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Author Topic: ZAKT'UL FITR/SADAQAT'UL FITR (FAST BREAKING CHARITY)  (Read 83 times)

Izhr'ud Dn

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ZAKT'UL FITR/SADAQAT'UL FITR (FAST BREAKING CHARITY)
« on: 04.06.2019, 11:19:13 PM »

Zakatul Fitr has to do With the Number of People, Not Wealth

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"Hence Allah Taala has enjoined that it be in the form of food, just as He has enjoined that Kaffarah (expiation) be in the form of food. Based on this view, it is not permissible to give Zakaatul Fitr except to those who are entitled to receive food given as expiation, and they are those who take it because they are in need of it, so it should not be given to those whose hearts are to be reconciled or to slaves etc. This is the strongest view, based on Dalil (the evidence).
 
The weakest opinion is that of those who say that it is Waajib (obligatory) for every Muslim to give his Sadaqatul Fitr to twelve or eighteen or twenty-four or thirty-two or twenty-eight and so on, because this is contrary to the practice of the Muslims at the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) and Khulafa Rashidin (the Rightly-Guided Caliphs) and all the Sahaabah. No Muslim did this at that time, rather the Muslim would give his own Sadaqatul Fitr and the Sadaqatul Fitr of his family to one Muslim. If they had seen someone sharing the sa between umpteen people, giving each one a handful they would have denounced that in the strongest terms and regarded it as a reprehensible Bidah (innovation) and objectionable deed. Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) stated that the enjoined amount is a sa of dates, or a sa of barley, or half a sa or a sa of wheat, based on the amount that is sufficient for one poor person, and he stipulated that it should be food for them on Yawmul Id (the day of Id) to make them independent of means. If Miskin (the needy) takes a handful of food he will not benefit from it and it will not go very far. The same applies to the debtor and Ibn Sabil (wayfarer); if they take a handful of wheat it will not benefit them.

(...)

Shariah is above such Munkarat (a reprehensible action) which no wise person would approve of and which none of the Salaf or Aimma of this Ummah did.

Moreover, the words of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam):


طُعمة للمساكين

"as food for Miskin (the needy)." (Abi Dawud, #1609; Ibn Maajah, #1827; Hakim, 1/409; Ibn Hajar, Bulugh al-Maram, Kitaabuz Zakaat, #630)

show that this is the right of Miskin, as Allah says in the verse of Thihaar:


فإطعام ستين مسكيناً

"Should feed sixty Masakin (needy)." (al-Mujadilah 58/4)

So if it is not permissible to give it to these eight categories, then the same applies here." (Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyah, Majmaul Fatawa, 25/73-78)


Types of Food that may be Given as Zakatul Fitr

Shaykh'ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said:

"If the people of a region eat one of these types of food as a staple food, it is undoubtedly Jaiz (permissible) to give it for Zakatul Fitr. But can they give staple foods other than that, such as if they eat rice and corn as staple foods, can they give wheat or barley, or is it acceptable for them to give rice and corn?

There is Mashur (a well-known) difference of opinion concerning that, but the most correct view is that it should be given in the form of what he eats as a staple food, even if it is not one of these types. This is the view of the majority of scholars, such as Shaafii and others, because the basic principle with regard to charity is that it is enjoined as a means of helping Fuqara (the poor) as Allah Taala says:


مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ

"on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families." (al-Maidah 5/89)

Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) enjoined Zakatul Fitr: a sa of dates or a sa of barley, because that was the staple food of Ahlul Madinah (the People of Madinah). If that had not been their staple food, and their staple food had been something else, he would not have obliged them to give something that was not their staple food, just as Allah did not enjoin that in the case of Kaffarah (expiation).1"(Majmaul Fatawa, 25/68)


Footnotes:


Quote
1- for broken oaths, as mentioned in the Ayah:

لاَ يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَـكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الأَيْمَانَ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذَلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ وَاحْفَظُواْ أَيْمَانَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

"Allah will not call you to account for what is void in your oaths, but He will call you to account for your deliberate oaths: for expiation, feed ten indigent persons, on a scale of the average for the food of your families; or clothe them; or give a slave his freedom. If that is beyond your means, fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths ye have sworn. But keep to your oaths. Thus doth Allah make clear to you His signs, that ye may be grateful." (al-Maidah 5/89)
Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah (Rahimahullh) stated,

والعالم يعرف الجاهل؛ لأنه كان جاهلا، والجاهل لا يعرف العالم لأنه لم يكن عالما

"The lim (scholar) recognizes the Jhil (ignorant) since he was once a Jhil. The Jhil does not recognize the lim since he has never been an lim." (Shaykh'ul Islm Ibnu Taymiyyah, Majm'ul Fatw, 13/235)

 

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