التوحيد at-Tawhid

Author Topic: SALÂT'IL ÎYDAYN (THE RITUAL PRAYER OF THE TWO FESTIVALS)  (Read 93 times)

Izhâr'ud Dîn

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وهي فرض على الكفاية إذا قام بها أربعون من أهل المصر سقطت عن سائرهم. ووقتها من ارتفاع الشمس إلى الزوال، والسنة فعلها في المصلى، وتعجيل الأضحى وتأخير الفطر، والفطر في الفطر خاصة قبل الصلاة. ويسن أن يغتسل ويتنظف ويتطيب، فإذا حلت الصلاة تقدم الإمام فصلى بهم ركعتين بلا أذان ولا إقامة، يكبر في الأولى سبعاً بتكبيرة الإحرام، وفي الثانية خمساً سوى تكبيرة القيام.

ويرفع يديه مع كل تكبيرة، ويحمد الله ويصلي على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بين كل تكبيرتين، ثم يقرأ الفاتحة وسورة يجهر فيهما بالقراءة، فإذا سلم خطب بهم خطبتين، فإن كان فطراً حثهم على الصدقة وبين لهم حكمها، وإن كان أضحى بين لهم حكم الأضحية. والتكبيرات الزوائد والخطبتان سنة.

ولا يتنفل قبل صلاة العيد ولا بعدها في موضعها. ومن أدرك الإمام قبل سلامه أتمها على صفتها، ومن فاتته فلا قضاء عليه، فإن أحب صلاها تطوعاً: إن شاء ركعتين، وإن شاء أربعاً، وإن شاء صلاها على صفتها. ويستحب التكبير في ليلتي العيدين، ويكبر في الأضحى عقيب الفرائض في الجماعة من صلاة الفجر يوم عرفة إلى العصر من آخر أيام التشريق.

وصفة التكبير شفعاً: الله أكبر الله أكبر، لا إله إلا الله. والله أكبر الله أكبر، ولله الحمد.

Ruling: It is Fardh Kifayah (communal obligation). When/if forty from the city performs it (Salat’il Iyd) it (the obligation of Salat’il Iyd) is discharged from the rest

Waqt (timing): It’s (prescribed) time is from when the sun is risen until az-Zawal (the sun reaching its zenith).

It’s Sunnah is to:

Perform it in the Musalla (place constructed for open-air worship; area within an open field, courtyard or garden).

To hasten in (Iyd) al-Adha and to delay (Iyd) al-Fitr.

To have breakfast prior to Salah on (Iyd) al-Fitr.1
 
It is Sunnah to perform Ghusl (major ablution), to clean oneself (wear clean clothes), and to wear perfume.2

When it is prayer time, the Imam will step forward, and lead two Rak’ah without Adhan or Iqamah. In the first (Rak’ah), he says seven Takbirat including the Ihram Takbir. In the second (Rak’ah), he says five Takbirat aside from the Takbir of rising (from Sajdah; prostration). With each Takbir he raises his hands (up to the shoulders/earlobes).3 Between every two Takbirat he praises Allah (Hamd) and send salutations (Salat) upon the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Then, he recites al-Fatihah and another Surah, aloud.4

After he makes Taslim (concluding the prayer with salutation of peace), he gives a Khutbah (sermon) consisting of two parts. If it is Iyd al-Fitr he will encourage to give the Sadaqa (alms-due) and explain its Hukm (ruling) to them. If it is, Iyd al-Adha explains the Hukm of al-Adha (sacrifice of animal) to them.5 The additional Takbirat and two Khutbah’s are Sunnah. 

Nawaafil (Superogatory) prayer will not be performed before or after the prayer at its place (the Musalla).6

The one, who arrives the prayer prior to the Taslim of the Imam, will complete the Salah as described. The one who misses it, Qadha (making up) is not required of him. If he wills to pray as Nawaafil, he will pray either two Rak’ah or four Rak’ah, if he wills he can perform it as described (with the Takbirat).

It is Mustahab (recommended) to make Takbir during the nights of the two Iyd and make Takbir during Iyd al-Adha right after the Fardh (obligatory) prayers performed in Jamaa'ah (congregation) from the Fajr of the day of Arafah to the Asr if the last day of Tashriq (4th day of the Iyd).7 The Takbir is in pairs (as is in Ahdan), as follows:


اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ، وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ، وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ
[Meaning: "Allah is greatest!.. Allah is greatest!.. There is no god deserves to be worshiped but Allah!.. and Allah is greatest!.. Allah is greatest!.. and all praise is due to Allah!.."]



Quote
Footnotes: Chapter: The Ritual Prayer of the Two Festivals

1- The following is said in Zad’ul Mustaqni concerning this: The opposite in al-Adha if there are sacrifices (meaning; breakfast will be eaten with the meat of sacrifice after the prayer).

