi salam) to the Khatamul Anbiya (the last of the prophets) Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), striving against all types of Kufr and Shirk that nullify Tawhid and exposing fake deities and Taaghout which call people to worship them. Allah Taala states the following Ayah in this regards:

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّى لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ كُلُّهُ لِلّٰهِ فَإِنِ انْتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللّٰهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
And fight them on until there is no more persecution, and religion becomes Allah's in its entirety. (al-Baqarah 2/193; al-Anfal 8/39)

In addition, the Aqidah of al-Wara wal Bara which is one of the most important Rukn (pillar) of Tawhid, the Takfir of the Mushrikin fixed to the Aqidah of al-Wara wal Bara, accordingly the limits of Imaan and Kufr becoming evident is one of the hallmarks of our Dawah. The removal of the doubts regarding the matters of Aqidah, especially in the matters of Imaan and Kufr that are innovated by the Dai (caller) of Baatil (falsehood) is also one of our purposes. We aspire to establish the Wasat (medium) Aqidah of Ahlus Sunna wal Jamaah that is far from Ifrat (taking maters to the extreme) and Tarfit (neglecting its true meaning).

After Tawhid, the most important topic we call to is the Sunnah. Connotation especially to the matters of Aqidah but not limited to it; accepting and practicing every matter of Islam as Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab counseled and lived, also rejecting every Bidah innovated after them. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) in a Sahih (authentic) Hadith stated that his Ummah (nation) will be divided into seventy-three sects and that only one of them will be saved. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) named them as Firqai Naajiyah (the Saved Group) and described their affair stating:


مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي
(Those who follow) my path and the path of my Ashaab (companions)... 2

The Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah is the only group that follows this noble path.

No individual or group entered the saved group by merely identifying themselves as Ahlus Sunnah. The most apparent quality of the Ahlus Sunnah is submitting to the Salafus Salihin (the righteous predecessors) whom are the best of the people and the first three generations (of beginning of the Islam) and staying away from the Bidah and Munkar (evil) that was innovated by the Khalaf (later generations). As narrated in the Sahih (of Bukhari) from Imran bin Husayn (radiyallahu anh) Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated:


خَيْرُ أُمَّتِي قَرْنِي، ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ، ثُمَّ الَّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ، - قَالَ عِمْرَانُ فَلاَ أَدْرِي: أَذَكَرَ بَعْدَ قَرْنِهِ قَرْنَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلاَثًا - ثُمَّ إِنَّ بَعْدَكُمْ قَوْمًا يَشْهَدُونَ وَلاَ يُسْتَشْهَدُونَ وَيَخُونُونَ وَلاَ يُؤْتَمَنُونَ، وَيَنْذُرُونَ وَلاَ يَفُونَ، وَيَظْهَرُ فِيهِمُ السِّمَنُ
The best of my followers are those living in my generation (i.e. my contemporaries). And then those who will follow the latter. -Imran (radiyallahu anh) added: I do not remember whether he mentioned two or three generations after his generation- There will come after you, people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, and will be treacherous and untrustworthy, and they will vow and never fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them."3

After Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab, the Rabbani Ulama took on the mission of calling to Tawhid and the Sunnah fitting the Hadith:

الْعُلَمَاءُ خُلَفَاءُ الأَنْبِيَاءِ إِنَّ الأَنْبِيَاءَ
The scholars are the successors of the prophets."4

At this point, our goal is to become a bridge between Ilm and the people by conveying the legacy concerning the Ilm (sacred knowledge) of the Rabbani Ulama, which attained the mission of calling to Tawhid and the Sunnah after the prophets. The source of this Ilm reaches Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) through Jibril-i Amin (alayhi salam) to the Lord of the Worlds (Jalla wa Jalaluhu). The Ulama will represent this Ilm until the Day of Qiyamah (Doomdsay). Since Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated:

لاَ يَزَالُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي أُمَّةٌ قَائِمَةٌ بِأَمْرِ اللّٰهِ، لاَ يَضُرُّهُمْ مَنْ خَذَلَهُمْ، وَلاَ مَنْ خَالَفَهُمْ، حَتَّى يَأْتِيَهُمْ أَمْرُ اللّٰهِ وَهُمْ عَلَى ذٰلِكَ
"A group of people amongst my followers will remain obedient to Allah's orders and they will not be harmed by anyone who will not help them or who will oppose them, till Allah's Order (the Last Day) comes upon them while they are still on the right path."5

That is why it is also our goal to spread the books of the Ulamaa (pl. Alim; scholars) whom had been stand bearers of the Aqidah of the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah throughout history and the Ilm that they inherited from Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). In order to reach this goal; we take the Manhaj (methodology of attaining Ilm) of the Salafus Salihin whom are praised by Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) as base for us. We would like to convey the legacy of the Aimmah (pl. Imam) of Hadith and Sunnah who had not been affected from Kalaam (theological rhetoric) and philosopy, persistent upon the Aqidah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab, in short; the scholars among the Firqa-i Najiyaah and Taifatul Mansura (Victorious Group).

