التوحيد at-Tawhid


Izhâr'ud Dîn

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وهي فرض على الكفاية إذا قام بها أربعون من أهل المصر سقطت عن سائرهم. ووقتها من ارتفاع الشمس إلى الزوال، والسنة فعلها في المصلى، وتعجيل الأضحى وتأخير الفطر، والفطر في الفطر خاصة قبل الصلاة. ويسن أن يغتسل ويتنظف ويتطيب، فإذا حلت الصلاة تقدم الإمام فصلى بهم ركعتين بلا أذان ولا إقامة، يكبر في الأولى سبعاً بتكبيرة الإحرام، وفي الثانية خمساً سوى تكبيرة القيام.

ويرفع يديه مع كل تكبيرة، ويحمد الله ويصلي على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بين كل تكبيرتين، ثم يقرأ الفاتحة وسورة يجهر فيهما بالقراءة، فإذا سلم خطب بهم خطبتين، فإن كان فطراً حثهم على الصدقة وبين لهم حكمها، وإن كان أضحى بين لهم حكم الأضحية. والتكبيرات الزوائد والخطبتان سنة.

ولا يتنفل قبل صلاة العيد ولا بعدها في موضعها. ومن أدرك الإمام قبل سلامه أتمها على صفتها، ومن فاتته فلا قضاء عليه، فإن أحب صلاها تطوعاً: إن شاء ركعتين، وإن شاء أربعاً، وإن شاء صلاها على صفتها. ويستحب التكبير في ليلتي العيدين، ويكبر في الأضحى عقيب الفرائض في الجماعة من صلاة الفجر يوم عرفة إلى العصر من آخر أيام التشريق.

وصفة التكبير شفعاً: الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله. والله أكبر الله أكبر، ولله الحمد.

Ruling: It is Fardh Kifayah (communal obligation). When/if forty from the city performs it (Salat’il Iyd) it (the obligation of Salat’il Iyd) is discharged from the rest

Waqt (timing): It’s (prescribed) time is from when the sun is risen until az-Zawal (the sun reaching its zenith).

It’s Sunnah is to:

Perform it in the Musalla (place constructed for open-air worship; area within an open field, courtyard or garden).

To hasten in (Iyd) al-Adha and to delay (Iyd) al-Fitr.

To have breakfast prior to Salah on (Iyd) al-Fitr.1
It is Sunnah to perform Ghusl (major ablution), to clean oneself (wear clean clothes), and to wear perfume.2

When it is prayer time, the Imam will step forward, and lead two Rak’ah without Adhan or Iqamah. In the first (Rak’ah), he says seven Takbirat including the Ihram Takbir. In the second (Rak’ah), he says five Takbirat aside from the Takbir of rising (from Sajdah; prostration). With each Takbir he raises his hands (up to the shoulders/earlobes).3 Between every two Takbirat he praises Allah (Hamd) and send salutations (Salat) upon the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Then, he recites al-Fatihah and another Surah, aloud.4

After he makes Taslim (concluding the prayer with salutation of peace), he gives a Khutbah (sermon) consisting of two parts. If it is Iyd al-Fitr he will encourage to give the Sadaqa (alms-due) and explain its Hukm (ruling) to them. If it is, Iyd al-Adha explains the Hukm of al-Adha (sacrifice of animal) to them.5 The additional Takbirat and two Khutbah’s are Sunnah. 

Nawaafil (Superogatory) prayer will not be performed before or after the prayer at its place (the Musalla).6

The one, who arrives the prayer prior to the Taslim of the Imam, will complete the Salah as described. The one who misses it, Qadha (making up) is not required of him. If he wills to pray as Nawaafil, he will pray either two Rak’ah or four Rak’ah, if he wills he can perform it as described (with the Takbirat).

It is Mustahab (recommended) to make Takbir during the nights of the two Iyd and make Takbir during Iyd al-Adha right after the Fardh (obligatory) prayers performed in Jamaa'ah (congregation) from the Fajr of the day of Arafah to the Asr if the last day of Tashriq (4th day of the Iyd).7 The Takbir is in pairs (as is in Ahdan), as follows:

اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ
[Meaning: "Allah is greatest!.. Allah is greatest!.. There is no god deserves to be worshiped but Allah!.. and Allah is greatest!.. Allah is greatest!.. and all praise is due to Allah!.."]

Footnotes: Chapter: The Ritual Prayer of the Two Festivals

1- The following is said in Zad’ul Mustaqni concerning this: The opposite in al-Adha if there are sacrifices (meaning; breakfast will be eaten with the meat of sacrifice after the prayer).