2- Imam al-Khiraaqi said: (After the breakfast early in the morning) people then set out for the place of prayer while pronouncing the Takbir. (Mukhtasar)

Ibnu Qudamah said the following as its Sharh (explanation): This is for other than the Imam. Imam does not pronounce Takbir up until the time for prayer begins and comes out for the prayer the last. Even if he came to the Musalla earlier, he will hide from the people. Since the Imam does not wait for the people but the people wait for him. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also performed in this manner. (al-Mughni, 3/261)

3- After the Takbiratul Iftitah (Opening Takbir), the Dua of Iftitah will be recited. Then the Takbirat. Once the Takbirat ends, Isti'aadhah (seeking refuge in Allah from Satan), the Basmala and then the Qiraah will take place. (al-Mughni, 3/273)

Imam al-Khiraaqi said: The Imam praises Allah, extols Him, and invokes blessings on the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) between every Takbir. If the Imam likes, the following may be said:


اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ كَبِيرًا، وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ كَثِيرًا، وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا، وَصَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ النَّبِيِّ الْأُمِّيِّ وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَصَحْبِهُ وَسَلَّمَ
[Meaning: "Allah is supremely great!.. all praise is due to Allah many times, glorified is Allah, morning and evening, and may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon Muhammad the Prophet, his family and his companions."]

If the Imam likes, other supplications may be pronounced. (Mukhtasar)

4- Muslim narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to recite in the first Ra’kah (unit) of his both Jumu’ah (Friday) Prayer and Id Prayers, Surah al-Ala and al-Ghashiyah for the second Ra’kah. For this reason Imam Ahmad (rahimahullah) graded this as a Mustahabb (recommended act). (Ibnu Qudamah, Mughni, 3/269)

5- In Zad’ul Mustaqni it is said that the Imam after making Taslim, opening the first Khutbah with nine Takbirat and the second Khutbah with seven Takbirat.

6- Imam al-Khiraaqi said: If a certain path is taken to attend the Id Prayer, a different way should be taken for the return.

7- According to one Qawl (saying; opinion) women also pronounce the Takbirat’ul Tashriq. However they shall pronounce lowering down their voices so that men can not hear them. According to another Riwayah (narration) from Imam Ahmad, due to fulfilling the right of Takbir one should pronounce it loudly; it is not Mustahabb for the women to pronounce it. Even if one forgets to pronounce Takbir after the congregation prayer, he will sit and do whenever he remembers. Other than that, it is Mandub to pronounce the Takbirat loudly during the Days of Tashriq even on the first ten Days of Dhi’l Hijjah in market places, Masajid (pl., Masjid; Mosques) etc. There is no harm to saying: ‘Taqabbal Allahu minna wa minkum (May Allah accept -this worship- from us and from you)’ and responding with it. (Ibnu Qudama, al-Mughni, 3/291-295)
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmű'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)

Izhâr'ud Dîn

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Re: SALÂT'IL ÎYDAYN (THE RITUAL PRAYER OF THE TWO FESTIVALS)
« Reply #1 on: 04.06.2019, 11:17:32 PM »

Having Breakfest Before Salaat’ul Iyd (Iyd Prayer)

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"Hence it is Mustahabb (recommended) to hasten to break the fast and to delay Sahur (meal before dawn during Ramadhaan), and to eat before the prayer on Yawm’ul Fitr (the day of Iyd’ul Fitr), and it is disallowed to anticipate Ramadhaan by fasting one or two days before it." (Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Fatawa al-Kubra, 2/359)


No Call for Salaat’ul Iyd

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"There is no call for the Iyd prayer or Istisqa (rain prayer). This is the view of a number of our companions (i.e., Jurists of Hanabilah)." (Mardawi, al-Insaaf, 1/428)


Iyd Greetings

Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) was asked:

Does the common Iyd greeting that is on people’s lips
عِيدُك مُبَارَكٌ "Iyduka Mubaarak" etc., have any basis in Shari’ah or not? If there is a basis for that in Shari’ah, what should we say?
 
He (rahimahullah) replied:

With regard to the greeting on the day of Iyd, which people say to one another when meeting after Iyd Prayer;
تَقَبَّلَ اللَّهُ مِنَّا وَمِنْكُمْ "Taqabballahu minna wa minkum (May Allah accept -this worship- from us and from you)" or saying; وَأَحَالَهُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْك "Ahaalahullah alayka (May Allah change you to be better/May you live to see another Iyd)" etc., this was narrated from a number of the Sahabah who used to do that and allow others to do so too, and from Aimmah (pl., Imam) such as Imam Ahmad. But Ahmad said: "I do not initiate this greeting with anyone. But if someone greets me in this manner I return his greeting." That is because returning a greeting is Waajib (obligatory), but initiating this (Iyd) greeting is not a Sunnah that is enjoined, but neither is it forbidden. The one who does it has an example (from Salaf) and the one who does not do it also has an example (from Salaf). Wallahu A’lam (and Allah knows best)!.." (Ibn Taymiyyah, Majma’ul Fatawa, 24/253; Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Fatawa al-Kubra, 2/228)