Our call (Inshallah) will never be calling people to our own views that have no base from the Salaf nor to groups that have been consituted by the Asabiyyah (tribalism/nationalism) of Jaahiliyyah (the prelslaamic days of ignorance).

Tawfiq (success) is lies in Allah Taala...



Quote
Footnotes:

2- Tirmidhi, Hadith no: 2641.

3- Bukhari, Hadith no: 3650.

4- Bazzar, Musnad al-Bazzar, 10/68.

5- Bukhari, Hadith no: 3641.
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: الرسائل التوحيد 1 Pamphlets on Tawhid 1
« Reply #3 on: 26.11.2017, 05:22:58 PM »
Muqaddimah (Preface) of the Publisher

Verily all praise is for Allah (Taala), we praise Him and seek His aid and ask for His forgiveness, and we seek refuge with Allah from the evils of ourselves and our evil actions. Whomever Allah guides there is none who can misguide him, and whomever Allah misguides there is none who can guide him, and I bear witness that none has the right to be worshiped except Allah Alone, having no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is His slave and His Messenger.

Verily the most truthful speech is the Word of Allah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam), and the worst of affairs are the novelties and every novelty is an innovation and every innovation is going astray and every going astray is in the Fire.

As for follows: We praise and thank Allah (Taala) that honoured and blessed us with preparing this Risalah (booklet). This Risalah contains six Risalah of Shakyh'ul Islam Muhammad bin Abd'il Wahhab (rahimahullah) which he explained the Aqidah of Tawhid in brief and they are in order:

* ar-Risalatul Mufida (Beneficial booklet) explains the terms Tawhid, Shirk, Kufr and Nifaaq.

* Maanat Taghout wa Ruus Anwaihi (The Meaning of Taghout and its Chiefs) contains the description of Taghout and its major types.

* al-Usuolus Thalathah/Thalathatul Usuol (Three Fundamental Principles) contains the answers of the questions that will be asked during the grave questioning; Rabb, Din and the Prophet.

* al-Qawaidul Arbaa ([Regarding] Four Principles [that Distinguish the Muminin from the Mushrikin]) mentions the very four principles which determine the difference between the Believers and the idol worshipers/pagans.

* Aslu Dinil Islam (Fundamentals of the Religion of Islam), contains list of ten types of people who oppose to it.

* Nawaqidhul Islam (The Nullifiers of Islam [States that Take One Out From the Fold of Islam]) lists the nullifiers of Islam.

* Shurut La-ilaha Illallah (Conditions of La-ilaha Illallah) due to its importance we add another Risalah to the book from the grandson of Shakyh Muhammad (rahimahullah), Abd'ur Rahman bin Hasan (rahimahullah) which explains the conditions of La-ilaha Illallah and their explanations.

Due to its simplicity and comprehensible language used by the Muallif (author) and also due to the profound Ilm (knowledge) contained in it; these texts should be read, even memorized by both the lay people such as women, children, the youth, those who are new to Islam, and by the students of knowledge and literate people who want to learn Islam and act upon it.

As the one who does not adopt the subject of this book, Aqidatu Tawhid; the one who does not reject the Taghout, does not keep distant from Shirk and the Mushrikin can not be considered/accounted as a Muslim. He neither will be saved from the punishment of Jahannam (Hellfire) nor will deserve Jannah (Paradise). For this reason we wanted to compile and present to the reader, these short yet very beneficial pamphlets which contain the minimum information that will allow one to be a Muslim and to earn the consent of Allah.

However it should be known that, merely reading and memorizing this book is not sufficient for one to learn Tawhid. Rather one needs to learn this Aqidah of Tawhid, act accordingly and cleanse his life from every type of Shirk in order to be saved from Kufr and Shirk and enter to be included into the class of Muslimin.