2- Imam al-Khiraaqi said: (After the breakfast early in the morning) people then set out for the place of prayer while pronouncing the Takbir. (Mukhtasar)

Ibnu Qudamah said the following as its Sharh (explanation): This is for other than the Imam. Imam does not pronounce Takbir up until the time for prayer begins and comes out for the prayer the last. Even if he came to the Musalla earlier, he will hide from the people. Since the Imam does not wait for the people but the people wait for him. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also performed in this manner. (al-Mughni, 3/261)

3- After the Takbiratul Iftitah (Opening Takbir), the Dua of Iftitah will be recited. Then the Takbirat. Once the Takbirat ends, Isti'aadhah (seeking refuge in Allah from Satan), the Basmala and then the Qiraah will take place. (al-Mughni, 3/273)

Imam al-Khiraaqi said: The Imam praises Allah, extols Him, and invokes blessings on the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) between every Takbir. If the Imam likes, the following may be said:

اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيرًا، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ كَثِيرًا، وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا، وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهُ وَسَلَّمَ
[Meaning: "Allah is supremely great!.. all praise is due to Allah many times, glorified is Allah, morning and evening, and may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon Muhammad the Prophet, his family and his companions."]

If the Imam likes, other supplications may be pronounced. (Mukhtasar)

4- Muslim narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to recite in the first Ra’kah (unit) of his both Jumu’ah (Friday) Prayer and Id Prayers, Surah al-Ala and al-Ghashiyah for the second Ra’kah. For this reason Imam Ahmad (rahimahullah) graded this as a Mustahabb (recommended act). (Ibnu Qudamah, Mughni, 3/269)

5- In Zad’ul Mustaqni it is said that the Imam after making Taslim, opening the first Khutbah with nine Takbirat and the second Khutbah with seven Takbirat.

6- Imam al-Khiraaqi said: If a certain path is taken to attend the Id Prayer, a different way should be taken for the return.

7- According to one Qawl (saying; opinion) women also pronounce the Takbirat’ul Tashriq. However they shall pronounce lowering down their voices so that men can not hear them. According to another Riwayah (narration) from Imam Ahmad, due to fulfilling the right of Takbir one should pronounce it loudly; it is not Mustahabb for the women to pronounce it. Even if one forgets to pronounce Takbir after the congregation prayer, he will sit and do whenever he remembers. Other than that, it is Mandub to pronounce the Takbirat loudly during the Days of Tashriq even on the first ten Days of Dhi’l Hijjah in market places, Masajid (pl., Masjid; Mosques) etc. There is no harm to saying: ‘Taqabbal Allahu minna wa minkum (May Allah accept -this worship- from us and from you)’ and responding with it. (Ibnu Qudama, al-Mughni, 3/291-295)
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmű'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)

Izhâr'ud Dîn

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« Reply #1 on: 04.06.2019, 11:17:32 PM »

Having Breakfest Before Salaat’ul Iyd (Iyd Prayer)

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"Hence it is Mustahabb (recommended) to hasten to break the fast and to delay Sahur (meal before dawn during Ramadhaan), and to eat before the prayer on Yawm’ul Fitr (the day of Iyd’ul Fitr), and it is disallowed to anticipate Ramadhaan by fasting one or two days before it." (Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Fatawa al-Kubra, 2/359)

No Call for Salaat’ul Iyd

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"There is no call for the Iyd prayer or Istisqa (rain prayer). This is the view of a number of our companions (i.e., Jurists of Hanabilah)." (Mardawi, al-Insaaf, 1/428)

Iyd Greetings

Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) was asked:

Does the common Iyd greeting that is on people’s lips
عِيدُك مُبَارَكٌ "Iyduka Mubaarak" etc., have any basis in Shari’ah or not? If there is a basis for that in Shari’ah, what should we say?
He (rahimahullah) replied:

With regard to the greeting on the day of Iyd, which people say to one another when meeting after Iyd Prayer;
تَقَبَّلَ اللَّهُ مِنَّا وَمِنْكُمْ "Taqabballahu minna wa minkum (May Allah accept -this worship- from us and from you)" or saying; وَأَحَالَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْك "Ahaalahullah alayka (May Allah change you to be better/May you live to see another Iyd)" etc., this was narrated from a number of the Sahabah who used to do that and allow others to do so too, and from Aimmah (pl., Imam) such as Imam Ahmad. But Ahmad said: "I do not initiate this greeting with anyone. But if someone greets me in this manner I return his greeting." That is because returning a greeting is Waajib (obligatory), but initiating this (Iyd) greeting is not a Sunnah that is enjoined, but neither is it forbidden. The one who does it has an example (from Salaf) and the one who does not do it also has an example (from Salaf). Wallahu A’lam (and Allah knows best)!.." (Ibn Taymiyyah, Majma’ul Fatawa, 24/253; Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Fatawa al-Kubra, 2/228)

If Iyd Prayer Falls On a Jumu’ah (Friday)

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"If Jumu’ah and Iyd come together on the same day, then Ulama (pl., Alim; scholars) have three sayings with regards to it. The third of them; which is Sahih (correct) is that: whosoever attends the Iyd, then the Jumu’ah falls away from him. However; it is upon the Imam to establish the Jumu’ah (prayer), to allow anyone to wishing to attend to do so, as well as those that did not attend Iyd (prayer). Since this is what has been conveyed from Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab (companions), there is no differing known amongst Sahabah in that. So one who does not attend the Jumu’ah (prayer) instead prayers Dhuhr (Noon Prayer), thus the Dhuhr is prayed in its time." (Durar’us Saniyyah fi’l Ajwibat'in Najdiyyah, 5/50 See also Ibn Taymiyyah, Majma’ul Fatawa, 24/211-213)
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmű'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)


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