If Iyd Prayer Falls On a Jumu’ah (Friday)

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"If Jumu’ah and Iyd come together on the same day, then Ulama (pl., Alim; scholars) have three sayings with regards to it. The third of them; which is Sahih (correct) is that: whosoever attends the Iyd, then the Jumu’ah falls away from him. However; it is upon the Imam to establish the Jumu’ah (prayer), to allow anyone to wishing to attend to do so, as well as those that did not attend Iyd (prayer). Since this is what has been conveyed from Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and his Ashaab (companions), there is no differing known amongst Sahabah in that. So one who does not attend the Jumu’ah (prayer) instead prayers Dhuhr (Noon Prayer), thus the Dhuhr is prayed in its time." (Durar’us Saniyyah fi’l Ajwibat'in Najdiyyah, 5/50 See also Ibn Taymiyyah, Majma’ul Fatawa, 24/211-213)
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmű'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)

Izhâr'ud Dîn

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Re: SALÂT'IL ÎYDAYN (THE RITUAL PRAYER OF THE TWO FESTIVALS)
« Reply #2 on: 10.08.2019, 05:11:28 AM »

Praying Salaat’ul Iyd (Iyd Prayers) in Musallah (the place of prayer)

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would perform Iydayn (i.e., the two Iyd prayers) in Musallah (the place of prayer) which is Musallah at the eastern Bab (entrance) of (the city) Madinah Sharif and it is Musallah where Hajj (the pilgrimage) caravans would camp. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) never performed Iydayn in his Masjid (mosque i.e., Masjid al-Nabawi) except once due to rain, if the narration collected in Sunnan of Abu Dawud and Ibn Ma’ajah is proved (to be authentic). The guidance of the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was to always perform the prayers in Musallah.

Going Out For Salaat’ul Iyd

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would wear his best clothes for Iydayn (i.e., two Iyd prayers). The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) had a garment that he wore for Iydayn and on Jumu’ah (Friday prayer). Sometimes the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) wore two green cloaks or a red cloak. (As we previously clarified) these clothes were not of plain color, as some people thought, or else this type of garment would not be called a cloak. The clothes had red stripes such as Yemeni cloaks and they were called red as a figure of speech.

It is authentically reported from the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) in which he prohibited plain red and saffron colored clothes. When he saw Abdullah ibn Amr (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) wearing two red garments, he ordered him to burn them. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not have disliked wearing red this much yet wear it himself. Dalil (the evidence) demonstrates there is Tahrim (impermissibility) on wearing plain red is or at least Karahat (greatly disapproved).

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) upon him, would eat an odd number of dates before (heading to prayer in Musallah on the day of) Iyd’ul Fitr. As for the (day of) Iyd’ul Adha, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would not eat until he returned from Musallah. Then the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would eat from Udhiyya (the meat of animal that was slaughtered as a sacrifice).

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would perform Ghuls (the ritual bath) for Iydayn according to Sahih (authentic) Hadith. There are two Dhayif (weak) Hadith about this practice. Hadith of Abdullah ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) through the narration of Jubarah ibn Mughallis and the Hadith of Fakih ibn Sa’d through the narration of Yusuf ibn Khalid as-Samti. However (Abdullah) ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain), who strictly followed the Sunnah, used to perform Ghusl on Yawm’ul Iyd (the day of Iyd) before going out (for Iyd prayer).

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would head to the prayer walking while he carried a staff between his (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) hands. When The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) reached the Musallah, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would place the staff in front of him as he led Salaah (the prayer). (During that time) Musallah was an empty space and it did not contain structures or walls. The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also used a lance as a his Sutrah (barrier to mark his place of prayer).


Description of Salaat’ul Iyd

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would delay Salat’ul Iyd’ul Fitr and he would hasten it (i.e., Salat’ul Iyd) on Adha (the day of sacrifices). Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain), who strictly followed the Sunnah, would not exit his house until sunrise and then he proceed to Musallah while declaring Takbir (saying Allahu Akbar i.e., Allah is Great!).

When the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) reached Musallah, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would offer Salaah without preceding it with Adhan and Iqamah (the two calls to prayer). They did not announce the statement as-Salaatu Jaa’miha (the congregational prayer is about to begin). The Sunnah does not prescribe any of these statements. Neither the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) nor his Ashab (companions) would perform any prayer before or after Salaat’ul Iyd (the Iyd prayer).

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) performed (Iyd) prayer before Khutbah (the sermon) by first praying Rakaatayn (two Rakah; units of prayer). The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) declared Takbirat seven consecutive times in the first (Rakah) and after the first declaration, pausing briefly between Takbirat. There is no specific Dhikr (supplication) reported (from the Prophet) to be said between each Takbirat. However ibn Mas’ud (radiyallahu anh) would praise and thank Allah and send blessings upon Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and it was reported by Khallal. Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhu anhuma ajmain), who strictly followed (the Prophet), would raise his hands every time he said the Takbirat.