Some of the articles that are collected in this booklet were translated and published before and our methodology that we followed in this booklet is as follows:

1- Although we benefited from the translations we checked the translations by comparing and verifying from its origin Arabic. We would like to declare that -unfortunately- translations done before were not very meticulous even though these are very important texts in the field of Tawhid which is the reason of creation. Translation mistakes, most of time confuse the lay people even those who claim to be Ahl Ilm (People of Knowledge) and in some cases cause problems in Aqidah (creed) that lead to Kufr (disbelief). For this reason we tried to be very straightforward and meticulous during the translations.

2- We had given the volume and page number in this work. Mostly we used ad-Durarus Saniyyah which contains the Risalah of the Ulamah of Najd, as a source.

3- We also added the original Arabic text of the Ayaat and Ahadith that had been mentioned in the booklet. We tried to do our best to verify the sources; extraction and the soundness of the Ahadith.

4- Again we added the complete Arabic text at the end of the booklet so that the student of knowledge can benefit from it by comparing the text, memorizing etc.

Due to having the intention to continue publishing works of the Ulama especially Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhab, we named this work as Pamphlets on Tawhid 1; 1
رسائل التوحيد Inshallah this series will continue.

We ask Allah to benefit us from this book both in Dunya (worldly life) and the Akhirah (hereafter).
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Ummah

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Re: الرسائل التوحيد 1 Pamphlets on Tawhid 1
« Reply #4 on: 26.11.2017, 05:26:01 PM »
The Life, Knowledgeable Characteristic, and Struggle of
Shaykhul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh6

His Birth and Upbringing

The Shaykh Muhammed bin Abdil Wahhb bin Sulaymn bin Al at-Tamim Rahimahullh was born in the year 1115H (1703 CE) at Uyaynah, a city of Najd in the Arabian Peninsula.

His father Abdul Wahhb and grandfather Sulaymn were amongst the renowned knowledgeable individuals of the area of Najd, and thus were the source of Fatw (religious verdicts) during their time. His grandfather, Sulaymn bin Al lived during the era of the eminent Hanbal Faqh (jurist), Mansr al-Baht Rahimahullh, author of Kashshaful Qin, it is reported that they met in Makkah. In this manner, the Shaykh grew up in an environment occupied by Ilm.

His Shuykh (pl. of Shaykh; Teachers) and His Travels to Seek Ilm (Knowledge)

Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh learned the Qurn and attained basic knowledge from his father. He memorized the Qurn before the age of ten. He mastered the Hanbal Fiqh (jurisprudence) along with its Isnd (chain of narration) to Imm Ahmad Rahimahullh from his father and grandfather. His father appointed him as the Imm (leader) of Salh (daily prayers), once he reached puberty. It is also reported his father would say, I have learned many beneficial matters regarding the Ahkm (pl. of Hukm; rulings) from him.7

According to his grandson Shaykh Abdul Latf Rahimahullh, he had gone to the Haramayn (two sacred cities; Makkah and Madnah), gathered with the Shuykh of the area, attained Ijzah (the grant of permission or authority) from some of them, and later went to the cities Basra and Ahs and took lessons from the Shuykh.

Shaykh Abdul Latf bin Abdir Rahmn Rahimahullh mentions the inclination of his grandfather, Shaykh Muhammad, to Tawhd and taking the Qurn and Sunnah as his guide by abandoning blind following being influenced greatly by the Shaykhul Haramayn of his era, Muhammad Hayyt as-Sind, whom he studied Hadth from at Hijz.8

His other grandson Shaykh Sulaymn bin Abdillh Rahimahullh mentioned names such as Al Afand ad-Dghistn, the author of the famous Kashful Khaf al-Ajln, Abdullh bin Ibrhm an-Najd, and Abl Mawhib al-Hanbal amongst his teachers. He studied various books on Fiqh (jurisprudence), Hadth, Srah (history), Lughah (the Arabic language), especially the nine basic Hadth books from the mentioned scholars and others with their Sanad (Isnd).

Also through his teacher Abdullh bin Ibrhm an-Najd, he had the honour of narrating some of the Ahdth (pl. of Hadth) with their Isnd reaching Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam.9

His Students

Besides his sons Abdullh, Husayn, and Ibrhm Rahimahumullh; his grandson Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan Rahimahullh; his companions in Dawah such as Sud bin Abdul Azz Rahimahullh are amongst his students from his close surrounding, other scholars such as Hamad bin Nsir bin Uthmn l-i Muammar, Abdul Azz bin Husayn an-Nsir, Sad bin Hijj, and Husayn bin Ghannm Rahimahumullh were educated in his circle of knowledge.

His Works
Alongside his many works, the most famous ones are as follows:

Kitbut Tawhd (The Book of Monotheism), Kashf'ush Shubuht (Removal of the Doubts), Manat Tght (the Meaning of Tght), al-Usluth Thalthah (The Three Fundamentals), al-Qawidul Arbaah (The Four Principles), ar-Rislatul Mufdah (the Beneficial, Important and Precious Pamphlet), Mukhtasaru Sratir Rasl (The Concise History of the Rasl), dabul Mashyi ilas Salh (the Manner of Walking Towards Prayer), Mufdul Mustafd (Beneficial Benefeciary), al-Jawhirul Mudhiyyah (the Illuminating Gems), Masilul Jhiliyyah (The Issues of the Era of Ignorance), and other short pamphlets regarding Aqdah,

He also has authored many beneficial books such as Fadhlul Islm (The Superiority of Islm), Uslul mn (The Foundation of Faith), al-Kabir (the Major Sins), Mukhtasarul Insf wash Sharhil Kabr, and Majmul Hadth al Abwbil Fiqh (A Compilation of Hadth According to the Topics of Fiqh).

Most of the works by the Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh have been gathered in Majmu Muallaftish Shaykhi Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb in thirteen volumes. It is also possible to find many of his Rasil (pamphlets) in ad-Durarus Saniyyah in eleven volumes.

His Da'wah (call)

The Shaykh Rahimahullh began his Dawah of Tawhd in Basrah and because he had gained the enmity of some individuals, on a hot summers day, he had to leave the city on foot. After this, he went to Huraymilah; however, when there was an attempt for his assassination, he left the city.

Then he set off to Uyaynah and was under the Himyah (protection) of Uthmn bin Muammar, the Amr of Uyaynah. In Uyaynah, events to destroy places of Shirk such as the tomb of Zayd Ibnul Khattb Radiyallhu Anh being demolished to begin with and the application of Rajm (stoning to death) to a female as the punishment of Zin (fornication) under the leadership of the Shaykh had terrified the enemies of Islm, and finally, Uthmn bin Muaamar submitted to the repression and treachery and expelled the Shaykh from Uyaynah.

Leaving Uyaynah, the Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh went to ad-Diriyyah in the year 1158H, and there he met Muhammad bin Sud. Ibnu Sud accepted the call of Tawhd by the Shaykh and promised he would assist his Dawah all the way. After such pact, they struggled together and did not part until death.

After this alliance of sword and pen, the Dawah (call) of Tawhd spread in waves, starting from the villages and towns, and ultimately along with the establishment of administration relying on the Aqdah, the Salaf Dawah which the Shaykh lead began to be heard everywhere.

His Death and Eulogy

After a life built upon Ilm (knowledge), Amal (action), Dawah (invitation) and Sabr (patience), the Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb Rahimahullh died at the age of 92 in the year 1206H (1792 CE).

Following his death, scholars such as Imm ash-Shawkn (1250H/1834 CE) and Husayn bin Ghannm (1225H/1811 CE), a scholar from among the Ulam (scholars) of Ahs, wrote odes for him.

Also, al-Amr as-Sann the author of the renowned books such as Subulus Salm and Tathrul Itiqd had written a Qasdah (ode) praising him during his life time.

May Allh Subhnahu have mercy upon Shaykhul Islm Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb and all those Muwahhid scholars who had a hand in spreading the Call of Tawhd, and may he destine us to benefit from their works. (mn!)


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Footnotes:

6- This short biography has been compiled from various sources, such as Haytush Shaykh Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhb by Isml al-Ansr. For more information, refer back to the independent sections regarding the life of the Shaykh Rahimahullh in: Mashhiru Ulamin Najd by Abdur Rahmn bin Abdil Latf, Fathul Majd Sharhu Kitbit Tawhd by Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, and al-Alm by az-Zirikl.

7- Husayn bin Ghannm, Rawdhatul Afkr (Trikhu Najd), 1/209 (Druth Thulthiyyah publications, Riydh 1431H).

8- Abdul Latf bin Abdir Rahmn, Misbhudh Dhalm, 154-155 (published by Isml bin Sad bin Atq).