When the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) finished his Takbir, he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would started Qiraah (recitation) of the Qur’an by beginning with Fatihat’ul Kitaab (i.e., Surat’ul Fatihah). Then he would recite in the first of two Rakaah (the Surah Qaf beginning with the first Ayah):


وَالْقُرْآنِ الْمَجِيدِ
"Qaf: by Qur’an’ul Majid (the Glorious Qur’an), (thou art Allah's Messenger)." (Qaf 50/1)

and for the latter (he would recite the Surat’ul Qamar beginning with the first Ayah):


اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانْشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ
"Saat (the Hour of Judgment) is nigh, and the moon was cleft asunder.." (al-Qamar 54/1)

Sometimes the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would recite (the Surat’ul A’la beginning with the first Ayah):


سَبِّحِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ الْأَعْلَى
"Glorify the name of thy Guardian-Lord Most High." (al-A’la 87/1)

and (for the second Ra’kah the Surat’ul Ghashiyah beginning with the first Ayah):


هَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ الْغَاشِيَةِ
"Has the story reached thee of the Overwhelming (Event)?" (al-Ghashiyah 88/1)

Both of these (combinations of Surah) were reported (from the Prophet) as Sahih (authentically) and nothing else was reported from the Prophet) as Sahih (authentically).

When the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) finished the Qiraah (of the Qur’an), he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would declare Takbir and go into Ruku (bowing position). After finishing Ruku and standing from Sujud (prostration), he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would declare Takbir five consecutive times and then started Qiraah (reciting the Qur’an). Thus, in his two Rakaat he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would first declare Takbir, then recite the Qur’an, and then go into Ruku. It was reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) in the first (Rakat) said Takbir, then performed Qiraah and then performed Ruku and in the second (Rakat) he (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) recited the Qur’an first and said Takbir afterward. However, this was not established from him (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). It is because it is the Riwayah (narration of) Muhammad ibn Mu’awiyah an-Nisaburi. Bayhaqai said (regarding him): Many (scholars) accused him of fabricating (Hadith).

Tirmidhi narrated that Kathir ibn Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Awf reported  from his father (Abdullah ibn) Amr that his father (Amr ibn Awf) said that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) during Iydayn said seven Takbir in the first Rakah before reciting the Qur’an and five Takbir in the latter Rakah before the Qiraah (of the Qur’an).1 Tirmidhi said: "I asked Muhammad meaning Bukhari about this narration and he said: There is no more authentic report than this on this topic, and this is mine (i.e., Tirmidhi’s) opinion. He also said that the report (specifying a different amount) collected from Abdullah ibn Abd’ur Rahman at-Taifi from Amr ibn Shu’ayb is also Sahih."

I (i.e., Ibn Qayyim) say that Tirmidhi was referring to a report (from Abdullah ibn Abd’ur Rahman) in which it is stated that:


أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَبَّرَ فِي عِيدٍ ثِنْتَيْ عَشْرَةَ تَكْبِيرَةً سَبْعًا فِي الْأُولَى وَخَمْسًا فِي الْآخِرَةِ وَلَمْ يُصَلِّ قَبْلَهَا وَلَا بَعْدَهَا
"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said twelve Takbir during the Iyd (prayer), seven in the first (Rakah) and five in the second (Rakah). He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam)  did not offer any prayer before or after it."

Ahmad (ibn Hanbal) said: "I also go with this opinion." As for Kathir ibn Abdullah ibn Amr, Ahmad (ibn Hanbal) slapped his report in his book Musnad and said: "His reports are not worthy (of being recorded)." Yet, Tirmidhi sometimes graded his (i.e., Kathir’s) reports as Sahih (authentic) and other times as Hasan (fair). Bukhari said that this report is the most authentic on this topic. He (i.e., Tirmidhi) ruled that the report from Amr ibn Shu’ayb is Sahih, stating he also go with it (i.e., the opinion of Bukhari). Wallahu A’lam (and Allah knows best)!..


Khutbat’ul Iydayn (Sermon of the Two Iyd)

When the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) completed the prayer, he would stand in front of the congregation who would remain sitting in their rows. Then the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would deliver a sermon, advise them, and give orders and prohibitions. Meanwhile, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would dispatch an expedition or give an order if he wished to do so. There was not a Minbar (pulpit) that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would stand on (during his speech), nor was the Minbar of Madinah transferred to outside (i.e., the place of prayer). Rather, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would deliver the sermon while standing on the ground. Jaabir said:

شَهِدْتُ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ الصَّلَاةَ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ فَبَدَأَ بِالصَّلَاةِ قَبْلَ الْخُطْبَةِ بِلَا أَذَانٍ وَلَا إِقَامَةٍ ثُمَّ قَامَ مُتَوَكِّئًا عَلَى بِلَالٍ فَأَمَرَ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَحَثَّ عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ وَوَعَظَ النَّاسَ وَذَكَّرَهُمْ ثُمَّ مَضَى حَتَّى أَتَى النِّسَاءَ فَوَعَظَهُنَّ وَذَكَّرَهُنَّ
"I attended Salaat’ul Iyd during Yawm’ul Iyd (the day of Iyd) with Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam). Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) first started with the prayer and then delivered the Khutbah (sermon) without announcing Adhaan and Iqaamah (the two calls to prayer). Then Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would stand up while leaning on Bilaal (radiyallahu anh). Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) commanded people to be on guard (against evil for the sake of) Allah and exhorted on obedience to Him. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) preached to the people and admonished them, then he went to where the women were sitting and he advised them and reminded them." (Bukhari, #958-961; Muslim, #885; Nasa'i, #1575) Muttafaq Alayh (agreed upon; reported by both Bukhari and Muslim).