9- Sulaymn bin Abdillh, at-Tawdh an Tawhdil Khallq, p. 25, (Dru Taybah publications, edition of 1404H).
Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ دَخَلُوا فِي دِينِ اللهِ أَفْوَاجًا، وَسَيَخْرُجُونَ مِنْهُ أَفْوَاجًا

"Verily, the people have entered into the religion of Allah in crowds and they will also leave it in crowds." (Ahmad, Musnad)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Re: رسائل التوحيد 1 PAMPLETHS ON TAWHID 1
« Reply #5 on: 08.09.2019, 12:43:19 PM »





اَلرِّسَالَةُ الْمُفِيدَةُ الْمُهِمَّةُ الْجَلِيلَةُ
THE BENEFICIAL, IMPORTANT, AND PRECIOUS PAMPHLET

(REGARDING THE TERMS TAWHD, SHIRK, KUFR, AND NIFQ)10







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Footnotes:

10- This pamphlet is found between pages 66-72 in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, which contains the pamphlets of the Ulam of Najd, compiled by Abdur Rahmn bin Qsim. In addition, due to its benefit, even though it is not found in many of the wide-spread copies of the Rislah, we have included a response given by the Shaykh Rahimahullh to a question regarding the types of Tawhd. The question and its answer can be found in the second volume of ad-Durarus Saniyyah, pages 72-73.
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

Izhr'ud Dn

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Re: رسائل التوحيد 1 PAMPLETHS ON TAWHID 1
« Reply #6 on: 08.09.2019, 12:50:14 PM »
In the name of Allh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, from Him we seek help. All praise is due to Allh, and this is sufficient (for praise). May peace be upon His slaves whom He has chosen.11

Amm Bad (to proceed):


اَلتَّوْحِيدُ وَأَنْوَاعُهُ
TAWHD (UNIFICATION) AND ITS TYPES12

Know, may Allhu Tal have mercy upon you:

That Allh created the creation to worship Him and so that they do not associate anything to Him.

Allhu Tal stated,


وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنْسَ إِلاَّ لِيَعْبُدُونِ.
I have not created the jinn and human beings except that they worship Me. (adh-Dhriyt 51/56)

Ibdah (worship) is Tawhd13, since the dispute between the Anbiy (pl. of Nab; Prophets) and their Ummah (people/nation) has always been regarding this.14 Just as Allhu Tal stated,


وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولاً أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ.
And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), Worship Allh (Alone), and avoid (worshipping) the Tght. (an-Nahl 16/36)

Tawhd is of three fundamentals:15

1.   Tawhdur Rubbiyyah (Oneness of the Divine Lordship),

2.   Tawhdul Ulhiyyah (Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship),

3.   Tawhdul Asm was Sift (Oneness/Uniqueness in the Divine Names and Attributes).16


اَلْأَصْلُ الْأَوَّلُ تَوْحِيدُ الرُّبُوبِيَّةِ
THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL:17

Tawhdur Rubbiyyah18

(Oneness of the Divine Lordship)

The Mushrikn (pl. Mushrik) during the era of Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam accepted this type of Tawhd19, yet this did not enter them into Islm. Raslullh Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam fought them and considered their blood and wealth Hall (permissible). This (type of Tawhd) is unifying Allhu Tal in His Fil (actions that are unique to Him; i.e. creating, providing, administrating the universe etc.). The evidence for this is the statement of Allhu Tal,

قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللّٰهُ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ.
Say, Who is it that sustains you (in life) from the sky and from the earth? Or who is it that has power over hearing and sight? And who is it that brings out the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And who is it that rules and regulates all affairs? They will say, Allh. Say, Will you not then show piety (to Him)? (Ynus 10/31)

And His Tals statement,


قُلْ لِمَنِ الْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَذَكَّرُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ أَفَلاَ تَتَّقُونَ. قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلاَ يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ. سَيَقُولُونَ لِلّٰهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّى تُسْحَرُونَ.
Say, To whom belongs the earth and whoever is in it, if you should know? They will say, To Allh. Say, Then will you not take heed? Say, Who is the Lord of the seven heavens, and the Lord of the Great Throne? They will say, They (all) belong to Allah. Say, Then will you not fear Him? Say, Who is it in whose hands is the governance of all things, who protects (all), but is not protected (of any), if you know? They will say, They (all) belong to Allh. Say, Then how are you deluded? (al-Muminn 23/84-89)

The yt (pl. yah; verses of Qurn) in this regards are many; too many to summarize and well known to mention


اَلْأَصْلُ الثَّانِي تَوْحِيدُ الْأُلُوهِيَّةِ
THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdul Ulhiyyah

(Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship)20

This (type of Tawhd) is that which most of the struggle in the past and the present took place. It is the worshippers unifying Allhu Tal through their own actions, such as in ad-Du (supplication/worship), ar-Raj (hope), al-Khawf (fear), al-Khashyah (awe), al-Istinah (seeking aid), al-Istidhah (appeal for refuge), al-Mahabbah (love), al-Inbah (penitence), an-Nadhr (vow), adh-Dhabh (sacrifice), ar-Raghbah (aspiration), al-Khush (submissive humility), at-Tadhallul (submissiveness), and at-Tadhm (glorification).