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (radiyallahu anh) said:


كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ وَالْأَضْحَى إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى فَأَوَّلُ مَا يَبْدَأُ بِهِ الصَّلَاةُ ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ فَيَقُومُ مُقَابِلَ النَّاسِ وَالنَّاسُ جُلُوسٌ عَلَى صُفُوفِهِمْ
"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would go out (to the Musallah) on Yawm’ul Fitr and Adha (the two days of celebration). The first thing he would do is pray and then (while preaching and advising) he would stand before the people who would remain sitting in their rows." (Bukhari, #956; Muslim, #889) This Hadith was narrated by Muslim.

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (radiyallahu anh) mentioned that:


أَنَّهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَانَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ فَيُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ فَيَقِفُ عَلَى رَاحِلَتِهِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ النَّاسِ وَهُمْ صُفُوفٌ جُلُوسٌ فَيَقُولُ تَصَدَّقُوا فَأَكْثَرُ مَنْ يَتَصَدَّقُ النِّسَاءُ بِالْقُرْطِ وَالْخَاتَمِ وَالشَّيْءِ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ حَاجَةٌ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَبْعَثَ بَعْثًا يَذْكُرُهُ لَهُمْ وَإِلَّا انْصَرَفَ

"The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would go out (to the place of prayer) for leading the prayer during the day of Iyd by performing two Rakaat. After the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) ended the prayer by invoking Taslim (concluding portion of the prayer), he would mount his camel and face the congregation who would be sitting in their rows and he would say: Tasadduq (give charity). Women would give the most charity at that time, donating their earrings, rings, and other items. Afterwards, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would mention if he wanted to dispatch an expedition. If he did not then he would return home." (Ibn Ma’ajah, #1347; Nasa'i, #1579)

I used thought that there was a mistake in reporting this narration until I see this Hadith in the Musnad of Hafidh Baqi ibn Makhlad. This is because Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would go our for the Iyd (prayer) walking while carrying a staff. The only time he delivered Khutbah (i.e., Khutbat’ul Wada; the Last Sermon) while sitting on his camel was during Yawm’ul Adha (the day of sacrifice) in Mina. He (i.e., Hafidh Baqi ibn Makhlad) narrated this report from (the chain of narration of) Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shaybah – Abdullah ibn Numayr – Dawud ibn Qays – Iyadh ibn Abdullah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi Sarh - Abi Sa’id al-Khudri (radiyallahu anh) who said that:


كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْعِيدِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْفِطْرِ فَيُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ تَيْنِكَ الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُسَلِّمُ فَيَسْتَقْبِلُ النَّاسُ فَيَقُولُ تَصَدَّقُوا وَكَانَ أَكْثَرُ مَنْ يَتَصَدَّقُ النِّسَاءَ
"Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would go out (to the prayer) during the day of Iyd; on Yawm’ul Fitr (the Day of Breaking Fast), lead the people in prayer with two Rakaat, and end by invoking Taslim. Then the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would face the congregation and said: Tasadduq (give in charity)!.. Women would give the most charity..."

And he (i.e., Hafidh Baqi ibn Makhlad) mentioned (the rest of) the Hadith.

Then he he (i.e., Hafidh Baqi ibn Makhlad) narrated this report from (the chain of narration of) Abu Bakr ibn Khallad –Abu Amir – Dawud - Iyadh - Abi Sa’id (radiyallahu anh) said:


كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَخْرُجُ فِي يَوْمِ الْفِطْرِ فَيُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ فَيَبْدَأُ بِالرَّكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يَسْتَقْبِلُهُمْ وَهُمْ جُلُوسٌ فَيَقُولُ تَصَدَّقُوا
"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would go out (to the prayer) on Yawm’ul Fitr and the first thing he did was lead the people in a prayer of two Rakaat. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would face the people, who would be sitting, and said: Tasadduq (give charity)!.."

Then recorded the end of the narration as same as above. This is the same chain of narration used by Ibn Ma’ajah, except the narrators Abu Kurayb – Abu Usaamah - Dawud.

The original narration could have said that:
ثُمَّ يَقُومُ عَلَى رِجْلَيْهِ "The prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would stand on his feet", to conform to Jabir’s narration that: قَامَ مُتَوَكِّئًا عَلَى بلال "The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was leaning on Bilal." However, the person who recorded Ibn Ma’ajah’s report might have incorrectly narrated that: بِرَاحِلَتِهِ "The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was sitting on his camel." Wallahu A’lam!..

If it was said: It was reported in Sahihayn (two Sahih; Sahih of Bukhari and Sahih of Muslim) that ibn Abbaas (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) said:


شَهِدْتُ صَلَاةَ الْفِطْرِ مَعَ نَبِيِّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وأبي بكر وعمر وعثمان رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ فَكُلُّهُمْ يُصَلِّيهَا قَبْلَ الْخُطْبَةِ ثُمَّ يَخْطُبُ قَالَ
"I witnessed Salaat’ul Fitr (the Prayer on the Day of Breaking Fast) with Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman (radiyallahu anhuma). All of them would perform Salaah before Khutbah, then deliver the Khutbah.

He (i.e., ibn Abbaas continued and) said:


فَنَزَلَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ كَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِ حِينَ يَجْلِسُ الرِّجَالُ بِيَدِهِ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ يَشُقُّهُمْ حَتَّى جَاءَ إِلَى النِّسَاءِ وَمَعَهُ بِلَالٌ فَقَالَ
Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) descended after the sermon, as if I am now looking at him waving to the men to remain sitting. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) was accompanied by Bilaal (radiyallahu anh) and he came crossing the rows until he reached the women, then recited the verse till to the end of it:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَن لَّا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا
"O Prophet, when the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with Allah..." (al-Mumtahinah 60/12)" (Bukhari, #979, #4895; Muslim, #884)

In the Sahihayn it was also narrated that Jaabir (radiyallahu anh) said:


أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَامَ فَبَدَأَ بِالصَّلَاةِ ثُمَّ خَطَبَ النَّاسَ بَعْدُ فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ نَزَلَ فَأَتَى النِّسَاءَ فَذَكَّرَهُنَّ
"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stood and began the prayer, then he delivered the Khutbah. When Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) finished the sermon, he descended to the women and preached to them." (Bukhari, # 958-961, #978; Muslim, #885; Abi Dawud, #1141)

These two narrations indicate that, the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave Khutbah while standing on a pulpit or sitting on his camel. It is possible that a pulpit was built for him from cod, mud stones or its likes. (Is this the case?)

We say (as an answer) that there is no doubt in the authenticity of these two Hadith. Also, there is no doubt that Minbar (the pulpit) was not taken out of the Masjid. The first (person) was Marwan ibn’ul Hakam who took it out (of the Masjid) and he was criticized for doing so. As for the Minbar that was built in Madinah from cod and mud stones, it was built by Kathir ibn’us Salt when Marwan was the governor of Madinah as it was reported in Sahihayn.2 It is possible that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to stand on a high place or a bench on Musallah, then he would descend to where the women were sitting to deliver a sermon to them, advise them, and remind them. Wallahu A’lam!..

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would start all of his sermons with Hamd (the praise) of Allah. There is not a single report in which the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) started the Khutbah on Iydayn by declaring Takbir. Ibn Ma’ajah recorded in the Sunnan that Sa’d al-Qaradh (radiyallahu anh), Muaddhin (one who announce the call to prayer) for Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), said that:


أَنَّهُ كَانَ يُكْثِرُ التَّكْبِيرَ بَيْنَ أَضْعَافِ الْخُطْبَةِ وَيُكْثِرُ التَّكْبِيرَ فِي خُطْبَتَيِ الْعِيدَيْنِ
"The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say the Takbir within his sermons and he used say the Takbir a great deal in Khutbat’ul Iydayn (sermons of the two Iyd)." (Ibn Ma’ajah, #1287)

This Hadith does not indicate that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) starting his Khutbah of Iyd with Takbir.

There is Ikhtilaaf (disagreement) between people (i.e., scholars) on whether Khutbat’ul Iydayn and (Khutbat’ul) Istisqaa (rain prayer) Allah for rain should start with. So it was said that

both will be started with Takbir, and it was said that

Khutbat’ul Istisqaa will be started with Istighfaar (seeking forgiveness) and it was also said that

both will be started with Hamd (praise).

Shaykh’ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: This (i.e., beginning with Hamd) is the correct opinion, as Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said:


كَلُّ أَمْرٍ ذِي بَالٍ لَا يُبْدَأُ فِيهِ بِحَمْدِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ أَجْذَمُ
"Every matter that does not begin with the praise of Allah is left deficient." (Ibn Ma’ajah, #1894)

The Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would start all of his sermons with the praise of Allah.

The prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) made a concession for those who witnessed the Iyd (prayer) to either listen to the Khutbah or to depart. The prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) also made a concession for them not to attend the Jumu’ah (Friday prayer) if Iyd prayer occurs on a Friday and they attended Salaat’ul Iyd (the Iyd prayer).


Taking Different Paths and Routes to Go or Come Back from Musallah

When the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would depart his route during Yawm’ul Iyd, he would leave (his house) using one path and return using a different path.