The evidence for ad-Du is the statement of Allhu Tal,


وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ.
And your Lord says, Call upon Me; I will answer your (prayer)... (Ghfir 40/60)

For all of these types of Ibdah (worship), there is an evidence in the Qurn.

The foundation of al-Ibdah is to isolate al-Ikhls (sincerity) solely for Allhu Tal and to isolate adherence to the Rasl (Messenger of Allh) Sallallhu Alayhi wa Sallam. Allhu Tal stated,


وَأَنَّ الْمَسَاجِدَ لِلّٰهِ فَلاَ تَدْعُوا مَعَ اللّٰهِ أَحَدًا.
And the Masjid (pl. Masjid; places of worship) are only for Allh, so pray (invoke/worship) not unto anyone along with Allh. (Jinn 72/18)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


فَآمِنُوا بِاللّٰهِ وَرَسُولِهِ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ الَّذِي يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَكَلِمَاتِهِ وَاتَّبِعُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ.
So believe in Allh and His Rasl (Muhammad), the Nab (prophet) who can neither read nor write who believes in Allh and His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided. (al-Arf 7/158);

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلٰهَ إِلاَّ أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ.
We never sent a messenger before you except that We revealed to him, There is no -true- deity -worthy of worship- except Me, so worship Me (alone). (al-Anbiy 21/25)

And His Tals statement,


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ.
For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way

Until His Tals statement,


وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلَالٍ.
And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)21

And His Tals statement,


ذٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللّٰهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ هُوَ الْبَاطِلُ.
That is because Allh He is the Truth (the only True God of all that exists, Who has no partners or rivals with Him), and what they invoke besides Him, it is al-Btil (the falsehood) (al-Hajj 22/62)

Moreover, His Tals statement,


وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا.
And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). (al-Hashr 59/7)

And the statement of Allhu Tal,


قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّٰهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّٰهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّٰهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ.
Say, If you love Allah then follow me, Allh will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allah is al-Ghafr (the Oft-Forgiving), ar-Rahm (the Most Merciful). (l-i Imrn 3/31)

اَلْأَصْلُ الثَّالِثُ تَوْحِيدُ الذَّاتِ وَالْأَسَمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ
THE THIRD FUNDAMENTAL:

Tawhdudh Dhti wal Asmi was Sift

(Oneness/Uniqueness in the essence of Allh, the Divine Names and Attributes)22

As Allhu Tal stated,

قُلْ هُوَ اللّٰهُ أَحَدٌ. اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُ. لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ. وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ.
Say, He is Allh, the One! Allh, is as-Samad (The Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need). He has never had offspring, nor was He born. And there is none comparable unto Him. (al-Ikhls 112/1-4)

And His Tals statement,


وَلِلّٰهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ.
And al-Asmul Husn (the Most Beautiful Names) belong to Allh, so invoke Him by them, and leave the company of those who deviate in His Names. They shall be recompensed for what they have been doing. (al-Arf 7/180)

Moreover, He Tal stated,


لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ.
There is nothing like unto Him, and He is as-Sam (the All-Hearer), al-Basr (the All-Seer). (ash-Shr 42/11)



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Footnotes:

11- It seems as the author Rahimahullh has taken the following yah as a foundation for his proclamation in the opening,


قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَسَلاَمٌ عَلَى عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَى.
Say, Praise is due to Allh, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen! (an-Naml 27/59)

12- We added the headings such as Tawhd, Shirk, Kufr, and Nifq in consideration to simplify things for the reader.