It is said that the reason he did this was to greet the people with Salaam who lived on both fairways, or so that
 
His Barakah (the blessings) would reach who lived on both fairways, or
 
to fulfill the needs of those who lived on both fairways. It is said that

he did so to establish Shaa’ir (pl., Shiar; the symbols) of Islam in the various roads and paths. Another reason given is that

he did so to frustrate Munafiqin (pl., Munafiq; the hypocrites) when they witnessed the Izzah (might) of Islam and its people (i.e., Muslimin) and establishment of its (i.e., Islam’s) Shaa’ir. It is said that
 
he did so in order for the various areas to testify to his obedience to Allah (on the Day of Qiyamah).

Surely, he who walks to the Masjid (mosque) and Musallah (the place of prayer) will earn this virtue: one step raises him a degree and another erases a sin until he returns home.

It is also said, and this is the correct opinion, that all the reasons mentioned here are possible as well as other unknown Hikmah (wisdom) that always accompanied his (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) actions.


Takbirat’ut Tashriq

It is reported that the Prophet (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would recite Takbir beginning after Salaat’ul Fajr (the Dawn Prayer) on Yawm’ul Arafah (the Day of Arafat; the day before Iyd’ul Adha) until Asr (prayer) on the last of Ayyam’ut Tashriq (the Days of Sacrifice i.e., the first three days of Iyd’ul Adha):

اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ اللَّهُ أَكْبَرُ وَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ
"Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, La-ilaha Illallah, Wallahu Akbar, Wa Lillahi Hamd. (Allah is Great, Allah is Great, there is no God –deserves to be worshiped- but Allah, Allah is Great, and for Allah is all praise)."



Quote
Footnotes:

1- Kathir ibn Abdullah narrated from this father, from his grandfather that:


أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَبَّرَ فِي الْعِيدَيْنِ فِي الأُولَى سَبْعًا قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ وَفِي الآخِرَةِ خَمْسًا قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ
"Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) said the Takbir in the first (Rak'ah) seven (times) before the Qiraah (recitation of the Qur’an), and in the last (Rak'ah), five (times) before the Qiraah." (Tirmidhi, #536);

Abd’ur Rahman ibn Sa’d ibn Ammar ibn Sa’d, the Mu’adhdhin of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam), narrated from his father, from his father, from his grandfather, that:


كَانَ يُكَبِّرُ فِي الْعِيدَيْنِ فِي الأُولَى سَبْعًا قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ وَفِي الآخِرَةِ خَمْسًا قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ
"Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say the Takbir in Idayn, seven times in the first (Rak’ah) before Qiraah, and five times in the second before Qiraah." (Ibn Ma’ajah, #1336);

Nafi, the Mawla (freed slave) of Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyallahu anhuma ajmain) said:


شَهِدْتُ الأَضْحَى وَالْفِطْرَ مَعَ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ فَكَبَّرَ فِي الرَّكْعَةِ الأُولَى سَبْعَ تَكْبِيرَاتٍ قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ وَفِي الآخِرَةِ خَمْسَ تَكْبِيرَاتٍ قَبْلَ الْقِرَاءَةِ
"I witnessed (both Iyd) Adha and Fitr with Abi Hurayra (radiyallahu anh) and he declared Takbir seven times in the first Rakah, before the Qiraah, and five times in the second (Rakah), before the Qiraah." (Malik, Muwatta, #439)

2- It was narrated from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri (radiyallahu anh) that he said:


كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ وَالأَضْحَى إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى، فَأَوَّلُ شَىْءٍ يَبْدَأُ بِهِ الصَّلاَةُ ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ، فَيَقُومُ مُقَابِلَ النَّاسِ، وَالنَّاسُ جُلُوسٌ عَلَى صُفُوفِهِمْ، فَيَعِظُهُمْ وَيُوصِيهِمْ وَيَأْمُرُهُمْ، فَإِنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَقْطَعَ بَعْثًا قَطَعَهُ، أَوْ يَأْمُرَ بِشَىْءٍ أَمَرَ بِهِ، ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو سَعِيدٍ
"Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) would go out (to the Musallah) on Yawm’ul Fitr and Adha (the two days of celebration). The first thing he would do is pray and then (while preaching and advising) he would stand before the people who would remain sitting in their rows. Then he would preach to them, advise them and give them orders, (i.e. Khutbah). And after that if he wished to send an army for an expedition, he would do so; or if he wanted to give and order, he would do so, and then depart.