13- It was narrated by Imm al-Baghaw Rahimahullh that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhuma stated,


كَلُّ مَا وَرَدَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ مِنَ الْعِبَادَةِ فَمَعْنَاهَا التَّوْحِيدُ.
The meaning of all that is mentioned in the Quran regarding Ibdah is Tawhd. (Tafsrul Baghaw, Dru Tayba print, 1/71, Tafsr of Sratul Baqarah yah 21)

Also, with the Isnd (chain of narration) that has reached him, Imm at-Tbar narrated in his Tafsr that Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum explained
اُعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ worship your Rabb (Lord) in Sratul Baqarah yah 21 as وَحِّدُوا رَبَّكُمْ Make Tawhd of (unify) your Rabb (Lord)! (Imm at-Tbar, Tafsrut Tbar, Ahmad Shkir print, 1/362) Among the scholars who narrated this from Ibnu Abbs Radiyallhu Anhum, as-Suyt mentions the names of Ibnu Ishq and Ibnu Ab Htim. (as-Suyt, ad-Durrul Manthr fit Tafsr bil Masr, 1/85)

14- The implication here is Tawhd (unification) in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. Hence the struggle between the Anbiy and their Ummah was not in Tawhdur Rubbiyyah; it was not regarding the existence of Allh nor about Allh not having a partner in creating, or providing. On the contrary, it was about the unification of Allh in Ibdah, meaning Tawhdul Ulhiyyah. As known, except for those who stubbornly deny such as the likes of Pharaoh and Nimrod, most of the previous nations did not deny Allh. yh 36 of Suratun Nahl mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh indicates this. This matter will be dealt with in detail in the following pages while describing the types of Tawhd Inshllh.

15- Linguistically, Tawhd means unification. In the Sharah, it means to unify Allhu Tal in what is peculiar to Him and to deny them from any other. As it will be explained in the following pages what is peculiar to Allhu Tal is Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes.

16- In his al-Ibnah, the Muhaddith (Hadth scholar) Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar Rahimahullh (d. 387H) from amongst the Hanbal jurists, while sticking to the order Lordship, Divinity, and the Divine Names and Attributes, stated the following regarding these types of Tawhd,

and this is because the basis of faith in Allh that is obligatory upon the creation to believe in when confirming faith in Allhu Tal is in three things:

1.   The servant believes in His existence, so that this would serve to contradict the Maddhab (school of thought) of Ahlut Tatl (people of denial) who do not recognize the existence of a Creator. [In many texts, the term
رَبَّانِيَّتَهُ, meaning His Rabbniyyah (Lordship) is used in place of His existence, although this term appears in the narration we have chosen to quote here. Translator.]

2.   That he believes in His Wahdniyyah (Oneness), so that this would serve to contradict the Madhhib (pl. Madhhab) of Ahlus Shirk (polytheists/pagans), who recognize the Creator and associate others (as partners) with Him in worship.

3.   That he believes in Him as described by the Attributes which are not possible for Him to not be described with of Ilm (Knowledge), Qudrah (Power), Hikmah (Wisdom), and everything else that He described Himself with in His Book.

For we know that many of those -who affirm in an absolute manner and unify Allh- often deviate in His Sift. His deviation in Allhs Sift becomes something which damages his Tawhd. For this reason, we find that Allhu Tal has addressed His servants by calling them to believe in every one of these three aspects and to have faith in them. When it comes to Him calling them to affirm His existence and Oneness, we are not going to mention it here due to the length and vastness of speech regarding it.

This is also because the Jahm claims he affirms both [Rubbiyyah and Ulhiyyah. Translator], whereas his denial of the Sift nullifies his claim of both. (Ibnu Battah al-Ukbar, al-Ibnatul Kubr, 6/173)

17- In the original script, this and the following two headings regarding the types of Tawhd are actually sentences such as The first foundation is Tawhdur Rubbiyyah However, we found it beneficial to present them in a heading structure in order to simplify it for the reader.

18- In the English language, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah can be translated as the Oneness of Allhu Tal in Divine Lordship, i.e. affirming Allhu Tal as the sole Lord.

Rabb is a word that comes from the root letters
ر - ب - ب (in the Arabic language). It denotes the meanings lord, master, educator, sovereign, administrator etc.

According to this, Tawhdur Rubbiyyah means affirming Allhu Tal as the creator and administrator of the universe, the sole disposer over all creation.

This is in opposition to some Ghult Sf (extremist mystics) and their likes, which attribute the authority of disposing to the Awliy (pl. Wal; saints), claim these Awliy come to the help of those in request, and answer the call of those who call upon them. Surely, all of these are beliefs that encompass taking those other than Allh as Rabb.