Abu Sa’id (radiyallahu anh) said:


فَلَمْ يَزَلِ النَّاسُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ حَتَّى خَرَجْتُ مَعَ مَرْوَانَ وَهْوَ أَمِيرُ الْمَدِينَةِ فِي أَضْحًى أَوْ فِطْرٍ، فَلَمَّا أَتَيْنَا الْمُصَلَّى إِذَا مِنْبَرٌ بَنَاهُ كَثِيرُ بْنُ الصَّلْتِ، فَإِذَا مَرْوَانُ يُرِيدُ أَنْ يَرْتَقِيَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ، فَجَبَذْتُ بِثَوْبِهِ فَجَبَذَنِي فَارْتَفَعَ، فَخَطَبَ قَبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ، فَقُلْتُ لَهُ
The people followed this tradition till I went out with Marwan, Amir (the Governor) of Madinah, for (the prayer of) Iyd’ul Adha or Iyd’ul Fitr. When we reached the Musallah, there was a Minbar (pulpit) made by Kathir ibn’us Salt. Marwan wanted to get up on that pulpit before the prayer. I got hold of his clothes but he pulled them and ascended the pulpit and delivered the Khutbah before the prayer. I said to him:

غَيَّرْتُمْ وَاللَّهِ‏.‏ فَقَالَ
"By Allah, you have changed (the Prophet's tradition)!.." He replied:

فَقَالَ أَبَا سَعِيدٍ، قَدْ ذَهَبَ مَا تَعْلَمُ‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ
"O Aba Sa'id! Gone is that which you know." I said:

مَا أَعْلَمُ وَاللَّهِ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا لاَ أَعْلَمُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ
"By Allah! What I know is better than what I do not know." Marwan said:

إِنَّ النَّاسَ لَمْ يَكُونُوا يَجْلِسُونَ لَنَا بَعْدَ الصَّلاَةِ فَجَعَلْتُهَا قَبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ
"People do not sit to listen to our Khutbah after the prayer, so I delivered the Khutbah before the prayer." (Bukhari, #956);

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (radiyallahu anh) reported that:


أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَخْرُجُ يَوْمَ الأَضْحَى وَيَوْمَ الْفِطْرِ فَيَبْدَأُ بِالصَّلاَةِ فَإِذَا صَلَّى صَلاَتَهُ وَسَلَّمَ قَامَ فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَهُمْ جُلُوسٌ فِي مُصَلاَّهُمْ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ حَاجَةٌ بِبَعْثٍ ذَكَرَهُ لِلنَّاسِ أَوْ كَانَتْ لَهُ حَاجَةٌ بِغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ أَمَرَهُمْ بِهَا وَكَانَ يَقُولُ ‏
"Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to go out on Yawm’ul Adha and Yawm’ul Fitr and commenced the prayer. And after having observed his prayer and pronounced the salutation, he stood up facing people as they were seated at their places of worship. And if he intended to send out an army he made mention of it to the people, and if he intended any other thing besides it, he commanded them (to do that). He (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to say (to the people):

تَصَدَّقُوا تَصَدَّقُوا تَصَدَّقُوا
"Tasadduq (give charity), Tasadduq, Tasadduq!.."

وَكَانَ أَكْثَرَ مَنْ يَتَصَدَّقُ النِّسَاءُ
The majority that gave Sadaqah (charity) was of women.

ثُمَّ يَنْصَرِفُ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ كَذَلِكَ حَتَّى كَانَ مَرْوَانُ بْنُ الْحَكَمِ فَخَرَجْتُ مُخَاصِرًا مَرْوَانَ حَتَّى أَتَيْنَا الْمُصَلَّى فَإِذَا كَثِيرُ بْنُ الصَّلْتِ قَدْ بَنَى مِنْبَرًا مِنْ طِينٍ وَلَبِنٍ فَإِذَا مَرْوَانُ يُنَازِعُنِي يَدَهُ كَأَنَّهُ يَجُرُّنِي نَحْوَ الْمِنْبَرِ وَأَنَا أَجُرُّهُ نَحْوَ الصَّلاَةِ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْتُ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ قُلْتُ
He then returned and this (practice) remained (in vogue) till Marwan ibn’ul Hakam (came into power). I went out hand in hand with Marwan till we came to the Musallah and there Kathir ibn’us Salt had built a Minbar of clay and brick. Marwan began to tug me with his hand as though he were pulling me towards the pulpit, while I was pulling him towards the prayer. When I saw him doing that I said:

أَيْنَ الاِبْتِدَاءُ بِالصَّلاَةِ فَقَالَ
What has happened to the practice of beginning with prayer? He said:

لاَ يَا أَبَا سَعِيدٍ قَدْ تُرِكَ مَا تَعْلَمُ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ
No, Abu Sa'id, what you are familiar with has been abandoned. I thereupon said him:

كَلاَّ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لاَ تَأْتُونَ بِخَيْرٍ مِمَّا أَعْلَمُ ‏.‏ ثَلاَثَ مِرَارٍ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ
By no means, by Him in Whose hand (i.e., Allah) my life is, you are not doing anything better than what I am familiar with.

Three times and went back."
(Muslim, #889)
Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullâh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The Âlim (scholar) recognizes the Jâhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jâhil. The Jâhil does not recognize the Âlim since he has never been an Âlim." (Shaykh'ul Islâm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majmű'ul Fatâwâ, 13/235)