19- The affirmation of the Mushrikn regarding Tawhdur Rubbiyyah is generally their acceptance of Allhu Tal as the sole creator, provider, and administrator of the affairs of the universe. Hence, this is the indication of the yt (pl. yah; sign, verse from the Qurn) mentioned by the Shaykh Rahimahullh in evidence. Again, in another yah, Allhu Tal stated,


وَمَا يُؤْمِنُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ إِلاَّ وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ.
And most of them believe not in Allh without associating (other as partners) with Him! (Ysuf 12/106)

According to what Ibnu Jarr at-Tabar narrated with its Isnd, Ikrimah Rahimahullh said in explanation to the point at issue,

تَسْأَلُهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَهُمْ وَمَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، فَيَقُولُونَ: اللّٰهُ، فَذٰلِكَ إِيمَانُهُمْ بِاللّٰهِ، وَهُمْ يَعْبُدُونَ غَيْرَهُ.
You ask them, Who created them, and who created the heavens and the earth, they say Allh. This is their mn (belief) in Allh while they worship other than Him.

Then he stated the following,


يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ رَبُّهُمْ، وَأَنَّهُ خَلَقَهُمْ، وَهُمْ مُشْرِكُونَ بِهِ.
They know that He is their Rabb and that He is the one who created them while they associate partners to Him.

Ibnu Jarr quoted similar narrations from Ibnu Abbs, Mujhid, and others. (at-Tabar, Tafsrut Tabar, Ahmad Shkir print, 16/286+.)

With this, it is established that the Mushrikn accept Rubbiyyah in the sense of Allh being the Creator and that they do affirm this. However, they associate partners with Allh in Ibdah. Otherwise, it is not at issue that anyone from among the Mushrikn accepts Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in the absolute sense. Hence, if they had truly unified Allhu Tal in His Rubbiyyah, this would have necessitated them to unify Allh in His Ulhiyyah and making Du to a being other than Allh, requesting aid and Shafah (intercession) from a being other than Allh would have never been relevant for them. All of these are actions of Shirk in the Rubbiyyah of Allh because benefiting and causing harm are characteristics of Rubbiyyah.

Therefore, it is not possible for any Mushrik to truly affirm Tawhdur Rubbiyyah. All types of Tawhd (Rubbiyyah, Ulhiyyah, and al-Asm was Sift) are pertinent to one another and necessitate one another. Scholars have made this allotment so that Tawhd is understood accurately, otherwise, all types of Tawhd denote to the same truth.

The Shaykh Rahimahullh stated that the Mushrikn accept Tawhdur Rubbiyyah in order to clarify that if one is associating partners to Allh in worship just like the Mushrikn of today do, merely unifying Allh in His creating and providing; it does not enter him into the fold of Islm. Wallhu Alam!

20- Tawhdul Ulhiyyah can be translated as Oneness of the Divine nature, to single-out Allh alone for worship in the English language. The meaning of Ilah is Mabd; i.e. the worshipped one. According to this, as Tawhdul Ulhiyyah means recognizing Allhu Tal as the One and Only Deity worthy of worship, it also signifies not associating any partners to Him in Ibdah. Explanations regarding the term Ilah by Shaykh Muhammad Rahimahullh will be given in the pages to come. Imm al-Qurtub Rahimahullh stated the following regarding Ibdah i.e., servitude,

The Asl (base) of Ibdah is at-Tadhallul (submissiveness) and al-Khud (subservience). The functions of the Sharah (Islamic law) which abide the Mukallafn (pl. Mukallaf; legally responsible) are called Ibdah. This is because those who are Mukallaf observe and carry them out submissively and in servitude to Allhu Tal. (Quoted by Shaykh Abdur Rahmn bin Hasan, Fathul Majd, 14)

Indeed, this meaning is found in the description given to the types of Ibdah by the Shaykh Rahimahullh.

Fundamentally, each action that comprises lowering oneself, submissiveness, absolute obedience, unconditional love etc. in the position of perfection before a deity is Ibdah. The Ibdah mentioned here are the most prevalent types.

21- The full text of the yah mentioned by the Shaykh is as follows,


لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ لاَ يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُمْ بِشَيْءٍ إِلاَّ كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِي ضَلاَلٍ.
For Him (alone) is the supplication of truth. And those whom they invoke can never respond to them in any way. Their case is like the one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it reaches it not. And the invocation of the disbelievers are only in vain. (ar-Rad 13/14)

22- The intent here is to unify Allhu Tal in His essence, divine names and attributes. Meaning, not to section the Dht (Essence) of Allh by attributing a spouse, child etc. to Him, isolating al-Asm was Sift (the divine names and attributes) only to Him without associating any partner to Him, and to accept and confirm al-Asm was Sift of Allhu Tal without resembling Him to His creation, with no Tawl (figurative interpretation) nor Tahrf (distortion).
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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